Das ist der helle.
The literal use of a shiny light can be found as the underlying idea in basically all metaphorical instances — as something is enlightened. This is not the case in German, where it can also be used as an intensifier. Furthermore, it is easily possible to create and understand metaphors that have bright linked to its primary sense, the sense of vision.
The next two terms are really fascinating as the usage of the English word differs significantly from its German counterpart. Dark occurs only 17 times metaphorically in total, while dunkel is used almost in half of its occurrences in a metaphorical sense. Also the number of occurrences within words is deviating with only 0.
Although we might consider sense experiences as neutral, it is true that the words used to express those experiences are sometimes not.
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Some sense-. This is very much the case with the two words at hand. In their literal form both terms relate mainly to the lack of light or certain shades in color and are thus unbiased, very few literal examples display the negative connotation that predominates in the metaphorical instances, and those are mainly limited to German. A0G Snowdrops are shady favorites for the dark days of late winter. ADA The girl opened a door with a Yale key and they entered a. Seine dunklen Augen. Die tiefschwarzen Augenbrauen. Dann war er wieder allein, bedroht von der Feindlichkeit der. This is a surprising finding as humans are unable to see clearly in darkness, thus we are devoid of the one sensory perception that we trust in most and which is addressed first in our western culture.
Because of this we perceive darkness as something that makes us uneasy and therefore, it is not a coincidence that good and evil or heaven and hell are always depicted as light versus dark — dark being the bad part. In view of this it is astonishing that so many literal examples are neutrally connoted.
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Both, dark and dunkel, are not very productive when it comes to strongly synaesthetic combinations, while in German only three could be found, the English examples offered even less with only one occurrence. The senses that they co-occur with is not the same. English displays a rather unusual combination of touch and vision, which is not easily accessible.
If only the metaphor dark feel was taken without context, it would be difficult to figure out the meaning: JYD head thrown back, eyes closed, surrendering to the hot, dark feel of his mouth sucking at her nipple. The German examples are easier to understand as here vision is combined with hearing, a combination which is used by children till the age of about ten to refer to tones and thus, might still be remembered in later age more easily. It is very interesting that two of the three examples that came up within The weakly synaesthetic metaphors in English and German are similar and can be grouped into three subcategories.
However, in the German examples two more possible usages could be found that did not occur in the English examples. The biggest group for dark as well as dunkel relates to time, describing difficult and bad periods or moments. Those are entirely negatively connoted and refer quite often to times of war and other political events. In German this phrase can be found in a broad variety of combinations with time expressions, while English only showed one form: dark days. Since in German it is rather often linked to the times during or after the war, a first guess was that it might be related to the fact that Germany suffered through two terrible wars which is reflected in texts from later times as well.
But since Britain was similarly affected by the war, this explanation cannot be the whole reason for the lack of bad times reflected in languages and thus the lack of representation in the corpus. The only other reason that might explain this overlexicalization in a German corpus of dunkle Zeiten , is that Germany is as the instigator of World War II more often reminded by other countries of its role in history.
In addition, it might also be the urge for the Germans to keep remembering this particular time to avoid a repetition of history, or the general tendencies that seems to be present in most Germans to see everything pessimistically. Similar to this are the findings in English of dark secret ,. Two more categories can be found of which one only seems to exist in German.
They are very different from each other; the first one can be brought into connection with those dark secrets, while the other one in some way relates to time, but is entirely different from the above analyzed form. In those examples where a person is described as dunkel , this person is evil and is up to mischief, this counts for English and German in the same way: Ze Doch da passierte es. CEK But I suppose everybody has a dark side. This beginning is simply dunkel because it is a part in history, so far away from the present, that not much is known about it. All weakly synaesthetic examples have something in common: people seem to be afraid of the dark and thus connect a lot of things that cannot be explained or are terrifying in some way — the very usage that would be expected for the literal occurrences.
Hearing is the next highest sense in the ranking by Aristotle. Both words — the English and the German one — occur similarly often. Loud comes up 0. Completely different from the English term is, however, that laut occurs metaphorically 14 times , not very often, but it does occur. Although, no strongly synaesthetic metaphors could be found. Loud only showed two metaphorical forms and they are both strongly synaesthetic combining hearing to vision.
Generally speaking, the sense of hearing seems very resistant against synaesthetic combinations and against metaphorical forms in general. Classen argues that the sense of auditory perception is too specific that it is impossible to use it metaphorically at all. My analysis showed a different outcome. However, it is really difficult to tell the metaphors apart from the literal examples as often they could be used in the very same syntactic structure in a literal or metaphorical form.
The metaphorical instances of laut can easily be summarized into one underlying concept: something is really noticeable. In most of them a person or a group of people is trying to catch attention for different reasons. This underlying idea of catching attention also counts for the strongly synaesthetic form with loud , which describes clothes as loud. Just by reading. A0U She was seen with a man in a loud checked suit who favoured bright ties. Very differently from all other sense-related adjectives is the fact that loud and laut do not seem to have a specific connotation.
Of course, they can occur with rather dramatic words like scream , wail or cries etc. Loud in itself is neutral — it is never negative or positive without further information conveyed by the following noun. A quiet scream is not less terrifying as a loud scream can be. The quality of the sound is not changing the connotation, thus, loud is only additional information rather than carrying the connotation and therefore not important for the overall mood.
A further indicator for this neutrality is that it can be combined with any kind of sound — negative or positive. It is not limited to the human voice, or music, or animal noises, or other noises and sounds. EA5 31 his sudden exclamation of horror had started a loud wail and reduced Carrie to a fit H0F Perfectly preserved, and spoke in loud, happy voices.
As the syntactic structure does not show any differences, it is in some cases rather difficult to say if a sentence really is metaphorical or not — the border between metaphoricity and literal use is very small sometimes. These two words behave very differently, not only in the number of occurrences. L eise occurs 0. The general underlying idea of all metaphorical instances of quiet and leise is the same, it is that of inconspicuousness, something is there, not in your face but more in a very subtle way.
GVP thanks to Jack's decisiveness and air of quiet authority to which everyone willingly submitted. HGV DSo this is your secret! D the old lady said in a tone of quiet satisfaction , a smile on her face. Those examples given above are representative examples of all metaphorical occurrences with quiet.
The target domains with leise differ substantially among themselves. This concept of inconspicuousness can be seen more clearly in some than in others. The word leise is in no way bound to the mapping of a specific semantic field, but can occur with negative as well as positive ones. And similar to the other hearing related words it does not much function as the carrier of the overall connotation within the whole phrase. However, the combination of a noun with leise is nevertheless more meaningful than with laut , where it could be argued that in fact most, if not all instances are literal and simply stretched a bit in their application.
Ich habe gebeten, sich kurz zu fassen", sagte er mit leisem. An interesting phrase that occurs a number of times in my set of examples is the expression auf leisen Sohlen. This phrase is one of the very few that can be argued to be literal or metaphorical, although in some cases it can only be the latter. The problem I see here is, that soles cannot be quiet or loud by themselves, they can only produce sounds when somebody is walking on them.
I would nevertheless apply to them the attribute of being quiet or not, as some soles make sounds while somebody is walking and others do not. Hence, the phrase auf leisen Sohlen can be literal as in the following example, because somebody is walking in a quiet manner: Ze Ge Denn auf leisen Sohlen.
Er vertritt allerdings In the first case it is of course not possible that a country moves around on soles and even if the people are meant, this phrase cannot be literal as this would imply that every single US American is walking in the same way, to exaggerate.
Thus, the idea is simply transferred, making the whole phrase metaphorical. In the second case the same applies, although here it is not possible to extend the idea of nationalism to people directly as it is more of a mental attitude that is creeping into a society. As mentioned above, the strongly synaesthetic forms combine hearing and touch, and hearing and smell.
Compared to the general occurrence of metaphors with leise they are rather rare. The combination of hearing and smell seems strange at first, but both metaphors are easily comprehensible and do not sound made up. A leiser Geruch seems to be a smell that is not very strong, but rather hidden, though nevertheless perceivable. In both cases found in my set of examples the underlying smell is disgusting, but it is likely that nice smells could equally easy be brought into connection with leise as well.
The other strongly synaesthetic form is the following, which appears to be more common and combines hearing and touch. As could be seen from the analysis of quiet and leise, there is a very obvious difference between these two languages in regard to their metaphorical behavior. While the German term can occur very frequently in both forms, this. These findings do not conform to the differentiation suggested by Ullmann , who argues that hearing belongs to the higher senses and is therefore not as often mapped metaphorically onto other aspects.
In the case of the English term he is right of course, but the German word behaves very differently, thus, here already the claim of a universal tendency in synaesthetic metaphors shows to be difficult. The analysis of smell-words is not easy as there are so few words in the first place that are solely linked to this sense — in English as well as in German. For the analysis of the positive part of my antonyms I decided on fragrant , which seems to be the best counterpart to the German duftend , but occurs far less often: only 0.
Fragrant does not occur linked to other senses, it is still more frequently used in a metaphorical way ten times than duftend two times. Generally, in its literal form fragrant can be divided into two subgroups — the smell related to nature and the smell related to people. Identical to all of them is that fragrant never occurs negatively connoted, an aspect in which the English term differs from its German counterpart.
It needs to be mentioned here that all four of those examples are taken from texts that are rather old between , thus it seems as if this combination is not possible any longer, which explains why it appeared so strange. All in all, the use of duftend decreased with the years that it is now not even half as frequent as it was around The smell of flowers and plants in the woods is by far the largest subgroup and transfers the idea of freshness and harmony, it is interesting that while those examples are metaphorical with the English word, in German they belong to the category of literal occurrences.
ANR It would be too much to say that by Paris had become a. CK5 taking advantage of the dying minutes of daylight, feeds on flower nectar in the fragrant garden. The other subgroup also exists in German: the fragrant of people or people related things like food. To find examples with the smell of food is not surprising as there are words that can refer to both senses equally: flavor and aroma.
The senses of smell and taste are biologically so close that it appears to be a logical strategy to use the same words in a literal form, while other words are metaphorically used to combine both senses. ASE She withdrew the fragrant dish from the oven, and put it, still sizzling, before the bedazzled sexton. CDR A herbal cream or fragrant oil gives a soothing massage. In the cases of duftend and fragrant it is very clear that the sense related word is actually the bearer of the connotation in the instances where a clear connotation of the metaphors or even the literal versions can be found.
This connotation is than mostly positive. The two metaphorical forms of duftend are both strongly synaesthetic, displaying two sense combinations vision and hearing. While the smell- hearing metaphor is somehow understandable, it is difficult to make sense of the vision-smell one as it is hard to imagine a smelling light. Nevertheless, in both cases the positive attitude of duftend appears to there as well. Haut ihres Gesichtes erschien wie ein Gewebe aus duftendem. The metaphorical examples of these two sense related words show again differences between the languages. Both of them are rather restricted when it comes to metaphorical usage, but the metaphors they form are not much alike.
In the way fragrant and duftend are mostly positive, fetid and stinkend are not. Both occur metaphorically even though there overall occurrence is more limited: fetid is so rare that all examples 53 in total in the corpus had to be chosen, a random selection was therefore not possible. The number of their metaphorical occurrences is nevertheless not the lowest number altogether, even if it is below most other sense-related words with 15 in the German examples and nine in English.
The more unexpected it is that even within those few occurrences in English a strongly synaesthetic combination comes up, linking smell to vision. This combination is rather surprising as I would have assumed that smell and taste are so much stronger linked that only such a co-occurrence would be possible in the very restricted combination possibilities with smell in general.
However, the German term also shows one strongly synaesthetic combination which is not including taste, but hearing. Although it cannot be clearly stated if the fetid light in the above mentioned concordance line is positive or negative, I would argue that it is the latter, because of the following term blazed.
A blazing fire appears to me like a fire of great strength and destructiveness. And of course, the general negativity of the term fetid needs to be taken into account as well. All other metaphorical occurrences are more obvious in regard to their connotations: they all convey awfulness and decay and are mainly describing conditions of people which were brought about by other people or which they will bring about others. CR9 secretary, stepped into this fetid atmosphere on April 30th when he chaired the first of four meetings The synaesthetic version in German is very obvious in regard to its connotation, which is clearly negative.
This counts for all other German metaphors as well. Generally, all metaphorical instances relate to bad or negative features like corruption, hate, lies or avarice and similar things. It is. While its antonym duftend decreased in use toward recent times, stinkend increases, but has in the process seemingly lost the ability to be used metaphorically, at least no examples can be found within my concordance lines. Wi Alle in diesem There are no other sense related pairs that have such a strong and obvious connotation as those four smell related words. The finding of synaesthetic combinations appeared rather strange considering that taste is not one of them, while the other way around — taste being in the source domain — is so frequent, which will be explained further in the following.
Sweet 0. The metaphorical use of sweet is compared to other sensory terms very common in English. In both cases, the metaphorical version is obviously much more common than the literal one. Otherwise some substantial differences can be discovered. Out of the sixty concordance lines that show a metaphorical usage, only fourteen display strongly synaesthetic metaphors in English, which mostly display taste-smell combinations. Out of the four other.
CDC 59 She had a lovely sweet voice , and always had to sing without piano accompaniment, for she alone knew GW8 Then he remembered her sweet voice , and the touch of her fingers on his face, and her warm breath Even within a strongly synaesthetic context sweet can still refer to a person A0D She smelled warm and sweet , like a marshmallow. This application of sweet to a person can also be found with the German word, although in a different way.
The strongly synaesthetic usage differs significantly between English and German. Of course there are some combinations of taste-smell in German as well, but the more popular linking is taste-hearing. Whenever smell is used in combination with sweet a general tendency can be seen of a positive context, most often it occurs in relation to the sweet air outside. In only one instance a negative context could be found describing a sickly sweet smell , something that might be expected to come up more often. A1U Matthews was pumping vinyl acetate into a 10,gallon vat, wreathed in its sweet, sickly smell : A0L her just three minutes to work this out as her antennae fluttered in the sudden sweet smelling breeze.
This is actually the case in German, in those few taste-smell metaphors a trend toward a negative meaning can be seen. Laken, nach feuchten Federbetten und nach dem stechend. In English the taste-hearing form mostly relates to the human voice, this is the same in German, just more frequently. It is not as limited in its application as it is in English.
GW8 Then he remembered her sweet voice , and the touch of her fingers on his face, and her warm breath FSE That's a sweet sound coming out of your mouth, Khan. Dann setzte der Hof Er selbst In English the other very prominent metaphorical use of sweet and smell is the phrase — the sweet smell of success. In this sentence the whole phrase is taken from its literal use of smell to relate to success in a completely metaphorical sense, thereby describing success as having the property of some positive smell. HJ4 A rush of good fortune coupled with the sweet smell of success. K23 Later on the dog breeder enjoying the sweet smell of success.
It is interesting though that this metaphor will most certainly be understood as referring to a positive aspect rather than some negative smell, probably because of the positive connotation of success, even though smell related words including smell itself tend to acquire a negative connotation in English with time. Classen gives here the example of to stink , which she argues simply meant to emit any odor and was not limited to its current use of giving off a bad odor.
This could already be seen in the examples that describe people and because of these features it can also be applied to ensnare people and turn something negative around. Er wurde so schmerzhaft wie jedes Erwachen aus einem. Here are two terms that mean the same but are used quite differently in the number of their occurrences, while sour is even more frequent in a metaphorical form than sweet with 72 occurrences, sauer is very limited in this respect only But generally speaking, the metaphorical concepts of both are almost indistinguishable.
In both cases strongly synaesthetic combinations are difficult, therefore only three English respectively one German occurred. Those however are identical, linking taste and smell and have a negative tinge: A1G A sour smell of overcrowded humanity hung in the air. Schwefelwasserstoff ist The weakly synaesthetic occurrences can be combined into two subgroups: relating to people or their appearance and relating to fruits. The first one shows some subtle differences between the languages, while in English sour can be used to refer to the personality and the appearance, in German only the second reading is possible, but is brought about by a bad temper or anger about somebody or something.
Sie machen ein saures Gesicht , damit jeder merkt, Der Kellner macht eine saure Miene zur salzigen Suppe, bringt keinen The second subgroup might appear strange at first. Why should fruits be described as sour , but not meant literally? It is the case here that the literal understanding of the whole phrase is transferred onto the metaphor, sour fruits are not liked and most people will pull a face when biting into something sour.
This is very likely the underlying idea of the idiom sour grapes ,. A further interpretation seems to be frustration: something is not working out on the part of the speaker. This idiom sour grapes is based on the fable The fox and the sour grapes in which the fox convinces itself that the grapes, which it wanted to eat but could reach are not ripe anyway and therefore sour. ARJ you expect is a certain amount of resentment or sour grapes between October 1—4 and, frustrating as.
The meaning, however, is completely different from sour grapes. It refers to something unpleasant, a difficult situation for example, but the person who bites into the sour apple has decided to go grudgingly through with it. Als die Nacht kam, war The literal examples of sour and sauer are identical and mainly relate to food or drinks. Therefore a further analysis is not necessary. FEP as I dipped my hand into the all-too-familiar breakfast of slightly sour rice and salted fish. Haptic words, including words for temperature perception, are very frequent and easy to find in German as well as in English.
They can even be found rather often among the most frequent words — their distribution here is actually far greater than that of any other sense. Soft and weich are very much alike in a number of ways. The one major difference is their occurrence, as soft appears 0. Differently from other sense-adjectives, soft does not occur metaphorically in its primary sense in regard to touch — there is a clear distinction between the metaphorical and.
The same is true for weich , even the number of metaphorical occurrence of both words is with 62 in German and 60 in English very much the same. Also the occurences of weich and soft in regard to the linked senses is in sync as both co-occur with hearing and with vision. Vision and soft is a very common combination. This is reversed in German, where hearing outnumbers the visual examples. In the English examples it is mostly light and colors that are depicted as soft , thus a resemblance to the literal examples of the visual term dark can be seen, which also refers to the lack of light or a shade in color.
The second form of soft colors cannot be found in German, where clearly a preference for structural elements like forms exists. It is interesting that in one English example a color is linked to light , thus combining both elements that are most frequent in relation to soft. HGG shadowed under the archway, smoothed by the soft grey light beyond, riding onward towards some JY4 beautifully furnished in soft pastels in sharp contrast to the heaviness of the traditional furnishings in Wi The interpretation of soft as well as weich in strongly synaesthetic combinations is basically identical: something is comfortable or comforting, or not very strong.
A combination of those is possible of course. The other strongly synaesthetic metaphorical form relates to hearing and is more frequent in German than in English. EBN 80 Cruise through the romantic illuminated waterways to a background of soft music. CDM She had a soft voice and always put me at my ease. Erwachsenen- Welt.
Mit seiner weichen, nie aggressiven. In both strongly synaesthetic combinations the concept of soft as being comfortable is transferred onto the target domain; in some instances additional concepts are also taken over, but those do not apply generally. It will now be interesting to see if the same counts also for weakly synaesthetic metaphors, is here also only the concept of comfort taken over? The most frequent weak form in English relates to drinks, followed by drugs, which has the same underlying idea. The interpretation of comfort does not apply as in a soft drink the soft rather stresses that the drink does not contain alcohol or any other substance that will somehow affect the system of a person.
It is soft as it is not inebriant and can therefore be consumed by basically all people, even children, without side effects. A similar interpretation is true for soft drugs. Of course, here being soft does not mean that it can or should be consumed by everybody, it is rather the case that it is not as addictive or toxic for the body as other substances like heroin for example are.
Therefore, both examples transfer a different part of the concept of soft onto the target domain: it is not the comfort that is foregrounded here, but the idea that the soft substance that is taken is more agreeable with the body than other substances. AP0 belief he held then, that the use of soft drugs did not necessarily lead to a progression to hard drugs,. BMW straight past, heading for the bar that was selling soft drinks.
If somebody is soft or has a soft spot for something or somebody this person will probably give in more easily. Topics that are soft may be diluted or can effortlessly be attacked or argued against. HWM in spite of the hurtful words he had just spoken she would always have a soft spot for the man. Sie sind toleranter, weicher , lockerer als ihre. Dann die" weichen Themen ": Frieden und immer Generally speaking, soft and weich is most of the time positively connoted. In the literal forms, weich and soft describe quite often objects or people mainly body parts in some way and do not need to be further analyzed.
HA6 Weakness invaded her as his tongue darted over the fullness of her soft lips , dipped to taste the sweet Ge Hard is a difficult term in regard to sense perception as it is very often taken to describe difficult tasks which I consider its most frequent metaphorical usage.
It occurs in a rather high number metaphorically 83 times out of while its German counterpart shows to be used mainly metaphorically five literal forms. Concerning the strongly synaesthetic occurrences, hard and hart are very different. Hard shows the exact same sense combinations as soft hearing and vision , while hart , even though it occurs almost exclusively metaphorically, shows no such combinations at all. The examples of hard are so much alike to soft that they even show the very same linking in regard to the semantic fields: voice and light. However, in both cases it implies an element of uneasiness and threat.
In the first examples, this is even further supported by a second sense related term that also tends to a have negative undertone. FP0 yawning and stretching, one hand flung up to shield her face against the cold hard radiance. Although hard describes only the aspect of the voice of a person in the above example, this theme can be also be applied to persons more commonly. This idea of an unemotional and unfriendly person can also be found in the metaphorical use of hard and also hart without any further sense-related terms: the general reference of a person as being hard.
It is interesting to see that while soft is used equally often for men and women, hard mainly describes men and only eight examples in total in the BNC can be found in regard to a. But it is not just the person, also their demeanor can be hard. This counts for German in the very same way. Bemerke mit B1L He was a tough and uncompromising player with a hard man image but he was also a supremely The biggest subgroup for hard is the one ascribing something as difficult.
A further extended meaning is even more common. This can be found in the phrase hard work or harte Arbeit. Here the node word is used for the description of something that is taken very seriously, is exhausting and requires a lot of will power and personal commitment. This meaning is of course not limited to hard work in the physical sense and can be found in other phrases as well as in the mental process to think hard. ACM Over the next two days a lot of hard thinking went into my plan of campaign.
The idea behind hard work is different from that of the synaesthetic occurrences, because hard is here not necessarily negatively connoted, it can also be rewarding to work hard. This seems to be the general tendency in all those metaphors in English. In this aspect they differ from the German ones, as there harte Arbeit is not always rewarding, but is most often a part of life of a certain social class from which it is almost impossible to break out, but which is not making anyone rich either — neither in regard to the feeling of satisfaction, nor in regard to earnings.
This is also depicted in hard life , which is in English as well as in German referring to the same idea of a life that is or was difficult and troublesome and can in some cases lead to somebody becoming a hard person. In most cases the person leading a hard life has experienced hard times winter, life, day etc. While in English the same is true for a hard life as it is for hard work — it can also be rewarding or perceived as special — in German only the negative aspects of hard can be found.
The underlying idea is always that of difficulties, although they can be further. Aber selbst in dieser harten Zeit haben es. In English a second meaning of hard time can be discovered. This does not mean that it has to be a permanent or lengthy time span, but can also refer to a present situation and most importantly to a person who is being difficult towards others, thereby giving them a hard time.
It can also be used by somebody referring to himself as having a hard time , reflecting that this person has difficulties understanding or believing something, whereas the second part with belief is the more often occurring one. E-mail: debra. He holds a PhD in Translation and Interpreting from the University of Malaga, Spain and his research centres on legal translation and translation technologies. E-mail: jkillman uncc. She is editor-in-chief of the scientific journal Translatologia. Her research areas include translation and communication studies, intercultural communication, translation theory and translation tools.
E-mail: vlasta. Her research interests focus on German linguistics, comparative linguistics, languages in contact and German grammar. She teaches courses of German morphology and syntax. Der Satz E-Mail: eva. He does research in Systemic Functional Linguistics and has published several articles on information, thematicity and picture books, etc.
His research interests are also in Applied Linguistics. A Systemic Functional Approach Equinox, E-mail: arsenio. He is also a poet and literary translator, co- editor of the international scholarly journal ELOPE, member of the editorial board of the leading Slovene literary and humanist magazine Nova Revija, and a corresponding fellow of The English Association. His main areas of research lie in translation studies, narratology, modern English and American poetry. E-mail: uros.
British and American Studies, published uninterruptedly for almost 20 years. She has been a distinguished member of and has held leading positions in the European Society for English Studies whose publication — The European English Messenger she currently edits. E-mail: abaparlog gmail. E-mail: i. At the same time, as researcher and organizer, he is president of the Romanian Association for the History of Media, member of the Professional Journalists Union, member of the Romanian Association for compared literature, corresponding member of the Romanian-American Academy and others.
He is the author of the following volumes selection : Wanderer in Europe. E-mail: ilierad yahoo. His main areas of research include applied linguistics, communication science, translation science, intelinguistics and language technology. He has published many articles and books, including Knowledge, Language, Media, Work. Contrastive Dependency Syntax for machine Translation Professor Klaus Schubert is also the co-editor of trans-kom, a scientific journal of translation studies and technical communication, and of the book series TransUD.
E-mail: klaus. His main areas of research are specific didactic issues of translation and interpreting, community interpreting and translation of commercial texts. He is also involved in projects dedicated to terminology work. Email: jstefcik ukf. Claudia Stoian is also working as a translator of English, Spanish and Romanian.
She has published a book on the discourse of tourism websites, several papers on discourse analysis and cultural differences, and some translations. Email: claudia. Her research has focused on areas which run parallel to her teaching: discourse and genre analysis, translation studies, translation didactics and lexicography. She has also co-authored Professional Genres in Public Administration and two bilingual dictionaries of robotics She coordinated a research project on a NCSRHE grant about professional genres used in business and public administration settings.
E- mail: rodica. She is the author of the book The. Her research interests are in the field of applied linguistics, genre studies, interpreting, advertising and teaching. She is the executive editor of Essachess — Journal for Communication Studies covered in 14 international databases. Her research interests include epistemology of communication, scientific journalism, symbolic communication, organizational communication. Email: mihaela. She teaches French linguistics and translation and her research interests include French and Romance linguistics, contrastive analysis, and translation theory and methodology.
Etudes de traductologie; coord. E-mail: mtenchea yahoo. E-mail: a. E-mail: bouzianekarima gmail. He has taught courses in journalism and communication, in both formal and informal settings. He holds a PhD in rhetorical analysis of journalism from the Romanian Academy and has published a book after his PhD thesis and authored several papers in communication sciences. He is a member of the Union of Professional Journalists from Romania. His research interests are media studies, media literacy, journalism, rhetorical analysis and persuasion.
Since , she has been researching for her PhD thesis entitled: Romance and Empowerment. She is currently interested in research on social psychology, electoral behavior, political communication, research methods in social sciences. E-mail: culic fspac. Her research fields include grammar for communicative purposes, didactics of foreign languages, communication, linguistics and translation studies.
She teaches German as a foreign language to engineering students, contemporary German and economic translation. She has taken part in several international conferences, seminars and training programs Goethe Institute in Bucharest, Romania; University of Saarbrucken, Germany and published various scientific articles in this field. E-mail: anca. He is interested in research about the militant and jihadist media. E-mails: hatem. She published the book The Management of the Organizational Communication in She is also a political analyst and an entrepreneur in Public Communication being the owner of her private firm in this domain.
She published more than articles in the local and central media from Romania since E-mail: lialucia. E-mail: anamaria. E-mail: vasile. Her current areas of interest are smart advertising and use of new technologies in marketing, neuromarketing and emotions in advertising. The courses taught focus on media communication, advertising communication and advertising strategy.
E-mail: iancu fspac. She has worked as an interpreter for two years and her areas of interest include consecutive and simultaneous interpretation, but also translation for specific purposes especially the legal field. He teaches courses and seminars on intercultural communication in business and on business correspondence in English and German and published books and textbooks in German and Romanian on related topics: intercultural perception, German business correspondence, and Romanian regional history. E-mail: patricklavrits yahoo. Her areas of specialization include: conference interpreting, translation studies and communication sciences.
E-mail: maftei. As a researcher, Ciprian Obrad has over 15 years of experience in socio-economic research at local and regional context, and was involved in research partnerships with administrative institutions, NGOs, local and multinational companies. E-mail: ciprian. Her research interests are linguistics, pragmatics and semiotics. E-mail: nadia. Her research interests include communication sciences, public relations and new.
E-mail: adina. Research topics covered in the scientific work include social psychology, political PR and advertising strategies in politics, career guidance, research methods in the social sciences. E-mail: pavelea fspac. In , he followed an external period of postdoctoral research at University of Genoa, Italy. He also published at Cambridge Scholars Publishing. E-mail: adpacurar gmail. E-mail: olivia. Her expertise includes applied languages, semiotics, pragmatics, discourse analysis, communication, comparative literature, translation techniques and librarian sciences.
She is a member in several international associations such International Pragmatics Association.
Author and co-author of 6 books and courses, she is also interested in cultural management projects, public discourse, civic and ecological education and in advocacy methods and techniques aiming the social dialogue and the involvement in decision-making of leaders and staff of civil society organizations and social partners. E-mail: sorina. She taught seminars in Syntax and Semantics for the Faculty of Letters. Her research interests concern the social uses of new communication technologies and communication theories.
She is the author of Blogging around the World. She has a long experience in television journalism. She is teaching specialized courses of phraseology and theory and practice of translation and published two books on the field of phraseology and a course-book in the field of translation studies. E-mail: mtaran75 yahoo. Her field of research is communication sciences: Public Relations. Image of the Organization, Journalism. E-mail: ioana. This debate has consequences both on the communities of practice in PR, and on the education of future professionals.
While the debate includes an increasing number of ideas, the social media evolution puts pressure on the communication sciences area, to acknowledge and formalize additional tasks for the PR practitioners. The paper looks into the results of the debate and reflects upon the teaching and research that should follow the attempt to revolutionize the PR profession and practice.
Keywords: definition, professional association, communities of practice, public relations, communication science 1. Introduction Communication science is a relatively new addition to the real of humanities, attempting to claim a territory rather well covered by philosophy, linguistics, sociology, anthropology, psychology, rhetoric, marketing — and the list can be continued. Building definitions, developing terminology, producing evidence for specific knowledge are all elements of a long and difficult process of setting the boundaries of scientific approaches.
In Romania alone communication science programs in higher education sprang in the last decade of the 20th century inspired by American and Western European models and actively tapped into the mainstream debates regarding the essence, uses and practices specific for PR. The definition debate is not over. Recently relevant professional associations relaunched the definition debate, claiming that in the 21st century a consolidated approach is legitimate.
Increasingly more scientists, reflecting upon professions and professionalism, agree that, in order to socially recognize a profession with all incumbent legal and practical consequences the respective activity needs to be socially relevant, its practitioners need to have command over a body of knowledge, there should exist a standard educational curriculum and mechanisms of control over entry and exit to the field Newsom: , Ibarra: Defining public relations The first 75 years in the existence of the term public relations were aptly summarized by Rex Harlow.
Who pointed out that almost definitions of the concept shed light on. Definitions should ensure clarity, transparence and reasoning. They need to be comprehensive, specific, clear, relatively short, and acknowledged and accepted by the professional communities.
With PR the case is difficult. Some definitions look into the conceptual aspects what is PR , other — into the instrumental part what are the practices, activities, services rendered by PR professionals. Other definitions state what PR is not, how PR is different or contrasting with other areas in communication practices Balaban: The Encyclopedia of Public Relations clearly points at the large variety of approaches in defining the term public relations and to the consequences these definitions bear upon the teaching, practice and standards of the profession. The Canadian Public Relations Society defines PR as the strategic management of relationships between an organization and its diverse publics, through the use of communication, to achieve mutual understanding, realize organizational goals and serve the public interest.
In Europe, the definition debate is quite vivid. On one hand, Michael Kunczick points out that PR practices can be traced as far as the 17th century, on the other — the term on PR as such was imported from the American practices and nuances are added to the term. The German Public Relations Society gave its own definition of the practice and revisits the documentation to underpin the recognition of the profession and describe its functions. Le Robert. An overview of 43 countries revealed that in Europe PR is tied to four major roles: managerial, operational, reflective and educational, the last two being stronger claimed than in US definitions and practices.
His further research show that European practitioners perceive five issues as the. Comparing these features with the definition given to the activity by the Public Relations Society of America that PR is the strategic communication process that builds mutually beneficial relationships between organizations and their publics, no wonder that some commentators argue that the definition of the 21st century owes too much to the 20th century lenses.
PRSA consulted largely the public regarding the acceptability of the definition, even the possibility to define it in ethical terms to counterbalance voiced that blame PR practitioners for manipulating the public. But also the digital aspect remained outside the definition, PRSA considering that this is more a detail rather than a feature salient for the practice. Discussion and consequences The definition debate bears heavy consequences for the teaching and research community.
What is the educational promise, opposite the labour market and opposite those who pursue education in the field? What should be the research topics, how to build a relevant corpus of knowledge for the field? In many countries, access to the PR profession is not necessarily tied to a specific type of education. USA gives the tone, Romania — among others, leave the access to profession open. Universities, however, offering PR programs within the communication studies umbrella, shape their offer and curricula according to standards which are constantly challenged. The concern is not singular: competence and evidence-based programs gain importance world-wide Flynn: Most programs in Romania, for instance www.
Prominence is given to interactivity, dialogical dimensions of the profession, the capacity to write persuasive contents and obtain free media, organize events and serve in a multitude of functions, from the position of assistant manager to working in HR or marketing departments. The social action and the capacity to develop relations between institutions clients and publics remain main tasks, seen as such from the standpoint of professionals, practices and education providers. For the Romanian educational practices, in particular, a project on creating a National Registry of Qualifications in Higher Education www.
Unfortunately, the much-worked upon registry no longer makes visible the curricula of the education providers, due to a change in the concept on the national level, regarding the use of this instrument as a showcase for the higher educational system. No wonder that researchers and educators struggle side by side with the professional community to find the common ground for understanding and defining what is PR and how to meet the necessities on the labour market Cernicova, Dragomir, Palea: According to the influential PRnewswire , in the new century PR is engages, strategic, multichannel, many other things, but, most importantly, ever evolving, leaving room for grows, re interpretation, re invention of the profession, practices, instruments and uses.
Therefore, the list of definitions cannot be closed in the foreseeable future and needs constant revisiting, revising and re- consideration. References 1. Balaban, D. Bernays, E. Cernicova-Buca, M. Universitatii din Bucuresti. Cernicova, M. Tentative conclusions regarding Romanian professional perceptions on the competences specific for PR specialists.
In Professional communication and Translation Studies, vol 4, pp. Flynn, T. Harlow, Rex. In Public relations review, vol. Heath R. Ibarra, H. Kunczick, M. Newsom, D. This is PR. The realities of Public Relations. Thomson Wadsworth, 8th edition. In Public Relations Review 27, pp. White, J, Mazur, L. Strategic communication management. Making Public Relations work. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.
This frame has two dimensions. The first one is disclosing a pattern in which news and debates about education are being delivered by the media to the public. A relatively wide range of elements are scrutinized: the issue of plagiarism, the issue of the very poor quality educational system and so on. The debate is focused upon the way in which media treats nowadays these topics. The second one uncovers is asking if the Romanian media is ready to take part to a collective effort in order to improve the status of national education.
A perspective upon the cultural background of the subject is developed in the end. We indicate some cultural elements which could be responsible for the media style of delivering the theme of education to public. Keywords: Romanian educational system, public perception, media, media responsibilities 1. Introduction We must underline the fact that the topic of our study, in our view, is was not, and still it is not, properly developed within the recent studies of PR and public communication in general from the Romanian actual academic space. This is the reason why the references about this topic not only that are scarce but even those which are already published, very few anyway, only indirectly are linked with the topic of our paper and we think that they are far from being enough for the process of obtaining a relatively solid conceptual construction.
Of course, it is undeniable the fact that some of these papers had developed indeed some reliable analysis, in an acceptable manner, about the way in which contemporary Romanian press are dealing in its materials with the issue of national education, but these studies are, yet, unable nor to draw a systematic picture upon the frames through which media speaks about the subject nor to develop a further frame in order to indicate some possible ways of improving, within the media frame of possibilities, the national educational system.
For these reasons we had to develop for this study a minimum and preliminary conceptual frame in order to obtain some classifications on the elements which we consider that are crucial if we want to understand the main ways in which Romanian media speaks today about the national educational system. Thus, the study begins with a summary of what we consider to be the major forms through which the Romanian press presents today to its public the situation of the national educational system.
Images and Symbols. A Brief Anatomy of a Negative Picture. For the average contemporary citizen from Romania the negative image of his country has, beyond a general symbolism which is relatively easy to recognize, some distinct symbol-topics for almost every domain, social, political, economic or cultural. These are various elements which offers, in different forms and contents, the essence. Beyond the lack of efficiency, the absence of finality in the social field and the chronical shortage of financial support the contemporary Romanian system of education, and especially the domain of higher education, has for the contemporary citizens from Romania few distinct elements of symbolism within the public sphere of the media, elements which are easy to disclose and which were created in time by the Romanian media.
In what will follow we will try to disclose these elements in a brief and systematic manner. But before this we must, however, underline the fact that we do not claim to offer here a complete set of the modes in which contemporary Romanian media speaks about the national educational system. We have selected for the purpose of this brief and, we can say this, preliminary analysis, only few of these media ways of approaching the topic of education from contemporary Romania which in our view are the most representative nowadays.
The Issue of Poor Quality — From Plagiarism to Low Level of Quality in Romanian Contemporary System of Education The first element, one which is very easy to notice in the nowadays Romanian media, is reflected through press releases which are underlying the very poor quality of contemporary national educational system from the country. In different forms, this element is present in almost every media material which is released to the Romanian public in the last few years.
Briefly, this element could be summarized and it is ultimately reduced to some general topics which today are very familiar to the public. Here we can mention among these topics the poor results obtained by the Romanian pupils at different forms of national exams, the low rate of promotion at the end of high school period, the great rate of school abandonment, and so on.
Of course, the element of low quality implies more than these topics but, yet, these are forming in general what the Romanian media presents to the public. Moreover, the press materials are almost always accompanied with very negative comments. Another distinct topic of the media releases to the public about the poor level of the contemporary national education, within a general frame, is represented by the issue of plagiarism.
Maybe this is because this phenomenon is very present within the Romanian contemporary political class but, at least in our perspective, its abundant presence in the media could not be explained only through the phenomenon of plagiarism which is, unfortunately, so wide spread within actual Romanian political class.
In addition to this, as it was disclosed by the Romanian media, the phenomenon of plagiarism within the political class is also present in other countries from EU. It seems that this phenomenon is tolerated and accepted in different forms by the society. Some consistent analysis had been developed in the space of the international media among this phenomenon in contemporary Romanian academic and public space in general Iancu However, we underline this again, the interest of the press about the topic of plagiarism could not be reduced only to the presence of.
Speaking now strictly in terms regarding the way in which the media talks about the plagiarism we can very easy notice that the whole phenomenon is reduced by the media to its core element which is represented by the idea of academic theft. Of course, when we talk about plagiarism this is the most important aspect of the whole issue but, at least to our knowledge, there are no yet substantial studies about its roots and about its historical development throughout the history of the Romanian educational system. However, for the purpose of this short analysis we retain here the way in which appears the nucleus of the idea of plagiarism within the actual Romanian press releases about this topic.
In addition to this relatively rudimentary approach, we must also consider the fact that the general public is not properly trained or used to distinguish between an authentic case of plagiarism and other forms of academic fraud. In addition, closely linked with the topic of plagiarism is the phenomenon of low and very low quality of the actual Romanian system of education regardless of the level. Plagiarism does not represent by itself the single clue of low quality but it is definitely a type of a very special negative effect produced by a very disastrous system.
In a healthy academic environment, the phenomenon of plagiarism is rapidly and efficiently sanctioned because the system has its own healthy antibodies capable to react and to maintain the sanity of the entire structure. But within a system how is the contemporary system of education from Romania, and especially at its superior levels, it seems that there are no such effective antibodies and this is the main reason because of which the numerous cases of plagiarism from the recent period have not been properly sanctioned by the system.
However, we retain here the basic frame through which the actual Romanian media is disclosing a very negative phenomenon to the public. Together with the simple presentations of cases of plagiarism, the media directly shows to the Romanian contemporary public a very negative aspect, among, of course, many others, from within the actual national educational system. In addition, we must be aware of the fact that even if this general frame is, we must admit this, a very rudimentary one, it has, anyway, the necessary power to correctly indicate a deep negative phenomenon in its entire real dimension by discreetly indicating or suggesting the implications and the complications of it.
The Issue of Financial Support for National Education — Another Media Pattern of Approaching a Negative Phenomenon Secondly, another key element widely presented by the media is the issue of financial support for the national educational system. This fact must also be seen, in our perspective, as a media pattern through which the same negative situation is presented to the public. This pattern, in our view, is also a rudimentary one, but it seems to be very effective, and it is underlying the issue of salaries of the personal from the educational system but also from the scientific research.
Examples here are abundant and what is interesting to notice is the fact that this topic is also directly linked with the issue of the poor quality of the entire system Frangopol In some press materials it has been suggested that the actual Romanian educational system is a sort of refuge for those who were not able to find for themselves a much better paid job. This could be true, from our point of view, for significant parts from the high school.
The Romanian Contemporary Educational System and the Issue of its Finality at the Level of Work Market Finally, another element widely used by the Romanian contemporary media to show the issue of quality from within the national educational system is the absence of any substantial finality, at the level of work market, of the whole educational process.
A technical debate it would be much more complicated here but in terms of the purposes of our study it is enough to disclose this topic as a distinct element through which Romanian contemporary media is disclosing to the public one of the forms in which the poor quality from education takes shape. Interesting to notice in this context is also the fact that this topic is presented on two distinct lines of approach. One is underlying the absence of a realistic correlation between what the educational system has to offer to the work market of the country and the other points out that even in those cases which this correlation could be identified the graduates are very bad prepared, in terms of their professional training, and because of this they are not ready to be properly integrated within a performant work market.
There were many public positions upon this topic in which was strongly underlined the poor level of professional acquisitions of the vast majority of graduates regardless the formal level of their diploma. This poor level has been clearly demonstrated in various modes. A clear analysis about the topic of poor quality from Romanian contemporary education but also about what it could be done in the future in order to improve this status had been developed recently by Petre Frangopol, a leading author in this field Frangopol It is easy to see that this frame in which the poor quality of the entire system is disclosed to the general public is another model through which Romanian media is approaching today the issue of the low quality from the actual national educational system.
As intermediary conclusions it is obvious that the contemporary Romanian public perception about the status of the actual national educational system it is formed and shaped through the set of media patterns described by us until this point. It seems that, regardless of their relatively rudimentary levels these patterns, due to their content, have the capacity to transmit the real scale of the issue. In addition to this observation we may also notice that the topic of poor quality from the national Romanian contemporary educational system is for the Romanian media one from which manipulation, deliberate or not, is almost completely absent.
This can be true because of the simple fact that is nothing to manipulate when you disclose, in such direct manners, the reality from within a domain which is so badly affected and with a very negative dimension so obvious for everyone. The set of media patterns described until this point is forming in the same time the way in which contemporary Romanian public is perceiving the situation from within national educational system.
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Basically these patterns, regardless of their some rudimentary features in terms of public communication and media tools, have, as we seen, the power to deliver a true content, a one which speaks without doubts about the real status of the educational system from the country. We ask ourselves if the media should have something to add in order to send a more realistic message to the public. We do not talk here about the possibility of a sort of media intervention in order to help improving the status from within contemporary Romanian system of education. We just. Media and its Responsibilities — Should be the Media more Responsible?
We do not intend here to open a debate, more or less general, upon the possible role of the media in society or about its crucial role in social and economic development and so on. However, we consider that in vulnerable societies such is today the Romanian society media must play a more significant role not only in informing the people in a professional and correct manner but also in forming them for a society built with responsible citizens. Even if the debate is more complicated than is possible within a limited theoretical analysis such is this study we can, however, indicate some elements which, in our perspective, could be improved by the Romanian media in its daily work on informing and forming the public perception on current status from the national education.
And maybe the most important of these elements could be will for a more professional and deeper analysis about the topic of national education. This should be done because in the vast majority of the cases the media releases about the issue of education depict an approach which is, as we already seen, a relatively rudimentary.
The cases selected by the media to be presented to the public are treated in a simplistic manner. This state of facts does not help the general public and does not offer a set of proper tools which finally would help the public to better understand the whole subject. On the other hand, there are indeed some media platforms, within the online environment, which offers, for a superior category of public, elaborated and very well developed analysis about the topic but we have to be aware that these sites are not designed for the general public.
Thus, these platforms could not help at all and could not determine a proper and correct perception about the real status from contemporary Romanian national educational system. Even if those rudimentary patterns have indeed the power to depict, as we seen, the whole amplitude of the issue, they are fail to described it in deeper and reasonable manner for the general public. Another element which could indeed help and could determine better performances from the media about the way in which speaks about the national education is to have specialized journalists about this topic.
They are in some cases available but yet, in our perspective, the effects of their work are not too palpable until now at the level of general Romanian contemporary public opinion. And, finally, it would help if some leading and prominent figures from the field of reforming the educational system will be more present in media releases with consistent perspectives about the topic.
We have here in mind especially specialists from the West, from countries with performant educational systems and with a more developed media not only in this field but in general. Of course, these specialists will not be necessarily available for the entire segment of the general public but at least they will be able to significantly improve the level of debate from some already available media spaces from contemporary Romania.
Anyway, in some cases they could be able to expand the general audience and to make it more receptive to the subject. These possibilities could, of course, only indirectly be able to determine any improvement in the national educational system, at least by creating a better. This may be seen as a small step but on a long time this type of evolution bring the contemporary Romanian media to a point from which it will be able to have a significant role to play in improving the status of the national education.
Plagiarism as a Tradition This topic could have only an indirect linked to the main element of our theme but, however, we consider that it has its relevance within the entire discussion. The main issue here is if it is possible to identify some general features within a collectivity which can explain some social patterns of behavior on long periods of time? Even if we do not consider that some general characteristics of any society could be anytime directly determined by some unhistorical and universal more general features and conditions yet a discussion about this subject could be realistically developed.
This is true, as we can see, at least from a historical point of view. Within the contemporary Romanian cultural space a discussion like this was made recently even it was not extensively disseminated and analyzed. Etudes de traductologie; coord. E-mail: mtenchea yahoo. A graduate of Foreign Languages and Literature Faculty and of various programs in foreign language teaching, she developed different textbooks for developing vocabulary, acquiring grammar, language courses, writing for the faculty of Letters Spiru Haret University and the Centre for Multicultural and Interlinguistic Studies.
E-mail: ambarbu yahoo. His current research focuses on rhetoric, communication, and philosophy. In , he published Wittgenstein and the private language. From the philosophical confusions to the communication. E-mail: cosmin. He has worked as a professional photojournalist and was a visiting journalist and visiting researcher at New York University, USA. He had a previous significant experience in project management focused on media and diversity while at Roma Resource Center from Cluj. E-mail: beuran fspac. She teaches courses related to linguistics, teaching methodology and second language acquisition at the undergraduate and postgraduate studies.
Her fields of interest are applied linguistics, contrastive linguistics, sociolinguistics, ELT, ESP, and sports language. E-mail: vvalentinab yahoo. A graduate of Foreign Languages and Literature Faculty and of various programs in communication, special education, computer-assisted language learning programs he developed different textbooks for. Her expertise includes communication studies, applied linguistics and discourse analysis.
She is the author of a reportage book Souvenirs. Her interests lie in researching the bulimia of information, a concept she is trying to coin for communication and social sciences. She already conferenced on informational bulimia in respect to breaking news on Romanian TV and to online news. E-mail: stefana. She is a lecturer at this university, at the Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, where she teaches English as a foreign language and Business English.
Her research focuses on terminology, translation techniques, discourse analysis, teaching methodology, cross-cultural communication, sustainable progress culture and marketing. She has co-authored two books on communication and organisational culture and has published several scientific articles in Romania and abroad. E-mail: sanda. Her research focus is placed in the field of English for Science and Technology with the accent on the needs of Information Technology students and specialists. She also has an interest in qualitative methods research, especially Grounded Theory methods.
E-mail: tdabic sinergija. Her main research interests are lexicology, phraseology, cognitive semantics, and communication sciences. She has authored Antonimia. E-mail: danielagheltofan yahoo. She currently teaches Terminology, English Morphology, Semantics and translation. She is also interested in English literature for children and in fantasy. Her teaching interests also include teaching English to adults especially in specialized domains such as Business, Economics and Law and testing.
E-mail: teoghivi yahoo. His research on intersemiotic translations tries to discover the coherence of meaning in the advertising discourses. He is also an associate lecturer at the Faculty of Letters within the same university. His main areas of interest and practice are advertising and digital communication. He started publishing articles on mass media and advertising recently. E-mail: kohndaniela gmail. She completed her doctoral studies with a thesis entitled Body Conundrums and Pleasuring Strategies in the Postmodern Novel at the University of the West. Her main areas of interest reside in the field of translation and interpretation.
E-mail: andrea. Her research interests cover areas like didactics, LSP, cross-cultural communication. E-mail: anca. He delivered courses in television journalism, following his forty years experience as a reporter and foreign correspondent of the Public television in Romania and ten years of contributing to the CNN World Report.
He also read international relations after when he got his doctorate in this domain. He contributed regularly to the Annual International Conference of Journalism and to several professional meetings and publications. He wrote 2 books on international relations, a book on television journalism and a study on the effects of maritime piracy over Romanian sailors. E-mail: nicolaemelinescu yahoo. His PhD thesis is focused on the development of the multimedia applications.
He is interested in the research of multimedia data bases, audio and video production, interactive multimedia applications, and e-learning. E-mail: muguras. With a Ph. He has an extended experience into the sociological research with over 30 studies, projects and researches and with over 45 published output as books, chapters and articles in scientific journals. E-mail: bogdan. She has an extended experience into the sociological and anthropological research with over 40 published output as books, chapters and articles in scientific journals.
E-mail: delia. She has professional experience in media relations since she has worked as spokesperson of the University for six years and she currently coordinates the English Journalism BA Program from the University. E-mail: cristina. She graduated Magna cum laude a Doctorate of Letters in Her fields of research include French for Specific Purposes, translation studies, romance linguistics, intercultural communication, ICTs.
E-mail: elenapetrea uaiasi. Her domains of expertise are English lexicology, applied and cognitive linguistics and translation studies. She is also co-editor of BAS. British and American Studies and Translations, both yearly journals governed by the Department of Foreign Languages at the university where she teaches. She has published articles in her areas of research both in Romania and abroad. E-mail: loredana. He authored Deutscher Film, finnischer vermarktet , Filmvergleich im Unterricht and published several short stories and novels.
E-mail: dieter. She gives courses in German and English for medical purposes. Her main research interests are: translation theory and practice, general medical terminology in Romanian, German and English, terminology in the field of psychiatry, didactics of medical vocabulary, phonology and phonetics of English and German language. E-mail: patricia. It analyses the institutional communication on basis of an original and interdisciplinary analytical model which has elements of discourse analysis, pragmatic linguistics, sociology and psychology.
E-mail: laviniamsuciu yahoo. She is currently working in this university as a lecturer at the Department of Slavic Languages of the Faculty of Letters, History and Theology, teaching specialized courses of phraseology and theory and practice of translation. She published 2 books on the field of phraseology and a course-book in the field of translation studies. E-mail: mtaran75 yahoo. She focuses her researches on the political discourse analysis and campaign strategies. Her publications concern the field of political communication, political marketing and different other themes regarding political sciences.
E-mail: tirlea fspac. However, her publishing materials approach several current topic of interest in the area of political science and communication. E- mail: voina fspac. The inner structure of news production has changed in terms of gathering, processing and disseminating novelties and in the way in which the public evaluated the shifts in media planning biased towards commercialization and entertainment.
Introduction The portmanteau word infotainment and its offspring, infotainer, were first quoted in during the Conference of the Institute of Information Scientists and Library Associations with a disparaging connotation it has carried ever since. The popularity of the word expanded during the process of television formats diversification, encouraged by digitalization and global communication, carrying a disapproving meaning.
Its richer meaning soon challenged researchers and practitioners to find a nickname for it. The main issue Supermarket tabloids saved the day for infotainment because they represented the lowest journalistic standards in any media market from the very beginning. Compared to their cheap performance, infotainment could pass as hard news, although criticism stuck to its products, nonetheless. Sometimes, infotainment invaded quite a few of the most sophisticated news departments for rating reasons.
When the pop star Janet Jackson exposed willingly or by accident part of her intimate anatomy during a show in even the sober CNN ran the story before a report on a chemical attack against a US senator. Obviously, there is a price to pay for such sideslips, especially in cases of media coverage of political games and players. More often than not, citizens may become.
Further research of the Romanian media will argue whether such a conclusion applies to them, as well. However, the required distinction between the two trends saved the day for both approaches. Infotainment kept the mainstream media from an erosion of professional journalism, while tabloidization represented a diversification of the market and answered public expectations at different levels, into distinctive formats. Anyhow, such developments go up and down following the public, which is not reacting to communication stunts only. What matters are the cultural level and the values individuals share in sifting and comprehending the information fed by the media.
Researchers concluded that a more literate and educated audience can assimilate and evaluate diverse sources of messages on the way of making their own judgments, useful and beneficial only in an inclusive and interactive governing system, truly democratic, not in a hypocrites whitewash. Television and print media on paper or on screen made the difference between infotainment and tabloids, and each of them adopted its own grammar and developed its own style.
This interchange of ways and means helped infotainment to introduce hard news issues to a reluctant section of the public, more comfortable with novelties that did not upset common people already busy with solving current personal matters — employment, health, education. They failed in their claims of purity of form, of decency at all costs when the roller-coaster started to crash over most of the news departments during the late s.
Infotainment was conquering audiences and producers in Romania and in the entire world. Several appalled die-hards argued that entertainment was suffocating the information flow and the educational factor that should have been imbedded to all media messages. Libertines upholding more articulate and innovative views replied quite cunningly that infotainment is a mere shortcut to the introduction of novelties from politics, economics and public affairs, sugarcoated into a more palatable product.
Media communicators attracted severely by the miracle of picture processing more convincing in its final product, and a lot easier to broadcast through the web discovered this new type of getting to know and be known by a larger though unpredictable and unsteady audience, once news packages are no longer the bleak doomsday-predictions of the Walter Cronkite-manner.
Their journalists and video editors made news packages circulate around the globe with the speed of light in a format accessible to different areas of different cultures. Interactive communication has been the core of an unprecedented process of transforming message producers into message users almost instantaneously, and the other way round. Such a trend has left some wound marks and a slight reluctance of the public in its approach to communicators mushrooming from inside social networks, from the PR industry of the great corporations and from among adventurous netizens.
Sydney Callahan added that the media must not only report news stories with utmost accuracy. They must also draw a clear-cut distinction between fact and fiction, between news and opinion. The media should set in motion a turntable of views and opinions, which journalists may not accept. Within this framework, Ted J. Smith concluded that media is responsible for the perception and the meanings the public attaches to the values a certain society shares.
Media providers must contribute to the transfer of cultural traditions from one generation to the next. They may also consolidate generally accepted virtues and norms [Smith IIId , ]. Such an approach would defend the news industry from criticism coming from puritans eager to contain journalism within rigid, professional guidelines.
Obviously, education may be. Unfortunately, not all young people have an equal access to the best schools and the most performing universities. Not all of them are born and raised with a digital tablet or phablet on the night table. Families do not have the same background, the same life experience and the same moral values.
Infotainment and its stepbrother, the tabloid, hinge on popularity. They develop a sort of celebrity culture and their appeal to the public, which cannot be overlooked anymore, generated a new television format stemming from the print media: the current affairs magazine. In television production, this is a sort of news programme dotted with different audio-visual products like news packages, interviews and features covering novelties or bordering them in terms of time sequence.
Journalistic habits and styles differ from one TV channel to the next. The Romanian public television adopted such an approach, given its status of a generalist station, assigned by the law to address the interests of as many social groups as possible, and to inform, educate and entertain its audience in a balanced and decent way. Commercial channels that mushroomed in Romania after quickly adopted the idea of such news magazines on current affairs and entertainment. They soon abandoned it and moved on to so-called talk shows, which unfortunately turned into collections of politically biased talking heads.
Once more, the Romanian public television was the first to broadcast an 8 hours live programme during the U. Presidential elections in Such a news marathon enjoyed a tremendous success, which was doubled in , during the following U. Presidential elections. Commercial stations are free from specific legal constraints in Romania. All they must do is to fit into the general provisions regulating the media environment, as a whole. First, because they do not fall under the provisions of a specific legal act, and secondly because they gyrate around higher audience ratings translated into big money from advertising.
Henceforth, the current affairs magazine-format has become even more appealing to them, as such stations cram together both real reporting of hard and soft news and some political gossip, projections and commercial promotions. Popularity has become a very treacherous temptation, ebbing unexpectedly because it includes representations of people.
In most cases, reason is overcome by emotional reactions, by likes and dislikes. No matter how perceptive producers may be, sometimes they are taken aback by the way programmes influence popularity rates among the public. Ultimately, emotion proved to be a journalistic engine setting in. Infotainment played the affect and sensation card in order to capture and preserve a larger audience. At this point, two basic concepts support each other, up to a certain point, to divorce each other irreversibly in the end.
A very noble edict, which has been the bright North Star, followed by most of those truly dedicated to media communications, irrespective of the selected medium. Finding and especially reporting the truth is a tremendous task and the success in the attempt to get to the core of events is never certain, while the risk of failure is always there.
For the very good reason that no matter how a dedicated journalist is to the cause of truth, he or she is a human being, living between reason and emotion. Even the most strenuous efforts to let the former prevail and to suppress the latter, or the other way round, they will both exist at different degrees.
True enough! What is naughty? Hard to tell, but both the mainstream media and infotainment open promising options. First, to discard any attempt of naughtiness and stick to serious news. Second, to leave the topic in the care of tabloids feasting on sensational scoops. And thirdly, to allow infotainment to sugarcoat the story, make it newsworthy, yet keeping its distance from the Page 3 style. A compromise of the three may bring into the public space an exciting story mere by hint and not by description.
Balancing the scales between reason and emotion would have been easy sometime ago when most media outlets dailies in the first place managed very faithful sequences from the public. Digital platforms, the TV remote control, zapping have all brought a new consumption mobility for young and old, for Romanians, Argentinians, South Africans or Vietnamese. An American researcher concluded wisely that sticking to the middle of the road in the case of infotainment versus tabloidization is more than difficult but also for any form of communication.
The very changes not only at different levels of society but also inside the communication industry itself generated a new process of inquiring, of research and prodding that has pushed things to the limit. In an economy of staff [objects, n. The arts and letters, however vital we all agree them to be, are peripheral. However, in an attention economy the two change places.
Both arts and letters are parts of the communication process and journalism has borrowed from each of them to the benefit of its best productions. Arts yielded emotions; letters lent style, language and meanings. Together, they promoted journalism to the centre stage. Since journalism is an island within the popular culture- flux, it is essential to detect the direction it is heading to, and to evaluate its contribution and its limits in disseminating reason and knowledge.
Emotion will follow, anyway! The effect is that commercialized products, with an emphasis on out-of-the-ordinary, have surrounded political news packages and reports, usually keeping the front page. Obviously, taxpayers would only be too happy to jump onto the bandwagon because it may bring them closer to an inclusive and interactive governance system.
Politicians, on their part, will hurt because they live in the spotlight, they love the show and they do not accept easily to be sidelined especially when they sponsor popular media outlets directly or via political parties and organizations. Losing control and the front seat in the theatre is a bitter pill to swallow by public figures who act in and for the public attention.
A major concern in the analysis of infotainment is that of its significance. It definitely brought along changes of perspective and approach in journalism, encouraged tremendously by the social nonprofessional media. From this point of view, infotainment may be regarded as an updating process of communication that some researchers identify with modernization of the industry [Daniel Hallin and Paolo Mancini , ].
Infotainment has been growing constantly and it blurred sometimes the line in the sand that isolated news from entertainment, from the PR industry and from the advertizing machinery.
The inner mechanisms of news production have changed in terms of gathering, processing and disseminating novelties and in the way in which the public evaluated the shifts in media planning biased towards commercialization and entertainment. There are three reasons for this segregation. First, the news value follows a sort of downgrading as the daily news programme unfolds. As one goes through the run- down, one would navigate further among human-interest stories and the thrill dies out to the last news package in the programme that bears little interest for politicians, if not for the public.
Second, a number of current affairs programmes do not focus on political news as such. For the sake of popularity and audience ratings, they employ a rather detached journalistic approach where politics is not a professional beacon. Soft news and entertainment come to the further end of the springboard to meet the expectations of a public favourable to good news. Investigative journalism should cover those stories, but that is a tedious, costly and risky side of the profession.
Whenever this sort of journalistic work comes up with sensational scoops, they have been jump-started by unilateral interests of one political group intent to reveal the wrongdoings of its rivals. This is exactly where infotainment. Most viewers watch hard news, serious news as a shift of gear in the information exercise. Researchers found it difficult to establish which of the two takes the first place. Therefore, such a strict hierarchy could prove irrelevant as long as the alternation of hard news and infotainment proves that the public has accepted the newcomer infotainment and remains also attached to well-set patterns of serious news reporting on basic matters of social and individual interests.
References 1. Barnett, S. Grubber, , Westminster tales: The twenty first century crisis in political journalism, London, Continuum 2. Deuze, Mark, , Popular journalism and professional ideology: tabloid reporters and editors speak out, Media, Culture and Society, Vol. Lanham, Richard A. Lumby, Catherine, , Gotcha! Peterson, Thomas E. Prior, Marcus, , Post-Broadcast Democracy. Smith, Ted J. In the present paper, we aim to weigh the impact of the campaign which was carried out on Facebook on the runoff voting days, on the election results. By using the content analysis method, we are going to assess the voting dealignment generated by the first web 2.
Keywords: new media, campaign, president, Facebook, citizen journalism. Introduction The presidential campaign carried out between candidates Victor Ponta and Klaus Iohannis can be considered the first new media political campaign, as it was the first political instance in which new media was used as a campaign tool in a strategic effort. His victory was clearly the result of what happened on the social media platform known as Facebook during the two weeks after the first voting round.
Not only did his staff make use of a proper context given by the Diaspora unfortunate polling station situation, but the Facebook audience highly contributed to this victory by generating a voting dealignment, turning the runner-up into the winner of the electoral race. Iohannis is one of the most visible politicians in social media, as he is the only European politician with over 1,5 million likes on Facebook Reportervirtual Moreover, it is probably the first time that civic engagement achieves such results in Romania, due to the citizen camera-witnessing phenomenon.
Protests following the Diaspora incidents manage to create high international visibility, turning over the expected results of the presidential campaign. Theoretical framework 2. New media in politics New media appears to be one of the most common tools for advertising. We assume that new media is a cheap, very easy and very popular tool, that engages more and more people, creating a strong network between cultures and areas of interest. The affirmation can be extended to a political level as well, as the electorate can contribute by adding valuable information on the social media that can be taken into consideration by other groups.
As stated before, the traditional media is being replaced, nowadays, by the new media. This trend is becoming popular all around the world and new media is being used in many domains. President Obama and his team used new media for embracing young voters, resulted in fundamental changes in the American political landscape Alexandrova Not only the American political spectrum was changed, but also the international political campaigning strategies were reconsidered.
Obama was the Mac, of course: youthful, creative, nimble, forward-looking, and sleekly stylish; Clinton was the PC - massive, corporate, sitting atop a huge pile of capital. As McLuhan noted, new media can change profoundly the way in which content is consumed and perceived. Suminas Moreover, it is much easier to have different approaches to different kind of publics, by using social media. This can result in many benefits, for both political actors and the electorate. New media counts not only as a form of transmitting information, but as a form of creating content.
Citizen camera-witnessing In the midst of the uprising trend of using new technologies, reporting events can be thought as one of the areas in which we witness some of the most significant changes. The impact of sharing experiences through amateur pictures and videos has been carried onto the organizations in charge of reporting news, enhancing the visibility and coverage of events — especially crises events — on an international level.
Recent events, such as the — uprising of the Ukrainian citizens against the Yanukovych regime — known as EuroMaidan —, have contributed to the ascension of Facebook, as a social media platform used in order to convert the global community into a witness to the Ukrainian revolution through photos and video streaming. What is more, Facebook was used by the citizens on EuroMaidan as a means of generating debate and gathering support for a new government.
This is, of course, the case of high-risk political events, yet there are others which did not present such risks, but did create international awareness and solidarity. Thus, the mobile camera phone becomes a portable extension of the self, as it documents the experience of its owner, either as the subject, or the witness to a political crisis event. Moreover, the device gives its owner some sort of networking power, as it generates an impact on the social media platform delivering the message to the public and might facilitate contact with other people undergoing the same or similar experiences or with the journalists in charge of reporting the events.
However, the device providing amateur witness materials might have the power to bypass certain established editorial and censorial filters, as it shows situations as they are documented on the spot. Citizen camera-witnessing during the presidential elections in Romania An in-house crisis which rooted in the diaspora voting process became an international crisis event, placing Romania on the map of citizen political journalism.
The situation arose on the first round of the presidential elections, held on November 2nd, , when what was considered to be a monotonous, bland political campaign generated a social movement both in the country and abroad. Thus, many Romanian citizens from abroad did not manage to cast their votes. Among the issues leading to protests, documented by the Romanian citizens from abroad and posted on Facebook through pictures and videos accompanied by. All these issues circulated on Facebook, engaging Romanians from all over the world in protests, in the two following weeks.
The situation did not improve by the time of the second voting round, which resulted in a vote dealignment phenomenon: parts of the partisan electorate turned into independent electorate, heavily impacting on the final vote results. Methodology Taking into consideration the impact of new media in the Romanian presidential campaign in , we consider the content analysis the most suitable research method for this study. The period of time to be analysed is 3. According to the national televisions, this period was a much tensioned one and the political activity on social media was on a high pitch note.
The contagion effect was one of the consequences of this tensioned period. In order to see the impact of this phenomenon, we came with an analysis grid, that tries to emphasize the great effect new media has nowadays. The content analysis is meant to outline the main characteristics of video materials, pictures, documents, articles, etc. Thus, in our case, the analysis focuses on Facebook posts, comments, likes, shares, videos and pictures attached to a post.
Taking all this into consideration, we are going to see the effect of social media in the Romanian political campaigns and their importance in winning or losing the elections. Analysis grid 3. The Facebook president — an analysis After the first voting round, the problems with Romanian Diaspora aroused. This was the begging of a series of protests and intense debates.
As the Romanians that live outside the country were not able to vote because of the poor management of the organizing team, the fury of the people emerged, transforming Romania in a protest zone that was to be called a conflict between generations Mediafax , as the youngsters were those who supported Iohannis and the elders were going to vote for. As Ponta and his team were in charge of organizing the elections, everybody considered this to be an attempt of defraud of the elections or preventing the Diaspora from voting. The post gathered likes, shares and the trend of the post was positive for Iohannis, but against his main opponent, Victor Ponta.
This post had many comments, as the situation outside the borders seemed to be critical. This photo was an electoral poster that presented Iohannis as the candidate of the right wing. This post gathered like and shares. Not to mention the fact that the trend of the comments was positive for Iohannis and of course, negative for Ponta. On November 5th, there was no post from the campaign staff. The next day, on November 6th, the staff posted a video of Iohannis that would encourage the population to go vote on the next voting round.
The video has a length of minutes and it gathered like and shares. The video emphasizes the position of the right wing toward the scandal regarding the voting situation in the Diaspora. He encourages people to fight for their voting rights and to put pressure on the Government and Victor Ponta to solve the problem with the voting situation outside the country. On a more realistic note, we have to appreciate the trend of the post as being positive for the actual president and against his opponent, the current prime-minister, Victor Ponta.
The social media fans of Iohannis posted comments declared their support for the candidate and most of them approved his message. They posted comments against Ponta and the top comment was posted by a Romanian lady who lived in UK and declared that she will travel for 3 and a half hours to the polling station. Also, she expressed her with that on the 16th of November we will all celebrate his victory.
This video was a very popular post for Iohannis and it engaged lots of users that commented, shared and likes the post. Moreover, they started real debated related to the post and expressed their true wish of having the candidate as the next Romanian president. On the 7th of November the candidate had 5 posts. The first would be news about independent observes for the elections, an original article from romaniacurata. The Central Electoral Bureau, the Romanian institution in charge with the election was not approving the new observers for the second voting round and Iohannis would blame it on the Government and the prime-minister Victor Ponta.
The most relevant comment was posted by a woman that would say that Iohannis is the first man in the post-revolutionary Romanian history that does not want the parliamentary immunity. The second post from the 7th of November presents a campaign video were Iohannis presents himself as the prosper mayor of Sibiu and a prosper president to be. It gathered likes, shares.