María Zambrano. Pensadora de la Aurora (Spanish Edition)

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In the irst manuscript cited here, Zambrano physics of Aristotle serves to give an account of the subconscious, and not only when it indicates that she wants to transfer the Aristotelian concept of physis comes to the vegetative soul — the dreams — to the human being.

Discussing a being in potency to active being. A process three-partite division of the human soul — consisting of inconsciente that does not appear in that on the soul [sic. Cursive in the original. Es decir: que en el subconsciente reside la dynamis que clama por la And without love, desde la potencia a la forma, del ser en potencia al ser en acto. Proceso without the initial love that moves que no aparece en el tratado del alma [sic.

As we will see, this diference in translation is signiicant because it allows Zambrano to conceive of diferent agents or kinds of agency in the unity of human cognitive capacities. And secondly, what can be conceived of as a function — dunamis and energeuia — that works to actualize the potential of the inconsciente into conscious form. It can be concluded from the citations above that Zambrano uses Aristotle to discuss physics in a broad sense, and more speciically conceptions of time and the totality of the human cognitive facul- ties.

In fact, in De la Aurora, Zambrano uses Aristotelian concepts to indicate a discussion on the human being and its place in the universe. Y sin amor, sin el amor primero que mueve toda cosa. And furthermore, potency is equated with love, according to the quotation above. Zambrano is developing a time-space conception, conceived in direct relation to See, Moreno Sanz, ibid. Moreno Sanz makes reference to the Aristotle. See also Andreu, A. Concepts of Aristotle are present in other parts of the book too, as for example in the discussion on ruins, and of temples.

In order to understand how Zambrano uses Aristotelian concepts in the latter two discussions, however, it is necessary to understand the critique or debate that she holds with Aristotle in the aforementioned chapter. Nevertheless, the chapter hardly mentions poetry at all, and instead discusses time and diferent times as essential to this metaphysical project. She even goes so far as to suggest that the theory of relativity with its new time-space conception could be used to lay the grounds of a new metaphysics. When she does separate between diferent kinds of knowledge, she does so directly related to Aristotle.

Interestingly enough, Aristotle is not only the point of departure of her critique but also the fountain from which she draws concepts to delineate other forms of knowledge. Zambrano writes that with Aristot- Aristotle, De Anima, , a Zambrano Aristotle, De Anima, , a14 and , thus suggests that from Aristotle, and in relation to the un-moved a Furthermore, both in De la Aurora and in El hombre y lo divino Aristotle is invoked as a means of discussing time.

Zambra- no suggests that by equating substance and soul — something Aristotle does in De Anima17 — the philosopher tried to reduce the human soul to an actively thinking substance. She notes that the passive soul, as outlined in De Anima,19 is in fact close to a Pythagorean conception of the soul, and that it is connected to the passive sacred. Zambrano writes that while Aristotle, when conceiving of the active soul, tried to place time in the substance and thus tried to reduce it to one kind, he also opens up for time as multiple when he speaks of concepts such as potency and coming into being devenir.

Aristotle, Metaphysics, , ab. And here, again, she quotes the Aristotle, Metaphysics, Oxford, most resembles the Pythagorean world-view, since time can also be Clarendon Press, But number is usually understood as measurement, i. Even though, if I wanted to know how much furniture there is in a room, this could be answered by counting both chairs and tables and any other object that I designate as furniture.

In this sense for something to be countable means that it must be at the one time diferent from other things this chair and not that chair , and at the same time similar all chairs. If substance is interpreted to be that thing by which something is what it is, it seems problem- atic to speak of time as both number and change in substance, since the notion of substance seems to exclude the condition of similarity pertaining to number.

Another aspect of number, however, can help understand how Zambrano could combine the deinition of time as both a change in substance and as number. Number orders in a certain manner, and this is particularly true when it comes to time. If we were to look at the numerical series as such, any of its positions — for example, two, or ive, or — could not occur in any other place than where it does. In this sense each number has its unique position. And when concerning time, it is because we separate entities in time — before, now and after are entities that could occur in no other order — that we can speak of time at all.

Zambrano writes that in Aristotle time is the movement from non-being to being, and that the form of this movement is circular because non-being can only be conceived of after having become actualized. To being, its own foundation is hat is, being could not be actualized without potency, whereas always presented from the point of view of being. If the solution of how to conceive of time as both a change in In El hombre y lo divino, space is discussed through a series of spatial igures, such as, for example, the ruin and the temple.

Zambrano equates the sacred with potency, and distinguishes the revealed temple from the lugar sagrado originario — the originary sacred place. In a sense then, time and space, as described in Zambra- Aristotle, Physics, IV 11, ba Time-space is an ordering in number — here understood as a p. In this deinition place can be understood as a qualitative space that belongs to each and every individual as the inner limit that distinguishes its individuality.

It can also be noted that in the Physics, time plays a crucial role when speaking of location, as the time-concept that Aristotle proposes is derived from that of space; time is exempliied and discussed as change. To her understanding, space-time should be conceived of as a change in substance, which by her interpretation was to be equalled to the change of place by which things became individualised as inner limit. She follows the desultory paths of this territory with both thoughtfulness and caution, and frequently pauses to meditate upon its mystery and wonder at its beauty.

She writes to both experience and share the secret that this territory encloses. This text therefore does not expound ideas nor explain concepts.

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Rather, it says words. It is meditative prose poetry. In each chapter and section of the book, Zambrano makes us witness to a recurrent pursuit which recalls that of Orpheus descending to the netherworld to rescue Eurydice.

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  • Another way to describe the plight that Claros del bosque reenacts is as the process of trying to salvage the infinitely dispersed pieces of a cosmic cataclysm. Each poem-fragment is a salvaged piece of that cataclysm. Moreover, each piece appears to bring the poet closer to forming a more complete picture of the wreckage. Nonetheless, and contrary to his suggestion, neither Claros del bosque in particular, nor poetry in general, can conceivably achieve in any actual or symbolic way the miraculous task of salvaging the pieces of the cosmic cataclysm of the primeval Word. In this never ending quest, as in the writings of the Andalusian Sufi mystic and poet Ibn Arabi, the heart is the repository of mystical wisdom Corbin , And the organ of thought is the word itself.

    These poems, unlike the reasoning of the mind, do not rely on the logic and rhetoric of dialectics but, instead, on poetic thinking and its actualization through the language of poetic reason. Neither reasoning nor exhortation can persuade or summon the soul; on the contrary, these efforts only chase it farther away. Quietude and peace, however, may entice the soul to sojourn in the abode of the poem. This consciousness collaborates with its reasons to fight pure solitude. It stands for the plural voices of society lurking in the mind, hounding it, disturbing it, and utterly disconcerting it.

    Only thus the word of truth, as manifestation of the Word, might make its longed for apparition. Claros del bosque advocates a path analogous to quietism. Poetic reason is therefore not a method in the conventional sense, but a mystical praxis aimed at becoming the haven, or host, of a transcendent and unique experience: the homecoming of the soul, in the Platonic sense. This revelation is neither progressive nor logically necessary, but desultory and contingent. Its chief purpose is curative as well as reformative: to help those suffering from perplexity to attain a mode of vision that will both invigorate and transform their souls.

    A perplexed person, according to Zambrano, is someone who lacks vision, particularly vision of the unity of his or her life a, The spiritual guide helps this person recover his or her ability to see everything in a brighter and broader light. Zambrano calls it palabra liberada del lenguaje word liberated from language Word, words not destined to the sacrifice of communication, like the carrier pigeons of latter days, going through voids, thresholds, and borders.

    Words relieved of the burden of communication or notification. Words of communion. She also believes that this language has been displaced by ordinary languages, i.

    This suggests that the word is neither permanently nor previously available, but that the subject conceives it and sustains it. The word requires optimum conditions for it to germinate and grow; otherwise, it remains in a latent state. This does not mean that, once the word is conceived, it subsequently grows and flourishes in an independent and uninterrupted way.

    Furthermore, the unfolding of the word requires time. But sometimes it is never consummated at all. This implies that consciousness cannot remain in a state of emptiness and stillness for a prolonged period, and that poetic reason cannot hear, and, thus, attain knowledge from, the word of the heart in an uninterrupted or definitive way either. In addition, the conception of the word is a complex process that involves a variety of interpretative efforts.

    For Zambrano, the word and the soul are so intimately bound to one another that they are virtually the same. They also share key characteristics. Its aspects are incalculable. This singular word alone could yield multiple lives. Limitless, and geometrician, [it is the] maker of limits, [and] of the necessary separations between the verbs, and between the diverse manifestations of time.

    It makes furrows in time, parallel or unparallel. It even sustains the divergence [that exists] between them. For, in the relativity of life, divergence is the guarantee of oneness when it is supported by the word, by the depository of the one and only meaning. Moreover, it is what gives meaning and unity to discourse, and what makes intellection and understanding possible , Hence, it remains forever pristine and invisible. As stated above, the ultimate foundation of poetic reason is the word.

    Zambrano conceives of the word as the substratum that originates and supports actuality. Across the elusive and meandering paths of the word, Zambrano embraces the contingency of language. Her thought moves resolutely, yet, obliquely as she explores the same basic area, which has a small perimeter, but a labyrinthine and vertiginous depth. Unlike the traditional metaphysician, she is not interested in conquering summits in order to be able to contemplate the skies above or the valleys below.

    She prefers to wander about in dark and unfathomable spaces. She explores caves and forests, and dwells on consciousness, Being, and language.

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    Her words are the fruit of long periods of silence and meditation, and of multiple and varied attempts to breach the discontinuity of the ear, in search of the silent word of the heart. This is neither a dialectical nor a deconstructive process, but a hermeneutic one, meant to conceive again the poetic word as a transcendental logos through which the divine can become present and speak.

    For Zambrano, these clearings in the forest offer a fleeting glimpse of a timeless utopia in which one is able to say or hear a timeless, universal, divine language. For her, the forest clearing is a center that condenses time and space, and that ever again promises to disclose a transcendental, exuberant reality.

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