Estasi. Il linguaggio dimenticato (Italian Edition)

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About K. Books by K. No trivia or quizzes yet. Walter, Parigi , p. Ec 62, ripr. Literature: M. Bimbenet-Privat, in I. Bimbenet-Privat and P. Walter, eds. Ec 62, illus. Due, in particolare, sono i passaggi che fungono da tramite per giungere al bel dipinto qui assegnato a Lavinia: la cosiddetta Allegoria della Geometria o Simmetria. The authorship and subject of this painting — examined at first hand by the present writer — have been the object of intense discussion between Michele Danieli, Angela Ghirardi, Vera Fortunati and myself, and there is total agreement on its excellent quality and great interest, as well as on its generally very good condition.

Our unanimous opinion is that it was painted by Lavinia Fontana, one of the rare women painters active in Italy during the second half of the sixteenth century and early years of the seventeenth. The attribution to Lavinia is based above all on stylistic components: the quality and material consistence of the veils and materials, a calculated taste for carefullyconsidered forms, balanced by painstaking attention to decorative elements, and the inclusion of typical elements from her repertoire, such as the little dog at lower right.

Meanwhile the idea behind the composition and subject — here enriched with meaning, evidently through a request from the patron — derive from examples treated earlier on by Lorenzo Sabatini Bologna, circa Rome, , the official painter of Pope Gregory XIII, and by his Flemish pupil Denys Calvaert Antwerp, circa - Bologna, , who was already active in the Emilian capital in the s. In particular, there exist two steps that lead us to the beautiful picture here assigned to Lavinia: the socalled Allegory of Geometry or Symmetry in the Galleria Sabauda, Turin, a sizeable canvas of x cm,.

Fortunati Pietrantonio, Bologna , vol. Achilles-Syndram, Kunst des Sammelns. Das Praunsche Kabinett.

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In quegli anni - in cui a Bologna il linguaggio naturalistico dei Carracci riscuoteva ormai un diffuso consenso. Fortunati Pietrantonio, ed. Finally, we should be aware — as Angela Ghirardi kindly informs me — that Paulus Praun was also a patron of Lavinia Fontana. Indeed, under the surface of her style, at once more firmly defined and containing delightful artifice, the mark made by the Flemish artist remains practically intact.

If this is the case then our painting should be dated to about It was at this point — with Bologna now widely embracing the naturalism of the Carracci — that Calvaert had become an entirely established painter. He firmly believed in the tenets of those who, like Lavinia, still cultivated a late Mannerist style that quite frankly addressed itself to a taste that was aristocratic, sophisticated, and international. This is how we should. In questo senso dovranno essere letti sia il gioco sottilmente artificioso delle immagini riflesse negli specchi, sia la ricchezza degli elementi simbolici: il globo, il compasso col pentimento che interessa anche la mano, il cane, i gioielli e gli stessi specchi, in particolare quello con la serpe attorta tenuto in mano dalla figura femminile quasi del tutto ignuda.

The personification of Venus — goddess of love who governs the world hence the globe and female beauty incarnate — is shown measuring the distance, or seeking a middle point and balanced proportion, between the sensual vanity of earthly pleasures the rectangular mirror and jewellery, to which she turns her back and fidelity to the conjugal bed, represented by the little dog who watches her. Nato a Roma nel dicembre del F. Mariani, Roma , e Roma , p. Papi, Antiveduto Gramatica, Soncino , p.

Nel secondo decennio seppe esprimere un naturalismo intenso e marcato da forti contrasti chiaroscurali anche grazie al confronto con Orazio Borgianni, del quale fu amico. Born in Rome in December F. His father wanted his wife to have their child before they left for Rome, where the family native of Siena was planning to settle, but the woman insisted on undertaking the journey, and had to give birth in an inn on the way. Mariani, Rome , and Rome , p.

His father Imperiale also a painter had been trained in Siena and thus the young Antiveduto was not only able to follow Salimbeni but observe the works of Francesco Vanni and Federico Barocci. His adherence to naturalism is better documented during the first decade of the Seicento, and runs parallel with the evolution of Tommaso Salini, with whom Gramatica shows close similarities. During the s his paintings became intensely naturalistic, with dynamic contrasts of light and dark, also revealing the influence of his friend Orazio Borgianni.

From the end of the s he became a fully integrated member of the Roman artistic milieu, culminating in his election as principe of the Accademia di San Luca. VI, ad vocem; M. This beautiful painting is in excellent condition and represents an allegorical portrait of a young woman on the occasion of her engagement. The type of image before us straddles the sacred and secular as seen in the contemporary Roman paintings of Caravaggio and subsequently adopted by both Tommaso Salini and Gramatica himself.

The allegorical content of the canvas in question is even more nuanced and secular, and more closely connected with portraiture. Questo bel dipinto, in eccellente stato conservativo, presenta in veste allegorica il ritratto di fidanzamento di una fanciulla. La datazione dovrebbe collocarsi allo scadere del Cinquecento. The painting should be dated to the very end of the Cinquecento. Ferrara , vol. Scritti in onore di Marco Chiarini, Firenze , pp. Banale, Bleggio, Lomaso. Cultura e Storia, Trento , pp.

The reconstruction of his creative career still presents challenges because of his shift between late Mannerist forms and a precocious Baroque style, both grounded in the great and enduring tradition of Renaissance Ferrara. Scritti in onore di Marco Chiarini, Florence , pp. The young artist soon turned his attention to Scarsellino, his senior by nearly thirty years, who was then the most famous painter in Ferrara. The most involved and celebrated project in Ferrara was the decoration of the basilica of Santa Maria in Vado, already complete in I gesti naturali e spontanei si compongono e si intrecciano in un abbraccio affettuoso.

This iconography provided artists with an occasion to transform the sacred episode into an idyllic narrative set in broad and always varied landscapes. Bononi composes the scene in an unusual vertical format, and the scene hinges on the Holy Family in the foreground, shown as they board the boat. The story is enlivened by the swiftness of the flight itself: Mary is still on the back of the mule and gingerly passes the Child to Joseph, his arms reaching out to the old man who is ready to receive him — their natural, spontaneous gestures mingling with each other in an affectionate embrace.

The painter thus conveys the sacred theme with a human, familiar tone. The angel, absorbed in holding the rope, has red curls — recalling Reni — windblown hair and silvery-feathered wings that stand out against the river landscape, shrouded in Po valley mists. The distant oak trees in the meadows beyond the city walls and the hills on the horizon fade. The enamelled colours, folded onto each other in Venetian style, and the fluid brushwork, emphasise the folds of drapery in the simple cloaks, rendered almost like velvet and linen.

The dimensions and uninhibited interpretation of the subject suggest a private commission. Its excellent state of preservation enables us to appreciate its brilliant painterly handling. Le misure e la libera interpretazione del soggetto fanno pensare ad una destinazione privata. Maria Angela Novelli. In quella che costituiva una straordinaria palestra per gli artisti, il nostro pittore ebbe modo di compiere il proprio percorso evolutivo a contatto con quanto veniva prodotto nei principali centri artistici italiani, grazie al gran numero di opere che entravano nella collezione del grande mecenate.

The artistic career of Bernardo Strozzi — initially founded on Tuscan influences thanks to his apprenticeship with the Sienese painter Pietro Sorri, active in Genoa in — nearly died in its tracks when he decided to become a Capuchin friar at eighteen. After nine years in a monastery he clearly had second thoughts, requesting and obtaining release from his vows to the cloister, becoming a secular priest and dedicating himself unequivocally to a life in painting.

His effective training took place during the s, when his eye was especially drawn to Milanese painting; this was part of a larger and intense exchange of ideas between Genoa and the Lombard city that was to become a defining element of Ligurian painting during the first half of the seventeenth century. Strozzi was particularly enriched by contact with Giulio Cesare Procaccini, who was very active in Genoa and ninety of whose works were owned by the greatest local collector, Gian Carlo Doria, who had established a true Accademia del Disegno in his own residence — an academy keenly frequented by Strozzi himself.

In , in order to free himself from the coercion of the ecclesiastical authorities, who had demanded his return to the convent, Strozzi made an adventurous escape from Genoa and fled to Venice, a city that would guarantee him greater civil liberties; he spent the last ten years of his life there.

Marked by the impact of Venetian painting, his style became more expansive and luminous, and indeed fully Baroque, yet without losing anything of its remarkable chromatic energy and expressive exuberance. Bibliografia: L. Salerno, La natura morta italiana — , Roma , pp. Salerno, Italian still life painting from three centuries, The Silvano Lodi collection, catalogo della mostra Monaco di Baviera , Firenze , pp.

Zeri, La Natura morta in Italia, Milano , vol. I, pp. Eidelberg, E. Mortari, Bernardo Strozzi, Roma , pp. Dathe, Natura morta italiana: Italienischen stilleben aus vier Jahrhunderten, Sammlung Silvano Lodi, catalogo della mostra, Ravensburg , pp. Manzitti, Bernardo Strozzi, di prossima pubblicazione, Torino, Allemandi.

Literature: L. Salerno, La natura morta italiana , Rome , pp. Salerno, Italian still life painting from three centuries, The Silvano Lodi collection, exh. Zeri, La Natura morta in Italia, Milan , vol. Mortari, Bernardo Strozzi, Rome , pp. Manzitti, Bernardo Strozzi, forthcoming publication, Turin, Allemandi.

Alla luce di questi ritrovamenti, veniva rivalutato anche quanto asserito in una pubblicazione. When all is said and done, it would not have been hard to imagine this side of his art, given the excellent quality of passages describing various objects — vases of the most disparate shapes, flowers and fruit of every kind — inserted in numerous canvases e.

Nonetheless, tradition always held up Strozzi as a great artist exclusively dedicated to figure painting. It must be said that the tempting notion of him as a still life painter had been aired for some time, albeit quietly and uncertainly; this was true whenever there emerged a canvas with flowers or fruit, defined by that unmistakable immediacy and richness of pigment, with the path of the brushstroke distinctly recognizable in the grooves left by the hairs of the brush — an absolutely typical and exclusive attribute of Strozzi.

In the light of these discoveries, it was time to reassess the statement made in by Cesare Augusto Levi regarding a document concerning. In conclusion, we may add that some still lifes are among the paintings by Strozzi listed in a posthumous inventory of his household goods in L. Gavazza, G. Rotondi Terminiello, eds. Figurative elements are presented with Baroque emphasis and chromatic exuberance, and the studied effect of animated confusion is quite distinct from the composed quality — with arrangements along a single plane — of so many of his other paintings.

Rotondi Terminiello, Genova , Milano , pp. Camillo Manzitti. Il pittore, nato verosimilmente a Milano attorno al , giunse giovanissimo a Roma, dove fu segnalato nel presso la bottega del poco noto Adriano di Monteleone. Giuseppe Vermiglio. Un pittore caravaggesco tra Roma e la Lombardia, catalogo della mostra a cura di D. It is likely that the painter was born in Milan in about , and arrived in Rome as a young man.

In he is documented in the Roman workshop of the little-known Adriano di Monteleone. These were the years in whichVermiglio was seeking new horizons, as we can see in the first works he painted after his return to Lombardy c. We can also sense an increasing attraction to Emilian painting, and to Reni in particular, beyond the return to 16th-century Lombard traditions, evident in the Last Supper now in the Arcivescovado in Milano , which takes its inspiration from Leonardo and Gaudenzio Ferrari.

Thus one finds a very similar stylistic approach in the work of Daniele Crespi, who was to collaborate with Giuseppe in projects for the Lateran Canons in Milan, at Santa Maria della Passione, and for the Carthusians in Pavia. For the latter he produced several autograph works, such as the Saint Bruno in Ecstasy in the Museo della Certosa Ecclesiastical commissions were balanced by an intense output of easel paintings, where we see his frequent use of Caravaggesque language.

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Pescarmona, ed. Un pittore caravaggesco tra Roma e la Lombardia, exh. Literature: A. When resisted by the maiden, he had her tortured and imprisoned. Here the devil appeared to her in the form of a fearsome dragon who threatened to devour her, but the saint freed herself with the sign of the cross. Having escaped mortal danger, Margaret was tortured again and finally beheaded by her persecutor. The youthful aspect and beauty of this figure would exclude the subject of Saint Martha of Bethany also victorious over a dragon , since she is generally represented as an older woman and almost always holds as her attribute the aspergillum, with which she defeated the monster, spraying him with holy water.

The extreme simplification of the image and the sense of emotional calm are perfectly consistent with the aesthetic canon of Borromeo, who sought the use of clear, didactic images to support his classicist revival, in stark antithesis with the prevailing direction of Milanese early Seicento art, dominated as it was by the compositional and still markedly Mannerist extremism of Cerano, Morazzone and Giulio Cesare Procaccini see F. Provenienza: Roma, collezione privata XIX secolo.

Bibliografia: A. Scampata a questa minaccia Margherita, dopo ulteriori supplizi, venne fatta decapitare dal suo persecutore. Giornata di studi, a cura di M. Gregori e M. Rosci, Torino , pp. It was from these artists, but also from the youthful works of Daniele Crespi, with whom he was to share a good measure of stylistic choices, that Vermiglio drew his compositional arrangements, clear calibration of volumes and enraptured, adoring faces, which are also present in the painting before us.

We are close in date to the Stories of Saint Innocenzo painted for the Lateran Canons of Tortona and now in the sacristy of the Cathedral there c. Gregori and M. Rosci, eds. Giornata di studi, Turin , pp. Marcantonio Bassetti was one of the protagonists of painting in theVeneto during the early Seicento, combining the legacy of Titian with the new language of Caravaggio.

His experience there, and his move to Rome in the following decade, indelibly marked his evolution. During his Venetian sojourn he was most inspired by Tintoretto and the Bassano family, learning from his predecessors by copying their works in chiaroscuro drawings. II, Milan , pp. Durante il soggiorno veneziano fu ispirato soprattutto dal Tintoretto e dai Bassano e apprese dai suoi predecessori copiando i loro lavori in disegni a chiaroscuro. Il suo principale mentore in questo periodo fu Palma il Giovane, allievo di Tiziano, al quale il 6 maggio scrisse da Roma, dove rimase fino al ; nella missiva pubblicata da G.

Bottari, S. Ticozzi, Raccolta di lettere sulla pittura…, vol. II, Milano , pp. Provenienza: Barnes, Londra, una fondazione religiosa; Londra, Sabin Galleries, fino al ; collezione privata. Ottani Cavina, in Licisco Magagnato, ed. Potterton, in Venetian Seventeenth Century Painting, exh. Il corpo morto del Cristo, colpito dalla luce e disposto secondo una marcata linea diagonale, occupa gran parte della composizione. The lifeless body of Christ occupies most of the composition, stretching across in a bold, brightly-lit diagonal.

Above and to the right is the mourning figure of the Virgin Mary, her mouth in close proximity to that of her son; she is accompanied on the other side by two other Maries, the figure on the far left probably Mary Magdalen, open-mouthed and arm extended in explicit grief. At the centre of the picture is Nicodemus, the follower of Jesus who is described in the Gospel of Saint John as bringing a mix of myrrh and aloes to the tomb, which is evoked here by a shallow, rocky background. The only remaining space in this tightlyknit composition is taken up by a wicker basket, on the ground at lower left, containing cloth and pincers to further remind us of the Passion.

Bassetti was a mature artist when he painted this panel, and the work has been dated by Anna Ottani Cavina. Typical of the artist is the directness of presentation, especially in the central figure, comparable to some of his sober and intense portraits such as the Old Man with a Book of Verona, Museo di Castelvecchio. Fabric is also described characteristically, in thick, woolly folds.

Our painting is also a meditation on the other great artist of that name, Michelangelo Merisi, known as Caravaggio, whose Deposition in the church of Santa Maria in Vallicella or Chiesa Nuova , now in the Vatican Pinacoteca, contains influential elements such as the head of the Virgin and the figure of Mary Magdalen, her arms stretched wide. But beyond these superficial parallels, Bassetti — as Terence Mullaly stated in his review of the Verona exhibition in The Burlington Magazine, November , pp.

This, we can say, was truth to nature and direct, close-up contact with the beholder. The figure of Nicodemus is crucial to our painting, his outward gaze also present in Caravaggio transforming what might have been an ordinary devotional image into an urgent reflection on spiritual needs. The dynamic contrasts of light and dark. La testa, il torso e il braccio a penzoloni riproducono alla lettera ma specularmente gli stessi elementi della grande scultura toscana del , mentre le gambe sono in parte diverse.

The body of Christ, then, is the subject of this picture, and as such, especially in this vividly emphatic image, the Corpus Christi is depicted in order to display nothing less than the Instrument of Salvation. Indeed, notwithstanding its funereal theme, replete with expressions of shock, anguish, and grief, this painting would have been considered by anyone who saw it as ultimately comforting. A questo tempo appartengono alcuni tra i capolavori assoluti di Ribera, come i dipinti con I cinque sensi, citati dal biografo Giulio Mancini. Papi, Ribera a Roma, Soncino Negli anni quaranta fu a capo di una bottega molto attiva.

Nel , pochi mesi prima della morte, concluse la grande Comunione degli Apostoli Napoli, Certosa di San Martino in cui il suo stile raggiunge i vertici di un pittoricismo sensuale e pienamente barocco mantenendo viva, nel marcato naturalismo delle figure e nei contrasti di lume, la lezione caravaggesca.

The artist appears to have been trained in the workshop of Francisco Ribalta in Valencia, and recent hypotheses suggest he left the Spanish city aged fifteen in , bound for Italy. In Rome, where he is securely documented as resident between and , he was in contact with the Northern followers of Caravaggio and probably became a member of the Accademia di San Luca. In recent years a group of works formerly believed to be by the anonymous Master of the Judgement of Solomon has been reattributed to the young Ribera G. Papi,Ribera a Roma,Soncino In the summer of Ribera is documented in Naples, where he settled — in likely conjunction with the appointment of the Duke of Osuna as Viceroy that year — and where he received commissions from the Genoese nobleman Marcantonio Doria.

During the first half of the s Ribera applied himself to engraving in Naples and Rome. His palette became lighter and his brushstrokes more free, as revealed by numerous paintings, particularly those with mythological subjects executed in the s see, for example, the Apollo and Marsyas, signed and dated , in the Capodimonte Gallery, Naples.

During the s he was in charge of a busy workshop that was partly responsible for paintings that bear his signature. Bibliografia: Important Old Master Paintings. Discoveries… In una Nuova Luce, catalogo della mostra a cura di R. Simon, New York , pp. Spinosa, in Ribera inedito tra Roma e Napoli, catalogo della mostra a cura di N. Spinosa, Napoli , p. Devotion and Delight, catalogo della mostra a cura di R.

Simon, F. Dabell, New York , pp. Spinosa, Napoli - Madrid , Napoli , p. Spinosa, Ribera, Napoli , p. A86, II ed. Napoli , p. A, III ed. Madrid , p. Literature: R. Simon, ed. Discoveries… In una Nuova Luce, exh. Spinosa, ed. Simon and F. Dabell, eds. Devotion and Delight, exh. Spinosa, eds.

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Spinosa, Ribera. A86; 2nd ed. Naples , p. A, 3rd ed. In genere venivano dipinti in coppia o come componenti di una serie. Simili soggetti ebbero ampio successo particolarmente in Spagna e nelle Fiandre e,. The most elaborate of the latter are known as Apostolados, sets of the twelve apostles with a thirteenth canvas representing the blessing Christ St.

Paul often. Ribera dipinse diverse serie del genere nel corso della sua carriera. AA21, con bibliografia precedente. Spinosa, op. Mallory, Cambridge , p. IV, p. Il San Simone qui esposto faceva indubbiamente parte di un Apostolado. These painting ensembles were particularly popular in Spain and Flanders, and although their iconographic origins go back to the predellas of Quattrocento altarpieces, it is not until El Greco that one finds similar large-scale, serial representations of the apostles W.

Jordan, in El Greco of Toledo, exh. They became widespread in the seventeenth century after the Apostolado painted by Rubens circa for the Duke of Lerma, now in the Prado, Madrid M. Ribera appears to have painted Apostolados throughout his career, the earliest known series being completed either in Rome or shortly following his arrival in Naples, about ; only three saints from this group — Peter, Paul, and James the Greater — remain in the Quadreria dei Girolamini in Naples their dispersion had already happened by see N.

Spinosa, Ribera, Naples , p. AA21, with earlier literature. Only one Apostolado by Ribera survives in near complete state. Nina Mallory, Cambridge , p. There can be little doubt that the St. Simon the Apostle considered here once formed part of an Apostolado. The saint is represented slightly turned to.

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Thurston e D. Attwater, New York , vol. IV, pp. La tela che qui esponiamo fu considerata da Alfonso E. Spinosa, Napoli Madrid , Napoli , p. Nicola Spinosa — che aveva pensato potesse trattarsi di una replica di bottega Spinosa, op. Una seconda replica cm 77,7 x 64,8 era in una collezione privata inglese in Cottisford House. Apocryphal accounts of his life after the Crucifixion report journeys through Persia with St. Thurston and D. Attwater, eds. Despite the virtual absence of scriptural description of the saint or his works, Ribera has brought a characterisation to Simon that is personal and profound.

Absorbed in thought, he seems to gaze at the viewer, and he is surrounded by architecture of golden robes, framing his face and highlighting the teeth of the saw. This is an austere, distant figure, uncompromising and resolute, deeply sad. The canvas exhibited here was considered by Alfonso E. Nicola Spinosa — who had believed it might be a workshop replica Spinosa, op. The custom of repeating compositions — destined, as with the Madrid series, for prestigious collections — became widespread in the seventeenth-century Naples. Several times during his long career, at the request of celebrated collectors resident in Naples and Sicily, Ribera made replicas of works painted for the Royal Collection.

A second replica North Oxfordshire; fu rubata nel dicembre del cfr. Of unusually grand anche earnest conception, of broad drapery, comformable to style and masterly handling. Il successivo soggiorno a Venezia fu indispensabile al pittore per schiarire la tavolozza e prendere le distanze dal caravaggismo. La produzione senese del secondo e del terzo decennio, che comprende gli affreschi di San Sebastiano in Vallepiatta e le tele di San Vigilio circa , ribadisce la partecipazione di Vanni, soprattutto nella dolce resa sentimentale dei protagonisti, alla cultura classicistica bolognese e romana.

Directed towards painting by his father Francesco, Raffaello Vanni learned much from an academic sojourn in Rome — first with the school of Guido Reni and then with Antonio Carracci — that allowed him to absorb fundamental stimuli for the development of his original style. A subsequent sojourn in Venice was vital for the lightening of his palette and taking his distance from the influence of Caravaggio. His Sienese works of the s and s, including the frescoes in San Sebastiano in Vallepiatta , and the canvases for San Vigilio circa , reflect the inspiration of Bolognese and Roman classical culture, especially in the depiction of sentiment in the principal figures.

These were the years in which Vanni saw his star ascend among the most important Roman families. In the meanwhile he was elected principe of the Accademia di San Luca. He ended his brilliant artistic career in his native Siena, where his fame was unquestioned. Il cardinal Leopoldo, vol. Ciampolini, ed. This painting is a depiction of the mythological episode narrated by Ovid in his Metamorphoses X: in which Venus laments her beloved but now lifeless Adonis.


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Hearing the moans of her loved one, Venus runs to him but is helpless in the face of death. The canvas illustrates the moment in which the goddess has just sensed the depth of the tragedy and falls into despair; her sorrow is also expressed by a group of assisting cherubs. Stylistic analysis reveals the author of this unpublished canvas as the Sienese painter Raffaello Vanni, and a probable date in the early s, when the artist was closest to the classicising taste of Giovan Francesco.

Bibliografia: Di prossima pubblicazione in I pittori senesi del Seicento, a cura di M. Il bello e giovane Adone, nonostante gli avvertimenti della dea, si era recato a caccia ed aveva ferito, con un giavellotto, un cinghiale che, infuriatosi, lo aveva azzannato provocandogli una ferita mortale.

I volti aggraziati dei putti, alcuni dei quali, come quelli sopra la nuvola in alto a destra, derivati da Guido Reni, ed il cromatismo squillante, giocato soprattutto sugli azzurri stupendo quello del manto di Venere , ma anche sul rosso ed il giallo ocra, sono elementi riscontrabili in opere datate dalle critica agli inizi del quinto decennio.

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This canvas closely resembles the two altarpieces of the Birth of the Virgin and Saint Helen with the True Cross Vanni painted for the Santacroce family in the church of Santa Maria in Publicolis, Rome, which are documented to Compare, for example, the faces of Venus and Helen, who share the same sharp profile, and the grimace of pain, as well as the poses of the soft, shapely angels. Pietro da Cortona nacque in una famiglia di muratori e di architetti. After studying with Baccio Ciarpi, he abandoned the late Mannerist tendencies of Tuscan painting for the Roman classicism of painters like Domenichino, and by the early s he was earning significant commissions from noble patrons.

The beautiful frescoed ceilings of what is now the Galleria Palatina were executed during the s. Provenienza: Roma, forse dipinto per il cardinal Francesco Barberini; Inghilterra, collezione Worsdale. Bibliografia: J. Lo Bianco, Roma , Milano , pp. Mochi Onori, ivi, p.

Literature: J. Lo Bianco, ed. Mochi Onori, therein, p. European Paintings, a cura di O. Wittmann, Toledo , pp. Briganti, Pietro da Cortona o della pittura barocca, Firenze , pp. The composition corresponds — with a few small variations — to a version of the subject in Toledo, Ohio The Toledo Museum of Art, Strinati, in A. Wittmann, ed. European Paintings, Toledo , pp. Briganti, Pietro da Cortona o della pittura barocca, Florence , pp. The third version is presumably the one listed by the late Federico Zeri in his photograph archive as an autograph replica, with variants, of the Toledo picture;.

Strinati op. La cronologia di queste opere resta chiara solo in parte. Il soggetto compare come opera di Cortona negli inventari del cardinal Francesco Barberini del , e , e in quello del suo nipote ed erede cardinal Carlo nel e nel M. It is interesting to note that the detail of the campanile is also present in a preparatory study by the artist Florence, Uffizi Drawings Cabinet, P; see J. Professor Strinati op. The chronology of these works remains only partly resolved. The subject appears as a work by Cortona in the inventories of both Cardinal Francesco Barberini in , and , and in that of his nephew and heir Cardinal Carlo in and M.

But not every inventory reference need be to the same. Art, New York , ad indicem, p. Ma non tutte le citazioni inventariali sono necessariamente riferite allo stesso dipinto. Il teologo Pier Damiani, che viene qui celebrato nella sua devozione alla Vergine, nacque a Ravenna nel e nel divenne seguace di san Romualdo, fondatore dei camaldolesi un ramo riformato dei benedettini. The theologian Peter Damian, whose status and dedication to the Virgin are celebrated here, was born in Ravenna in and became a follower of Saint Romuald, the founder of the Camaldolese Order a reformed branch of the Benedictines in Nato alla fine del XVI secolo, Jan van Biljert citato anche come Bylert, o Bylaert , apparteneva ad una famiglia di artisti, essendo sia il padre Herman che i fratelli, pittori su vetro.

Ebbe una carriera lunga e di successo: le sue opere entrarono presto nella collezione dello Stadholder, e i suoi committenti appartenevano sia alla Chiesa Riformata di cui era membro che alla Cattolica. Born at the very end of the sixteenth century, Jan van Biljert also referred to as Bylert, or Bylaert came from an artistic family, his father Herman and brothers being glass painters. He had been preceded in Rome by his compatriots Hendrick ter Bruggen, Dirck van Baburen, and Gerrit van Honthorst, now commonly referred to as Utrecht Caravaggisti because of their precocious local response to the style of the great Lombard painter who had so galvanized the Roman art world before his death in Back in the Low Countries between and , he married Margrieta Kemings in Amsterdam and settled in his native Utrecht, remarrying several times after her death.

Van Bijlert joined the Schilderscollege the Guild of Saint Luke and held the office of Dean periodically during the s, s, and s. He died aged about seventythree and was buried in the Nicolaaskerk, Utrecht on 13 November Other than Biblical narratives, van Bijlert was at home with both genre scenes and portraits, and in the latter case his sitters were often depicted in the halflength guise of shepherds or shepherdesses, musicians, or armed soldiers a type known as a tronie ; and he gave witty and incisive treatment to subjects drawn from mythology.

Significant works in this area include the pair of moral allegories painted in the s and reunited a few years ago at the Chrysler Museum in Norfolk,Virginia. Bibliografia: P. Literature: P. Adone cinge il corpo di Venere che gli siede accanto con il braccio sinistro teso. I due sono uniti, anche se il braccio di lei proteso a sinistra, con una premonizione sinistra, lascia pensare che il momento sia solo fugace. Accanto alla coppia un paffuto Cupido siede in equilibrio sul dorso di una capra, con un arco in mano. Adonis holds Venus as she sits beside him, her left arm outstretched. Her hair dishevelled, the Goddess of Love is naked but for a pearl necklace, her body revealed by the falling away of the blue mantle and white shift, barely covering her most intimate parts.

Indeed, the ancient mythological narrative relates that Adonis is destined to meet his end shortly thereafter in a hunting accident, gored to death by a wild boar. Beside the couple, poised on top of a goat, sits a plump Cupid, bow in hand. The landscape setting enhances the lyricism of the scene, yet it is difficult to escape a feeling of suspense while beholding this amorous subject. As a wayward youth, Adonis no doubt believes he will live forever, oblivious to the fact that time and mortality will be his enemies, just as they are enemies of beauty.

It is as if Adonis were restraining Venus from leaving him, a reversal of their usual roles in such paintings, where it is Adonis who takes leave of his beloved as he departs for what will be his fatal encounter. The hunt is alluded to clearly in the lower right corner of the composition, where we see a spear, and the theme is also symbolized by the hound. Peraltro Cupido siede sul dorso di una capra, comune simbolo di desiderio erotico.

Indeed Cupid sits astride a goat, a common emblem of lust. The fact that the relationship between Venus and Adonis, best known through the writings of Ovid, was not only adulterous Venus was married toVulcan but short-lived, did not stop individuals and couples from requesting it as a subject in painting, and the tradition of showing the mythological lovers was particularly well-established in Northern Europe during the Renaissance through the spread of emblem books and a lively pictorial tradition.

Shakespeare described the lovers as ill-matched, yet it is the idea of their intense love that endures. The clasping of right hands, or dextrarum iunctio, used since antiquity to represent union, and recognizable today as a familiar greeting, could also allude to leave-taking. It was widespread in Roman and Greek funerary art, migrating from pagan to Early Christian usage, while never losing its significance of ceremonial union or reunion.

The picture before us may have been commissioned to celebrate either a betrothal or marital devotion in general, and it can hardly be accidental that the two right hands are placed directly above a dog, one of the ultimate symbols of fidelity. The old greyhound — like the splendid goat, gazing at the viewer with a knowing eye — seems painted from life, and the collar and medallion hanging from it, indicating private ownership, could mirror a domestic situation, real or desired.

In the world of the Italian Renaissance painting it has been demonstrated that paintings of amorous mythological figures such as Venus and Cupid were displayed in bedrooms and were not only erotically charged but considered as auspicious for marriage and fertility; one only has to look at some paintings of Dutch interiors to note that the walls tell the same story about the domestic world in Northern Europe at this time.

In short, even though death may intervene, love is what matters. Jan van Bijlert was familiar with all this, as is clear from his other mythological paintings, and he treated the subject of Venus and Adonis on at least one other occasion, in what is now a fragmentary canvas in the. Centraal Museum, Utrecht P. His sources must have been similar to those used by contemporary painters: a local iconographic tradition combined with an awareness of Italian art, unquestionably stimulated by his Roman sojourn of the early s.

Other versions of the subject can be found in the work of Paulus Moreelse ; private collection, cited by Janssen, op. In The Courtship of Venus and Adonis presented here the immediate influence of Caravaggio has mellowed, and a Classical elegance comes to the fore. This painting is dated by Paul Huys Janssen to the s. Frank Dabell. Bologna , che era stato suo amico. Emiliani, in Maestri della pittura del Seicento emiliano, catalogo della mostra a cura di F.

Arcangeli, Bologna , p. Pirondini, E. Negro, Modena , pp. Frisoni, op. Bologna , a friend of the painter. After training with minor artists, and having developed a talent for drawing, Sirani was able during the early to mids to attend the workshop of Guido Reni, where Simone Cantarini and Michele Desubleo were working, among others. Restless and curious, Sirani also pursued scientific and medical studies, and performed experiments with colour and light.

His painstaking approach to technique and preparation of the canvas and brushwork, appreciated by his biographer, has led to excellently-preserved colour and handling. Emiliani, in F. Arcangeli, ed. Pirondini and E.

Douglas William Freshfield

Negro, eds. During the s Sirani adopted a light, fluid, and neo-Venetian handling, as seen for instance in the Bradamante and Fiordispina in the Uffizi, Florence, or the Dead Christ with two Angels, in the Royal Collections, Stockholm Frisoni, op. It may have been on this occasion that he sold the Tuscan prince the Meeting of Rebecca and Eleazar, recorded in the Medici inventories as by Reni, but now believed to be by Sirani Frisoni, op.

In the s, as his memories of late Reni became more distant, he returned to his roots in the style of theVenetian Cinquecento, and especially the painting of Titian, enriching his impasto and using warmer tones rather than his customary pastel tints. A significant example of this development can be seen in the Assumption in the parish church of Borgo Panigale, defined by marked chiaroscuro contrasts Frisoni, op.

Bibliografia: From Light to Enlightenment. Dipinti, sculture e opere dal mito di Bacco ad oggi, catalogo della mostra a cura di O. Munaretti Bertazzo, Brescia, , Ciliverghe Brescia , p. Munaretti Bertazzo, ed. Dipinti, sculture e opere dal mito di Bacco ad oggi, exh. Il tipo femminile di Arianna corrisponde alle pallide e bionde eroine dei dipinti di Guido Reni: la sua posa richiama quella di Europa nel Ratto di Europa Londra, collezione Denis Mahon del Il volto di Arianna trova precise corrispondenze stilistiche e fisionomiche con le figure femminili della complessa tela con Rebecca ed Eleazaro Firenze, Gallerie Fiorentine, Palazzo Pitti , registrata negli inventari palatini come opera di Reni e restituita a Sirani da Hermann Voss Die Malerei des Barock in Rom, Berlino , p.

Negro, Modena , p. La maniera di panneggiare mossa e articolata corrisponde. The scene depicted here evokes the celebrated meeting between Bacchus and Ariadne on the island of Naxos, where the young woman daughter of Minos, King of Crete, and Pasiphae had been abandoned by the Athenian hero Theseus although she had helped him escape from the labyrinth by giving him thread. In ancient iconography Bacchus approaches her while she is asleep. It is highly probable that Sirani had in mind the grand Wedding of Bacchus and Ariadne painted by Reni for Queen Henrietta Maria, wife of Charles I of England now lost and only known through derivations.

Donzelli, G. Pilo, I pittori del Seicento veneto, Firenze , p. Con la vicinanza nacquero motivi di confronto, contrasto e competizione che spinsero Giulio a porsi sul versante opposto a quello prescelto dal Maffei, orientato verso un linguaggio eclatante, sontuosamente barocco. Born in Venice in , Giulio Carpioni had his earliest training in the workshop of Alessandro Varotari, called il Padovanino, where he is recorded as active in about It would have been easy — as Giuseppe Maria Pilo has observed C.

Pilo, I pittori del Seicento veneto, Florence , p. In , Carpioni moved permanently to Vicenza, where he perfected his most recognisable stylistic idiom. An important aspect of his career was the presence inVicenza of Francesco Maffei, with whom Carpioni worked on joint public commissions. Their proximity could only result in mutual comparison, contrast and rivalry, and Giulio established himself as the opposite of Maffei, whose language was brilliant and sumptuously Baroque; and it may have been as part of a deliberate polemic with his colleague that Carpioni opted for this sort of antithesis.

He gave up the temptation of a facile style and the excess and extravagance of the Baroque, developing a personal approach, no less poetically evocative and bizarre and yet strongly steeped in classical sentiment. He came to this by first paying close attention to the early works of Titian, then to the teachings of Padovanino, and also through drawing, seemingly modelling himself on the examples of Pietro Testa, Odoardo Fialetti, Simone Cantarini and other painters of that period.

Literature: O. Orlandi, Abecedario pittorico, Bologna , p. Throughout his career the artist expressed himself in an entirely independent and personal language, leaving a striking mark on the subject-matter he painted. Whatever he had learned or been influenced by was promptly digested and restated, and he made this inspiration his own. We may well notice, centuries after his birth in Venice, how Carpioni still remains more or less a lone star in the world with which he has naturally and necessarily been compared — that of Venetian painting in Venice and its territories.

The desire to distance himself from late Mannerism, an idiom that endured into the early seventeenth century, soon drove Carpioni to look beyond local horizons, and especially at what was coming out of Rome. Muti, op. His position in Venetian painting is therefore exceptional, not only for the special attention he pays to drawing, but also to colour, its modulation of tonal range and resonance of light — and even though that colour is ultimately Venetian, it is used in a most unusual way.

His sense of colour seems almost to have been born with him, as if produced through his awareness of the land around him, conveyed through fields of crisp, enameled, light-filled pigment that contrast with the well-established tonal painting of local tradition.

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As regards drawing, Carpioni appears to distinguish himself sharply from what was around him, embracing a graphic style whose lines and contours lend the whole a fascinating sense of formal polish, while conveying harmony through an apparently simple but incisive line. This Offering toVenus is a perfect example of his Bacchanal painting, a theme he often treated and with excellent results.

As the present author has observed before, the handling is calm and composed, the figures are full of clear, sun-filled stillness, and the relationship between protagonists and secondary figures, and between these and the space around them, is absolutely harmonious Muti, op. Beyond Venus and Silenus, the composition is inhabited by satyrs, cherubs, nymphs, and this is all set within a monochrome framework enlivened by four putti in the corners, each different, leading to an oval opening onto the principal scene.

The shift from foreground to background is punctuated by the spatial interlocking of groups of figures — nudes and half-nudes, materials, vases, goatskins, drums, plinths, branches, trees, and so on — that gradually accumulate until they reach the clouds and sky, taking shape through minutely linear drawing that lends identity and volume, cohesion and detachment, so as to create a highly harmonious and rhythmical narrative.

The colours play the same role as drawing in strengthening the image, but by a counterpoint of different hues and a general orchestration of the ensemble. Pinks, yellows,. Pilo in Carpioni, Venezia , p. Szigethi, Museum of Fine Arts Budapest. This Offering to Venus can be compared to other equally felicitous and contemporary Bacchanals, such as the two canvases with the same subject respectively in a private collection in Belluno G.

Pilo, in Carpioni, Venice , p. Finally — like these paintings — it reveals as completely and successfully as possible the expressive and elegant qualities Giulio Carpioni had achieved by the early s. Nella Madonna col Bambino qui presa in esame si osservano i tratti tipici di Carpioni. The Virgin and Child before us displays the typical stylistic qualities of Carpioni. Although the figures of the Mother and Child adhere to iconographic tradition, their facial features reflect what was most favoured by the artist, and his way of conceiving and modelling forms.

Their expressions, the shapes of eyes and eyebrows, the definition of lips and noses, and even the arrangement of hair, are all part of a recurring and unmistakable repertoire, even when set within a limiting set of conventions. Thus it is for the Madonna, and for the Christ Child, whose gazes and physiognomies are archetypal creations of Carpioni, as found in other works of the s, when this small copper was probably painted.


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  8. Such an equilibrium was a matter of great moment, since what lies behind that apparent yet magical oxymoron is almost invisible: the composition of a scene, which should be a complex merging of line and colour, here provides us not with an artistic experience removed from life, but a lucid, crystalline insight into the human heart that is able to determine that it is fantasy that gives it its subtle grounding — a conscious, profound, intense and lyrical awareness of its earthly condition.

    This was a theatre stage, filled and controlled not in order to pretend or conceal, but to experience the extraordinary things that have been given us to their very limit. In this respect Carpioni is no less an artist than Poussin, Reni or Ingres — indeed, perhaps he. Nelle opere di questo tempo si coglie una riflessione sugli importanti testi emiliani di Lanfranco, dei Carracci e del Guercino.

    Durante il breve rientro a Roma fu coinvolto - con il fratello Gregorio - nella decorazione della chiesa di San Carlo ai Catinari. Con Luca Giordano fu il principale responsabile della piena affermazione della pittura barocca in ambito partenopeo. Utili, Napoli , p. Spike, Mattia Preti, Firenze His brother Gregorio was already living in the Eternal City, and there — as well as during a likely sojourn in Naples — he would have admired the works of Caravaggio and his followers, from Ribera to the Northern Caravaggesque painters. In the s he left Rome for a series of journeys in Northern Italy so as to deepen his knowledge of the Venetian and Emilian painting traditions, which were to influence his subsequent oeuvre.

    In October he was admitted to the Order of the Knights of Malta. The works from this period reveal his reflection on significant works by Lanfranco, the Carracci and Guercino. During the brief period after his return to Rome he was engaged with his brother Gregorio in the decoration of the church of San Carlo ai Catinari. He subsequently moved to Naples , where he stayed, principally, until , working prolifically and successfully for both public and private patrons. Utili, ed. Spike, Mattia Preti, Florence Bibliografia: Baroque Paintings, catalogo della mostra, New York , pp. Spike, Mattia Preti, Firenze , pp.


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