She is between worlds, almost powerless in ours and somewhere between feared and unwanted in hers. A recurring motif associated with Zelda is faith. She promises Todd dreams beyond his imaginative capability if he believes and has faith in her. Faith plays a large part in the relationship between storytellers and their audiences. An audience has faith in the storyteller to weave an authentic, compelling, and fulfilling tale.
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If for some reason Zelda has used a story in bad faith, to acquire something from her audience or to manipulate them for some means of power outside of their established contract, then the faith and the relationship are sullied. Zelda has the power of creation and communication through her storytelling.
She is feared and shunned for it and is weak without it. She is left to barter it off to the likes of Todd and his father, who are incapable of understanding who she is and what she comes from, to survive in a chaotic, narrative-deprive world. The power of storytelling has been a long appreciated and understood concept across cultures, but the stories of persons of color especially women have historically been silenced or altered. Because misogynoirist reactions are still rampant.
Its creative team has produced an impeccable ode to storytellers, New York, and the fantasy genre. Your email address will not be published. May 24, May 23, Leave a Reply Cancel reply Your email address will not be published. Latest Podcasts. Kaluta did the cover and some amount of new interior art for the unpublished fifth issue which would begin Volume 2, but -while simultaneously doing production design for various TV shows- a state of exhaustion wore him down.
In interviews, Michael Kaluta has detailed a successive attempt to do new Galactic Girl Guides stories. Five issues intended for Tundra Publishing were plotted by him along with writer Phil Trumbo, and illustrated by Linda Medley with lettering by Todd Klein. Marlowe chokes and refuses to publish. Project dead.
In May , IDW Publishing announced that the Starstruck comic book series would be published again;  these 13 monthly issues were a remastering of the Dark Horse "Expanded Universe" series: the original graphic novel, the pages of added material, and the first Epic Comics issue. Kaluta now expanded the bulk of the art pages from the square format to the full rectangular format with new art. Painter Lee Moyer did a lush and complex revamping of all the color using contemporary digital technology.
Besides the revised version of "Volume 1", the two Galactic Girl Guides stories first printed by Comico would now be reprinted along with several other unpublished GGG stories from that era, inked by Charles Vess and lettered by John Workman. Additionally, there were new pin-ups, and revised entries in the Glossary.
Fan artists were given a spotlight in a few issues: CG diagrams of the ship, The Harpy, were provided by Walt Carter;  and Kristina Carroll did a painting of art assassin Kettle Black in a scene alluded to in text but never previously shown before. The first issue was released on August 12, and the series was completed in September ; the final afterword stated, "This is not the end!
The saga will continue! The first collection of Starstruck stories was the Marvel Graphic Novel 13, Starstruck: The Luckless, the Abandoned and Forsaked ; this collection printed all of the serialized Heavy Metal stories in one book for the first time. A hardcover collection of the recent expanded and remastered series called Starstruck Deluxe Edition was released from IDW on March 29, This larger-format 8.
The Starstruck Deluxe Edition essentially reprints Volume 1 of the Dark Horse era Starstruck: The Expanding Universe : specifically, the original serials that were collected as the Marvel Graphic Novel, plus the first issue of Epic Comics, and the pages of new story and art that Lee and Kaluta laced through them in In May , IDW announced they would be printing a softcover version of the Starstruck Deluxe Edition , for release in August ;  the softcover edition was released on August 22, The new edition was slightly smaller 7.
This reprinted the original Marvel Comics graphic novel collection of in a page softcover, now in a larger 9. Comics Journal , September Starstruck stories reference diverse elements of pop culture, science fiction, and international art. Kaluta references classic fine art and illustrative design often in his work: "My drawing 'style' came from my attempts to draw like all the artists I was impressed with.
Although some of them were certainly Comic Book artists, many more were illustrators and designers from the turn of the 19th Century. His grand panoramas of mountains are in the tradition of Maxfield Parrish ; the panoplies of intricate columned palaces recall Art Nouveau cartoonist Winsor McCay 's Little Nemo. The fluid body language and theatrical framing of characters is in the spirit of comics innovator Will Eisner : Kaluta specified, "Anybody who doesn't think I've studied this Will Eisner fellow just hasn't looked at my work.
He's the man. The technology he draws pays visual nods to many retro styles of science fiction design, as well as contemporaneous styles. On the classic side, the rockets and pistols of Dick Calkins ' Buck Rogers comic strip art and from Flash Gordan serials; and the spaceship interiors of EC Comics artists like Wally Wood and Roy Krenkel : Kaluta wrote of his mentor, "seeing what Roy Krenkel accomplished with line, shape and negative space stirred my imagination and set my nascent abilities onto a highway into my future as an artist.
Critic Robert Rodi for the Comics Journal , Starstruck is lauded critically as a landmark advance in comics storytelling methods, recognized in retrospect for using innovations years ahead of Watchmen , which is commonly praised for them. Like its parallel descendants Watchmen and From Hell , the series is a large mosaic of seemingly random but steadily interlocking people and events. The series started in by eschewing the then standard superhero formula of one male character in self-contained stories, instead using an ensemble of mainly female characters in multiple intwined story threads; the original first 73 pages of serial stories covered a span of nearly three decades, on different planets, with a wide and seemingly unconnected cast, which ultimately led to everyone coming to one space station at the same time.
In another sense, the series is a very particularly linear story -going so far as to detail the births and maturing of pivotal characters- which is too large to be seen all at once: a novelistic narrative now seen similarly in critically praised TV shows like The Wire ; the writer said in , "When we were first published, people were used to comics with linear stories about a main character. But now, with an audience used to shows like Heroes and Lost , with large casts and non-linear storylines, we're hoping that Starstruck will find an even larger readership.
Starstruck used supplement texts as a dramatic expansion of the story; the Glossary, written by one fictional historian, went past defining references in the dialogue to sketching out the past, present, and future of the characters and their universe. Writer Alan Moore would do something similar afterward, more simply in Watchmen and much more extensively in his League Of Extraordinary Gentlemen Starstruck can be considered one of comics' premiere hypertext fictions , in the sense of using supplementary texts, adjunct stories, and ancillary art to expand, deepen, and even alter the narrative experience.
Comics Journal praised this innovation in "The Space Brigade's origin in the Graphic Novel's glossary section, is hilarious; in general, the Starstruck glossaries provide as much mirth as the series itself. History, culture, family relationships, religions, vernacular speech, and all manner of written texts from this fantastic world accumulate and intersect with perfect consistency. Andrew Shepard wrote in , "These sub-texts were more than winking references; they foreshadowed major events in the main narrative and, in keeping with the theme of unreliable narrators, called attention to the ways people construct histories.
The series is full of unreliable narrators who embroider the facts to suit their agenda, have their facts wrong, see only their part in events, or who miss out completely on what was important: i. Kaluta said they "are the people we have living today, just regular people that have a way of kidding themselves about as much as they kid other people, sometimes maliciously, sometimes unknowingly. A character like Brucilla may exaggerate, others will outright lie and still others may be misinformed.
Like life; when you're looking through the eyes of any one character, you'll only get a fraction of the picture. Critic David Allan Jones wrote of the intricacies of the Starstruck discourse, "The Robert Altman-esque dialogue style is also a joy to parse out- as confusing and disorienting as it sometimes can be, it's always witty and clever.
The series operated on multiple levels, many of which came clear only through rereading, and with some outstanding motifs that have yet to be explained. A reading of the serials and the first six issues may give an overview, with the extras like the Glossary or the play script redefining new additional perspectives, while some deeper levels may only come into focus when the series is ultimately finished: e. In this sense, Starstruck is a series that is constantly redefining itself -and the reader's perception of it- as it continues.
Dialogue and sound effects are often used deliberately like a physical element: i. Elaine Lee told a Suicide Girls interview, "we did include one scene in the graphic novel where Brucilla's dialogue balloons begin to crowd Galatia off the page, in order to show that the character was a loudmouth. The panel layouts suggest a widescreen film in their arrangement: from the first page onward, a running layout motif of stacked page-wide rectangular panels suggests a cinematic vista, in contrast to the style of tight, multiple panel grids in average comics more similar to television's ratio and rapid editing.
By lessening use of the constrictive grid, much of the series simulates the feel of being wide open and watched from a wide view lens; this complements the story's long view perspective while separating itself from other comics with a unique visual narrative style. Kaluta took care to give perspective panoramas of the Starstruck universe, but to fill them with functional details that ground its reality for the reader and stage its complexity: "[A]nyone can walk Critic W. Andrew Shepard of The New Inquiry , Starstruck is consistently lauded for its mostly female cast, the depth and range of the individual characters, and the upending of gender and sexual stereotypes through the series; the genesis of this was practical: Elaine Lee formed her theater company as a way for women to create and perform better roles than the New York scene was offering them, and Starstruck extended this idea into the universe; she recounts, "The idea was to do something really wild, so that we could all show off and do parts we would normally never be cast for.
If a fictional world presents you with all the same problems that greet you each day in the office, what fun is that? In she wrote, "Science Fiction is at its best when it offers us new ways to look at our problems, it is silliest when it offers too many or too little solutions.
Then it is simply an allegory Instead, our heroine is forced out into the universe at large, where she is confronted with the task of helping to build a society more congruent with her ideals. When Starstruck moved into the sights of mainstream comics buyers during the Epic Comics run in , the series had to contend with the attitudes of a predominantly young male market. Lee remembers, "we got quite a reaction to the fact that there were so many female characters in the story.
Does she have a political agenda? Is the artist gay? Do they both hate men? You can't fault it, because the characters are real. If you don't like them, they're not going to change for you.
Critic Robert Rodi , covering progressive Gay issues in comics for the Comics Journal in , wrote, " Starstruck is an explosion of alternate sexuality and its phenomenal trappings. Characters are overtly or not homosexual, heterosexual, asexual, antisexual, omnisexual -you name it, it's there if you look for it. In , a Comics Journal reviewer wrote, "Lee and Kaluta deserve a special award for appropriating the entire comic book tradition of women as eye candy for heterosexual male readers and setting those bodies free, throwing the reader's desires and expectations for a loop.
In , Lee said, "People thought we had some political agenda, because we had a lot of female characters. Now it's not unusual. Fate plays an underlying factor in the story: characters who feel that destiny intends greatness for them Verloona, Bajar, Kalif ; those who feel they have been cheated out of a better station Lucrezia Bajar, Brucilla The Muscle ; those that intend to manipulate fate into their own control Queen Glorianna, Rah El Rex ; those that feel fate is meaningless and anything goes Randall Factor ; and those that feel personal focus will get them through random chaos Galatia 9, the Galactic Girl Guides ; the artist said, "You have to become your own law in a way.
There are self-appointed protectors of humanity, some of whom are protecting it for themselves, and some of whom have the idea that there is a better way and will stop things that are against the peoples' interests. These include religion a sci-fi author who invents a front religion with converts who passively fund a scheme of power and control; and the March Baptists who ally with corrupt corporate dictators for power ; gambling the idle rich who will gamble everything on the mere chance of someone perhaps coming into the room ; vanity a villainess who may have sacrificed many young girls just to stay youthful; and salons where hours of one's lifespan are sold by the poor to rich patrons who want a longer life ; militarism half of the Earth was disintegrated in an act of militaristic paranoia, and then covered up by a hologram; and jingoistic Space Brigades who feel the universe is only there for them to thrust their agenda and control onto ; and the arts conceptual art assassins who eliminate creators of really bad plays; and a conjoined trio of actors turning self-absorbed frilliness into high drama.
Reviewer Richard Caldwell wrote, "The plot is fast-moving and puzzle-like, with strong elements of political intrigue and satire alike cavorting about the omniverse in a futuristic setting where multiple clans struggle for dominance over a mix of cultures as boggled by the theologies of the day as they are by the sensory overload of sensationalistic commercialism that passes for status quo.
Starstruck initially began its creative life as a stage play spoofing time-worn tropes of Science Fiction. Kaluta recalled his reaction to Lee's script: "Oh God, I was amazed at how many genres she was actually poking fun at, without being a dyed-in-the-wool science fiction fan, she was poking fun at Andre Norton , she was poking fun at everybody, all the Doc Smith stuff, without ever having read Doc Smith. Starstruck laces its drama and intrigue with bouts of surrealistic farce, ludicrous slapstick, absurd non-sequiters, random weirdness, cross-communication, cultural parody, and one-liners.
The writer clarified, "Of course, it includes some social commentary -people often comment on the feminism- but it's all comedy. I want people to enjoy it. People accept new ideas and commentary more readily if they're funny. Rather, she's taken the space opera form and, while respecting the limitations of physics as we know them, pushed the genre's more baroque aspects to their absolute limits. In , Michael Kaluta told Future Life magazine, " Starstruck is a big bundle of potential, it has the potential for being a film, a play, a big-budget thing; who knows what.
In various interviews Lee and Kaluta have each spoken of different plans through the s to continue Starstruck on film or television, consistently emphasizing retention of copyright ownership and creative control. Kaluta said in , "We own the characters, and we can do whatever we want with to do with them, but when you do what you want with them, the people you do it with will want to own them. Somebody will want to come in and fool with them.
Lee has spoken of negotiations for a TV series circa , where a network bought the option to turn Starstruck into a live action show in the spirit of Firefly or Farscape. But when it finally came down to the deal, they asked us to renegotiate our contract, giving them much more control of the property than made us comfortable.
We bowed out. In , it was announced that an audio reading of the original play would take place at the Henry Miller Library in Big Sur , partly to help pay the medical bills of comics legend Gene Colan , the bills stemming from his bout with liver failure in and , and partly as a warm-up to a subsequent recording, launching a new Starstruck radio series.
The reading took place on August 15, , with Elaine Lee and Lee Moyer in attendance, along with other comic artists from around North California and original members of the Starstruck production. The official recording of the play occurred in May , produced by the AudioComics Company ; it was recorded in Portland, ME, with a full cast and sound effects, in collaboration with WMPG radio; the role of villain Verloona Ti was portrayed by Denise Poirier , known for being the voice of the animated Aeon Flux.
A second audioplay, from a new story by Elaine Lee called "Running Scared", was recorded in conjunction with I-CON , on April 16, , with the plan of releasing it as a free download later that year. This recording returned Denise Poirier as Verloona, and marked the debut of Michael Kaluta playing a Starstruck character. Additionally, the idea was announced of doing "an all-ages series of short audio plays featuring the Galactic Girl Guides.
In February, , an official Starstruck website was launched, designed and supervised by Elaine Lee and her son; the site announced it would post the entirety of the Starstruck Deluxe Edition graphic novel's pages across the span of its first year, in serialized posts three times weekly.
However, as of March , delays and higher than expected production costs have resulted in no accurate estimate for delivery. Mike Carey and A. Lake, intro to Starstruck Deluxe Edition , Writer Clive Barker has stated, ""I was, and am, a huge fan of Starstruck , which I think was one of the most brave and elegant experiments in comic book story-telling. Writer Mike Carey , when asked to name his favorite comic of all time, responded " Starstruck , by Lee and Kaluta. Lake The Darkest Age series : "The truth is, there just never was another book out there that did what Starstruck did.
Publishers Weekly opined in that "the cult classic comic Starstruck [was] well ahead of its time when initially released in ", pointing particularly to "a cast of strong female characters—a rarity in comics then and now. After the graphic novel was published, Kaluta remembers "a few letters coming in saying 'My, this is really too clever; the writer and artist are being very, very clever, here, obviously clever, it's too convoluted to follow. Kaluta was proudest of one from an angry reader that took the creators to task for making him take longer than 15 minutes to read a comic.
At the same time, the writer and artist realized they had a series that appealed to a growing segment in the mature market, but was being dismissed by the mainstream superhero audience; as a joke, Kaluta asked Epic to run an ad for Starstruck saying, "Readers of The World, Unite! I hope it's more than that. I hope people will bother to read it and go, 'This is different.
Let me give it a try', rather than 'This is different. Let me throw it on the other side of the room from my X-Men comics'. But, whose fault is that, if not their own? And whose loss is that, if not their own? They weren't ready to be entertained in that sphere of their life. The recent IDW remastering of Starstruck has garnered critical acclaim that has bolstered its reputation as a timeless and essential work in the modern comics pantheon.
Pop culture critic David Allan Jones wrote of the republished series that it would be a challenge to new readers who would "have to work a little to follow along, but believe me, it's worth it, especially if you enjoy experiencing the unique. Starstruck isn't quite like anything else out there, but I think that's part of the attraction. World universe! The British Science Fiction Association's journal Vector listed Starstruck among six groundbreaking comics, and praised it for " Similar praise accompanied the release of the collected IDW remastered issues as the Starstruck Deluxe Edition hardback graphic novel in Comics media critic Paul Gravett called the collection "a "wondrous, ebullient SF epic and it all comes together in this delectable package.
Prepare to be transported! Andrew Shephard of The New Inquiry wrote of the collection, " Starstruck could be both silly and smart, was progressive but unpretentious, and clever but not so impressed with itself that it ever forgot to entertain. IDW's reprint of the series is a service to fans of science fiction, aficionados of comics as an art form, and anyone who loves a good story. After the Starstruck Deluxe Edition softcover was released in , reviewer Richard Caldwell wrote, "You know how most folks peg the Watchmen as the greatest work of the sequential arts?
Yea well, in comparison, this baby is far more progressive, in scope and in message, as it's a magnum opus science fictional tale full of sound and fury, signifying everything to end all magnum opus science fictional tales full of sound and fury, signifying everything. Charles Vess Charles Vess is an American fantasy artist and comics artist who has specialized in the illustration of myths and fairy tales. Vess has won several awards for his illustrations. While at VCU, Vess' comics appeared in the Fan Free Funnies, a comic tabloid published by the student newspaper, his first professional position was as a commercial animator for Candy Apple Productions in Richmond, which he held for two years.
In he became a freelance illustrator, he contributed illustrations to publications including Heavy Metal , Klutz Press , National Lampoon. One notable publication from this early period was The Horns of Elfland published by Archival Press in , which Vess wrote and illustrated. During that period, his work appeared in one of the first major museum exhibitions of science fiction and fantasy art, held at the New Britain Museum of American Art in Sandman 19 is a meta-fictional adaptation of William Shakespeare's play and in , that issue won the World Fantasy Award for Best Short Story , the only comic book to hold the honor, as award organizers subsequently amended the rules to exclude comics.
Vess contributed eight drawings for a prose-based inset that appeared in Sandman 62 and illustrated the final issue of the series, Sandman 75, a second Shakespeare adaptation, he drew the covers for the Books of Faerie spin-off series Molly's Story. Between and the collaboration between Vess and Gaiman continued in the four-part series Stardust , a prose novella to which Vess contributed paintings; the series was published in trade paperback form by DC Comics' Vertigo imprint.
In , Vess's own Green Man Press produced a portfolio as a benefit for his wife Karen, injured in a car accident, titled A Fall of Stardust, which contained two chapbooks and a series of art plates. The book was published by HarperCollins in Issues were collected and published as Ballads in ; the work was reprinted as a hardback by Tor Books in with additional material, including an introduction by Terri Windling. Vess worked with longtime friend and writer Charles de Lint on at least half a dozen publications, including Seven Wild Sisters and related projects A Circle of Cats, Medicine Road, along with others mentioned above.
In Vess did both a color cover and front page illustration and additional black and white interior illustrations for a 20th anniversary edition of Moonheart , by de Lint. In a interview, Vess cited among many artistic influences, beginning with the 19th-century British book illustrator Arthur Rackham , saying, I discovered his work while I was still in college and fell in love with it, his art, unlike a lot of other artists I've never grown tired of. Comic book A comic book or comicbook called comic magazine or comic, is a publication that consists of comic art in the form of sequential juxtaposed panels that represent individual scenes.
Panels are accompanied by brief descriptive prose and written narrative dialog contained in word balloons emblematic of the comics art form. Although comics has some origins in 18th century Japan , comic books were first popularized in the United States and the United Kingdom during the s; the first modern comic book, Famous Funnies , was released in the U. The term comic book derives from American comic books once being a compilation of comic strips of a humorous tone; the largest comic book market is Japan.
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Comic books are reliant on their appearance. Authors focus on the frame of the page, size and panel positions; these characteristic aspects of comic books are necessary in conveying the content and messages of the author. The key elements of comic books include panels, balloons and characters. Balloons are convex spatial containers of information that are related to a character using a tail element; the tail has an origin, path and pointed direction.
Key tasks in the creation of comic books are writing and coloring. Comics as a print medium have existed in America since the printing of The Adventures of Mr. Obadiah Oldbuck in in hardcover , making it the first known American prototype comic book. Proto-comics periodicals began appearing early in the 20th century, with historians citing Dell Publishing's page Famous Funnies: A Carnival of Comics as the first true American comic book. The introduction of Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster's Superman in turned comic books into a major industry and ushered the Golden Age of Comics ; the Golden Age originated the archetype of the superhero.
According to historian Michael A. Amundson, appealing comic-book characters helped ease young readers' fear of nuclear war and neutralize anxiety about the questions posed by atomic power. Historians divide the timeline of the American comic book into eras; the Golden Age of Comic Books began in the s. The Silver Age of comic books is considered to date from the first successful revival of the then-dormant superhero form, with the debut of the Flash in Showcase 4; the Silver Age lasted through the late s or early s, during which time Marvel Comics revolutionized the medium with such naturalistic superheroes as Stan Lee and Jack Kirby's Fantastic Four and Lee and Steve Ditko's Spider-Man.
The demarcation between the Silver Age and the following era, the Bronze Age of Comic Books , is less well-defined, with the Bronze Age running from the early s through the mids. The Modern Age of Comic Books runs from the mids to the present day. A notable event in the history of the American comic book came with psychiatrist Fredric Wertham's criticisms of the medium in his book Seduction of the Innocent , which prompted the American Senate Subcommittee on Juvenile Delinquency to investigate comic books.
In response to attention from the government and from the media, the U. The CMAA instilled the Comics Code Authority in and drafted the self-censorship Comics Code that year, which required all comic books to go through a process of approval, it was not until the s that comic books could be published without passing through the inspection of the CMAA. The Code was made formally defunct in November In the late s and early s, a surge of creativity emerged in what became known as underground comix. Published and distributed independently of the established comics industry, most of such comics reflected the youth counterculture and drug culture of the time.
Many had an uninhibited irreverent style.
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Underground comics were never sold at newsstands, but rather in such youth-oriented outlets as head shops and record stores, as well as by mail order. S; the first such comics included the anthology series Star Reach , published by comic book writer Mike Friedrich from to , Harvey Pekar's American Splendor , which continued sporadic publication into the 21st century and which Shari Springer Berman an. Dunbier rose to prominence in the comic book industry as executive editor of the Wildstorm comic book line.
After several years as a dealer in original comic book artwork during the s and s, Dunbier began with Wildstorm in as Special Projects Editor. At Wildstorm, he created the Absolute line of hardcover reprints, beginning with Absolute Authority vol. The Shadow The Shadow is the name of a collection of serialized dramas in s pulp novels, in a wide variety of Shadow media.
One of the most famous adventure heroes of 20th century North America , the Shadow has been featured on the radio, in a long-running pulp magazine series, in American comic books, comic strips, serials, video games, at least five feature films; the radio drama included episodes voiced by Orson Welles. A mysterious radio show narrator, The Shadow was developed into a distinctive literary character in to become a pop culture icon, by writer Walter B.
Gibson ; the character has been cited as a major influence on the subsequent evolution of comic book superheroes Batman. The first issue of The Shadow Magazine went on sale on a pulp series. On September 26, , The Shadow radio drama, a new radio series based on the character as created by Gibson for the pulp magazine, premiered with the story " The Death House Rescue", in which The Shadow was characterized as having "the power to cloud men's minds so they cannot see him"; as in the magazine stories, The Shadow was not given the literal ability to become invisible.
The introduction from The Shadow radio program "Who knows what evil lurks in the hearts of men? The Shadow knows! At the end of each episode, The Shadow reminded listeners that, "The weed of crime bears bitter fruit!
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Crime does not pay Chrisman and Sweets felt the upcoming series should be narrated by a mysterious storyteller with a sinister voice, began searching for a suitable name. Charlot proposed the ideal name for the phantom announcer: "The Shadow". Thus, beginning on July 31, , "The Shadow" was the name given to the mysterious narrator of the Detective Story Hour; the narrator was voiced by James LaCurto, replaced after four months by prolific character actor Frank Readick Jr.
The episodes were drawn from the Detective Story Magazine issued by Street and Smith , "the nation's oldest and largest publisher of pulp magazines".
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Although the latter company had hoped the radio broadcasts would boost the declining sales of Detective Story Magazine, the result was quite different. Listeners found the sinister announcer much more compelling than the unrelated stories, they soon began asking newsdealers for copies of "that Shadow detective magazine" though it did not exist. Gibson to begin writing stories about "The Shadow". Using the pen name of Maxwell Grant and claiming the stories were "from The Shadow's private annals as told to" him, Gibson wrote out of tales over the next 20 years: a novel-length story twice a month; the first story produced was " The Living Shadow ", published April 1, Gibson's characterization of The Shadow laid the foundations for the archetype of the superhero , including stylized imagery and title, supervillains, a secret identity.
Clad in black, The Shadow operated after dark as a vigilante in the name of justice, terrifying criminals into vulnerability. Another possible inspiration for The Shadow is the French character Judex. French comics historian Xavier Fournier notes other similarities with another silent serial, The Shielding Shadow , whose protagonist had a power of invisibility , considers The Shadow to be a mix between the two characters.
In the s, some Shadow comic strips were translated in France as adventures of Judex. Because of the great effort involved in writing two full-length novels every month, several guest writers were hired to write occasional installments in order to lighten Gibson's workload; these guest writers included Lester Dent , who wrote the Doc Savage stories, Theodore Tinsley. In the late s, mystery novelist Bruce Elliott would temporarily replace Gibson as the primary author of the pulp series. Gibson wrote three new "official" stories between and ; the first began a new series of nine updated Shadow novels from Belmont Books , starting with Return of The Shadow under his own na.
Jeffrey Catherine Jones Jeffrey Catherine Jones was an American artist whose work is best known from the late s through the s. Jones provided more than covers for many different types of books through , as well as venturing into fine art during and after this time. Fantasy artist Frank Frazetta called Jones "the greatest living painter". Although Jones first achieved fame as Jeff Jones and lived for a time as male, she changed her name and was recognized as female. Jeffrey Durwood Jones was raised in Atlanta, Georgia ; as a child, her father was overseas in the military.
She graduated from Georgia State College in with a degree in geology and was keenly interested in art and admired the work of Johannes Vermeer , Giovanni Battista Tiepolo , Rembrandt. For a period during the early s, Jones provided illustrations to Ted White's Fantastic. She drew many covers and short stories for a variety of comics publishers including DC Comics , Skywald Publications , Warren but avoided the superhero genre.
In — issues of National Lampoon , Jones had a full page strip entitled Idyl. Industry journalist Tom Spurgeon commented on the broader significance and influence of The Studio in his obituary of Jones at The Comics Reporter: The legacy of that much talent doing what was collectively good work at a point of monolithic and degrading corporate influence over the kind of art they wanted to do has provided The Studio with a legacy that can be embraced by those that didn't care for the artists' output; the idea of a dedicated workplace that would allow for coercive influence one artist to another has been carried over into nearly cartoonists' collective space initiative since.
By the early s she had a recurring strip in Heavy Metal titled. Cartoonists Walter Simonson and J. King said at the time that Jones had a growing interest in expressionism and did not pursue comic work as thereafter. In while attending Georgia State College, Jones met fellow student Mary Louise Alexander; the two began dating and were married in Their daughter Julianna was born the following year.
After graduation, the couple divorced in the early s; as an adult, Jones recalled wanting to be a girl from her earliest memories. She began hormone replacement therapy. Having grown up as a product of the patriarchal s, with a domineering war-hero father, Jones did not know how to cope with her yearning to be female, felt ashamed. She began hormone replacement therapy in , set out upon a new phase of life as a woman, changing her name to Jeffrey Catherine Jones , yet this transition did not bring peace to this gentle, troubled artist, for in , she suffered a nervous breakdown, which led to the loss of her home and studio.
However, she recovered, by began painting and drawing again. Jones' personal Facebook page reported following her death: "Legendary fantasy artist Jeffrey Catherine Jones passed away today, Thursday May 19, at am surrounded by family. Jeffrey suffered from severe emphysema and bronchitis as well as hardening of the arteries around the heart Jones was nominated for the Hugo Award for best fan artist in , for the best professional artist Hugo in , , In she was nominated for the World Fantasy Award for best artist and won the award in Additionally, Jones was nominated for the Chesley Award in Garbado was released by Indiegogo featuring interviews with friends, fellow artists, the artist herself titled Better Things: The Life and Choices of Jeffrey Catherine Jones.
There were episodes produced, with the th episode airing in May ; the series was set in Hope Memorial Hospital in a fictional town called "Madison. Stories were self-contained within one episode and featured various medical emergencies; because of the obvious burdens and expense of casting for separate stories each day and due to ratings being lower than expected, on July 22, , stories were expanded to weekly arcs with a new plot introduced every Monday and concluding that week on Friday.
This, was only marginally more successful than the daily anthology format had been. Beginning March 2, , The Doctors ceased its experimental anthology format and became a traditional continuing serial, like all the other daytime dramas on air then. Matt Powers, who started on the program on July 9, , although Pritchett appeared on the series during its weekly anthology period, in another role. The cast for the original daily concept, which lasted from the premiere on April 1, until July 19, , was: Jock Gaynor as Dr. William Scott Richard Roat as Dr. Jerry Chandler Margot Moser as Dr.
Elizabeth Hayes Fred J. Scollay as Rev. Sam Shafer The early cast for the second, weekly concept, which lasted from July 22, until February 28, , was: Richard Roat as Dr. Jerry Chandler Fred J. Sam Shafer James Pritchett as Dr. While the doctors on General Hospital worked in harmony with one another for the most part and in some cases were intimate friends, the physicians on The Doctors were much more cutthroat. The Doctors incorporated far more incidental humor and realism into its storylines, remained anchored to actual medical work in its setting far longer than GH did.
General Hospital, by contrast, was much more conventional, relying much more on traditional soap devices such as murder trials, extensive sexual trysts and affairs, love triangles, amnesia than The Doctors. For example, Matt Powers was put on trial for murder, was forced to rescind his Chief of Staff position, became depressed. Another doctor took over Powers' spot and schemed to remove his allies, such as Dr.
Althea Davis, from positions of influence in the hospital. In another storyline, one doctor's nurse found out that he killed his rival and made it look like suicide; when he discovered that she knew the truth, he tormented her every day at work until she committed suicide herself, allowing him to get away with the murder.
Other notable storylines included cancer and drugs. Doreen Aldrich suffered from leukemia , Joan Dancy had an addiction to drugs, believed to have killed her, but it was revealed that a hospital worker framed a doctor for pulling the plug on Joan's life support machines. For about the last five years or so, the show began to move away from its early realism and sobriety in plot toward more stereotypically "soapish" writing. For example, one storyline centered around a woman over 60 years old who impersonated her daughter Adrienne Hunt by taking a special serum that would keep the old woman younger, but caused the death of Billy Aldrich in the process.
In and , the serial received a Daytime Emmy for Best Drama. During that period until a new opening sequence was created in , announcer Mel Brandt would inform the audience at the beginning of each episode: "And now, The Doctors , dedicated to the brotherhood of healing. It was the last NBC daytime serial to transition from black and white to color on October 17, For most of its run, The Doctors was packaged and sponsored by the Colgate-Palmolive company through its Channelex division.