He is commonly recognized as one of the most important post-war avant-garde composers. Xenakis pioneered the use of mathematical models in music such as applications of set theory, stochastic processes and game theory and was also an important influence on the development of electronic and computer music. He integrated music with architecture, designing music for pre-existing spaces, and designing spaces to be integrated with specific music compositions and performances.
Among the numerous theoretical writings he authored, the book Formalized Music: Thought and Mathematics in Composition French edition , English translation is regarded as one of his most important.
Living Well Is the Best Revenge
As an architect, Xenakis is primarily known for his early work under Le Corbusier: the Sainte Marie de La Tourette, on which the two architects collaborated, and the Philips Pavilion at Expo 58, which Xenakis designed by himself. His parents were both interested in music, and it was Fotini who introduced the young Xenakis to music.
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In , after graduating from the Spetsai school, Xenakis moved to Athens to prepare for entrance exams at the National Technical University of Athens. Although he intended to study architecture and engineering, he also took lessons in harmony and counterpoint with Aristotelis Koundouroff.
In he successfully passed the exams, but his studies were cut short by the Greco-Italian War, which began with the Italian invasion on 28 October Although Greece eventually won the war, it was not long before the German army joined the Italians in the Battle of Greece, in April This led to the Axis occupation of Greece during World War II, which lasted until late , when the Allies began their drive across Europe, forcing the Axis forces to withdraw.
He survived seriously scarred, and lost his left eye. The Technical University operated intermittently during these years.
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Around the Greek government began arresting former resistance members that were left-wing oriented and were sent to prison. Aries's greatest contribution, however, is his insistence on the historicity of childhood: that childhood was not an essential condition, a constant across time, but something that changed--or, if childhood itself, bound by biologically-and psychologically-determined phases of development, is constant, then the understanding of it differed, as did the way it was experienced by both adults and children.
A modest successor to earlier overviews of this sort, including those by Hugh Cunningham , Richard Vann , and Adrian Wilson , this essay reflects on the study of the history of childhood often embedded in studies of household and family since Aries.
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Focusing primarily on the early modern period, but making, where appropriate, occasional forays beyond its boundaries, it maps out some of the main lines of inquiry and suggests issues that remain unresolved. Aries's assumption of the historicity of childhood was the platform for the important work that followed in a first stage from the mids through the mids.
Time Regained / Marcel Proust; translated from the French by Stephen Hudson
The key figures are Peter Laslett, singly , a, b and with collaborators , , , David Herlihy and Christiane Klapisch-Zuber in collaboration , and singly Herlihy, , ; Klapisch-Zuber, , Alan Macfarlane , and Michael Mitterauer singly and in collaboration with Reinhard Sieder An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while. Read preview.
Given these different missions, the hospital accommodated more than people during the 18th-century famines. By the end of the French Revolution, the general hospital was no longer a prison environment but remained devoted to social welfare it still welcomed abandoned children and the elderly and began to provide health services for the mentally unfit. In , it resumed its activities, functioning as a safe home for refugees from the Spanish Civil War.
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In , it recovered its health service vocation with the arrival of patients from hospitals in the Moselle area. As it had more room for expansion than the general hospital, it gradually took on the functions of the latter, and came to occupy the one-time properties of Saint Cyprien abbey, of which the buildings had been demolished during the French Revolution, leaving space for the Jardin des Plantes botanical gardens and a silk farm known as a magnanery.
In , when the Jardin des Plantes was set up at its present-day site, the Dominicans built a convent in the gardens, from which they were expelled in due to the French law restricting the installation of religious congregations. Initially occupied by the army, the former convent was purchased by the Hospices in , thereby enabling it, a few years later, to close the general hospital.