Transitional economies and economic globalisation : Social and environmental consequences. Economic reforms and social justice in India.
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The role of social enterprises in shaping social bonds. Democracy and environment. The most cited papers from this title published in the last 3 years. Statistics are updated weekly using participating publisher data sourced exclusively from Crossref. The diverse world of social enterprise : A collection of social enterprise stories. The impact of mobile phone penetration on African inequality. Social entrepreneurship: a different model? Accordingly the book is a bit scattered in focus and nowhere do we get a centralized history of European integration. Indeed some contributors diverge quite drastically in their diagnoses of Europe's past and future, and one closes the book thinking about just how optimistically, cautiously, or skeptically we ought to view European integration.
But taken holistically, the book offers insightful histories of the institutional development of European integration and its diverse array of social impacts. The first section of the book addresses the state of research on European integration. From the late s on, he argues, a discursive and structural distinction between economic and social spheres remained relatively unproblematic as long as an economic boom lifted all boats.
In what is probably the most skeptical essay of the volume, he concludes that since the s, the dream of a social Europe is precisely that. On the one hand, political histories by scholars from Alan Milward to Tony Judt have largely focused on diplomatic interstate bargaining rather than on the supranational political structures of integration, such as the European Coal and Steel Community.
On the other hand, historians of society have been slow to move beyond national histories at worst and straightforward comparisons at best. Kaiser pleads for a European Gesellschaftsgeschichte that theorizes communication and cultural transfer, transnational networks, and the ways that integration is a process of Europeanization. While this plea may ring loudest in German academic circles, Kaiser rightly hammers that all historians of Europe since ought to place their subjects into expanding and contracting scales of significance, from the local to the regional, national, supranational, global, and back again.
The second part of the volume focuses on migration and as a whole highlights the importance of colonial legacies. Most of their data comes from Western Europe and concentrates on the period since the s. They make a number of arguments concerning particular colonial pasts, national specificities, and migrant populations.
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Among their many findings, they argue for the centrality of gender norms and religion over race or skin color as determining factors in cultural assimilation. Georg Kreis in turn goes beyond merely stressing the colonial past by claiming that the problem of South-North migration today is itself "a colonially induced problem" p. Kreis wants to undermine the metropole-colony dichotomy altogether and make European integration and particularly African decolonization one and the same history.
The target groups of the activation policy were initially unemployed people and recipients of basic benefits. Meanwhile, people with disabilities or those in need of care are also included. They are expected to take more responsibility for themselves and shall be supported by citizens and the community. This new type of social policy has prevailed across all parties in Europe, not least because in the context of the European Employment Strategy and its flexicurity policy see EU Commission , activation and social investment have become key guiding principles of social action and are codified in various programmes.
In the meantime, social work is also understood as a social investment, which accordingly has to legitimize its effects.
The discourse on the lack of causal technology of social work, which was still practiced in the s, has largely given way to the conviction that the goals of social work can be determined quantitatively and, accordingly, made measurable. As already mentioned, social services in Germany are provided by different providers. Pursuant to the then new social policy guiding principle, they were called upon to fulfill their tasks more efficiently and ultimately more cost-effectively.
The municipality and the social administration have positioned themselves as service providers and some of the nonprofit organizations and institutions have made this new corporate philosophy the guiding principle of their actions. Social policy and social administration have created a competitive regulatory framework for social services that has not only led to a change in social service structures.
Already since the mids, social legislation has restricted the traditionally privileged position of the welfare providers. Private-commercial supporters were given the opportunity to act as service providers in the care sector, in employment promotion and in the field of social and youth welfare. Since then, the provider landscape has become more pluralized and their competition has become established. The competition is the result of changes, that were initiated i. This changed the funding rules in social work. Tendering procedures for the commissioning of social services and the introduction of performance-related pay have contributed to social services being in cost and quality competition, and having rearranged not only their forms of organization but, above all, their staffing and remuneration policies in order to compete.
The wide field of supporting services comprises of public and independent providers. The group of independent providers is very heterogeneous. Important in all fields of work are the facilities and services of the charities. Whether it is nursery schools, hospitals, nursing homes or open-duty services, a significant proportion of them are affiliated to a voluntary welfare organization. They vary in their value orientations and partly in u law. The differences are larger when considering the facility level. The facilities and services compete with each other as a result of competition organized in the social sector.
They distinguish from each another and try - as far as it appears appropriate for their business policy - to take their market share from their competitors, who may certainly belong to their own association. In addition to this competitive behaviour, there are established collaboration structures both within the respective associations and across federation boundaries e. These forms of cooperation primarily serve the interests of the political decision-making bodies as well as the payers. The facilities and services of the charities are usually referred to as non-profit providers in the official statistics.
How social is European social policy? | International Journal of Social Economics | Vol 29, No 7
This includes non-profit organizations and services that are not organized in the charities or, in the case of day-care centers kindergarten , belong to a church. This group is almost negligible, but hardly significant.
More important - and it varies from work field to work field — are the non-profit private providers. They are indicated as charitable organizations in the youth welfare and in the care statistics as not charitable providers.
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There are two different statistics for youth welfare. In a separate publication, the information on day care facilities Kita are designated. The statistics for the other child and youth welfare organizations are not included in the day care centers. Table 3 shows the data of both statistics and the shares of the respective provider groups.
It should be noted that the data was collected at different times. The overview Table 3 clearly shows that non-profit organizations are still not very relevant quantitatively in child and youth welfare services. The group of non-profit organizations is further subdivided in the statistics. These include 1 corporate or operational units, 2 independent private-commercial providers and 3 natural and other legal entities.
The first group 1 is quantitatively not significant. According to the number of institutions, the second group of providers is the most important with Natural and other legal entities have As mentioned above, this entire group of not charitable organizations has a relatively weak presence in youth welfare. It looks different in other areas. Non-profit free providers are particularly strong in nursing care, an area in which policy has been very early and heavily reliant on sponsorship competition see Table 4.
The establishment of social markets was logically accompanied by the opening for new groups of providers. Non-profit private commercial organizations, which are often said to have a different goal profit orientation , other than the established nonprofit organizations, are now present in almost all fields of work. The different nature of these providers compared to the nonprofit providers of social services is not always apparent in the offers.
However, healthcare institutions have become an investment base for international finance capital, expecting returns on its financial exposure. This phenomenon and its impact on the quality of services and the conditions of service delivery are reported in the media, without the politicians responding to it so far. Here is a video on the subject Available until For some time now, there has been another group of vendors that does not fit well with the scheme of non-profit and private-sector providers.
They distance from non-profit organizations, which they deny their economic competences, as well as from private-commercial providers, where they miss the social mission. They call themselves social entrepreneurs or social enterprises, a term that is now also used by charitable organizations.
The new social entrepreneurs agree that they can better deal with social problems than the established actors. Their criticism is directed not only against the traditional service providers, but also against the welfare state and its arrangements. They regard the existing structures as inefficient and thus inadequate to meet the challenges of the modern market economy. They want to solve social problems, which are often caused by the market, entrepreneurially and thus making profit. So they are very market affine and thus tend to be state critical. They often frame their criticism as bureaucracy criticism.
The aim is to concentrate local resources, to strengthen the political steering by the municipality and to implement more efficient forms of problem-solving. The policy of localization entails decentralization processes such as social space orientation , with the objective to activate local participants, including citizenship, for municipal tasks, and involving civil society organizations as well as social organizations in the implementation of municipal self-government tasks.
This approach is also referred to as local governance. Local governance aims at activating the municipality and the local actors for more self-responsibility and to generate approaches for autonomous local problem-solving. Strategic management in local government can become part of local governance. The policy of decentralisation is addressed by different key words: we perceive a renaissance of social space orientation in social work especially youth welfare.
The regional localization policies are decentralisation strategies, based on the idea that tasks should best be carried out where they arise. On this assumption state funds can be used more precisely by the local authorities. The trend observed earlier over several decades as a higher zone of social responsibility should be reversed by this trend. The decentralisation policy provides a new function in dealing with problems for the municipality or neighbourhoods for example in so-called territorial employment pacts or social space bodies.
The decentralisation of state social policy on the one hand, and the deconcentration of social administration tasks in social spaces on the other, can be seen as a process that creates a new form of social work: Social work should move away from its one-sided reference to personal assistance processes and individualized services towards an activating and social space-related role. The resulting new form of social work could be called civic social work , because the task of social services is now to mobilize, educate and retain volunteers, create networks of professionals and volunteers, raise funds for neighborhood projects, manage projects, and so on.
It is decisive that the provision of services in the social area should lead to a joint production of professionals and volunteers.
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Another important aspect is the commitment of companies, which is referred to as corporate citizenship. The official statistics do not provide any reliable information about the personnel situation in the area of social services. This applies in particular, the more detailed information is desired, such as the formal qualifications of the staff, as not all employees of social welfare institutions are qualified in social work. The child and youth welfare statistics provide differentiated information on the employees in the field including formal degrees.
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However, these data give no indication of the labour market situation or the frequently cited shortage of skilled workers. For statements on this special examinations must be used, as they have been published in recent years, especially for the care sector. They would be arithmetically necessary to be able to provide the expected number of hospital patients and people in need of care. Divided by the full standard working time this corresponds to about , nursing staff in hospitals, outpatient and partial inpatient care institutions. According to the model calculations, in the year , there are only around , full-time care workers on the supply side compared to a demand for , caregivers.
The offer of newly trained fulltime working nurses in will be The labour shortage will increase to about , by then. Even the so far high gain in non-specialist nursing staff will no longer be sufficient by at the latest to meet the rising demand. Conversion from marginal employment to part-time or part-time to full-time or an increase in hours worked for part-time or part-time workers would delay the staffing bottleneck.