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Gorillas by Patricia Brennan Demuth | avijihybihyl.ga: Books
Mirror By: Jeannie Baker. Museum Trip By: Barbara Lehman. Noah's Ark By: Peter Spier. Pancakes for Breakfast By: Tomie dePaola. Rain By: Peter Spier. Rainstorm By: Barbara Lehman. Red Sled By: Lita Judge. Sector 7 By: David Wiesner. The Snowman By: Raymond Briggs. Time Flies By: Eric Rohmann. Tuesday By: David Wiesner. Wave By: Suzy Lee. Where's Walrus? By: Stephen Savage. Wolf in the Snow By: Matthew Cordell. New and Popular. Social Communication Growth Charts. Fluency Norms Chart Update. Get Widgets. Pattern of strata use was as follows Fig. The first two axis of the reference structure of the MCOA, which determine the pattern of behavioural ecology of the study group, absorbed respectively Square cosines cos 2 , square covariance cov 2 and RV coefficients are presented in Table 2.
Values of cos 2 for the two first axes of the reference structure were high and homogeneous; hence the angles between the factorial axes of the PCA performed on the three ecological tables and the factorial axis of the reference structure were low. Subsequently, the ecological tables and the reference structure strongly matched. Because the sum of the values of cov 2 , as pseudo-eigenvalues, were similar for each table ranging from 0. As well, the three time periods were well exhibited by the projection of the months, the first axis separating months mainly according to both DC and AB, and the second axis according to PSU Fig.
In 5a, the variables of the diet composition table are in green, variables of the activity-budget table are in red and variables of the pattern of strata use table are in blue. The two first axis of the reference structure result from the simultaneous analysis of the three ecological tables and thus represents the habitat and resources use by the group.
Unspecified behaviours are these that could not be described because of unclear visibility. RV coefficients tested by permutation N. Meanwhile, gorillas strongly interacted with each other The gorillas spent most of their time on the ground The time allocated to play was the highest All not significant tests are noted "ns"; all others are significant.
Period 2, from April to August, was notably characterized by a larger amount of time feeding on fruits of Dialium sp. Feeding and foraging time increased from period 1, from Compared to period 1 During this period 2, unspecified behaviours i. During period 3, feeding time was the highest Foraging time in period 3 was not significantly different than in period 1 and period 2. Conversely the proportion of social interactions between gorillas was the lowest 2.
Social play counted for only 1. Food consumed mainly consisted of leaves In each period, stems and piths including these of Aframomum sp. Feces were eaten during periods 1 and 2. In summary, period 1 was mainly characterized by the high amount of succulent fruits in the diet and by the high frequency of play behaviours and social interactions. Period 2 was primarily characterized by the use of the higher three stratum predominately for the consumption of Dialium sp.
Period 3 was characterized by the highly foliviorous diet, by important feeding times and conversely by the low frequency of both play behaviours and social interactions. Throughout our study, stretching from February to October , the diet shifted from frugivorous to folivorous. In period 1 February-March , which covered the minor dry season that is characterized by a high abundance of succulent fruits in the forest [ 44 , 62 ], succulent fruit intake was indeed higher than in periods 2 and 3 Table 3.
Fruit intake subsequently decreased continuously, conversely to the proportion of leaves. At the end of the major dry season August, period 2 , characterized by low availability of fruit species [ 43 , 62 ], fruit intake became dramatically low, while bark intake increased. By contrast, the proportion of stem and pith eaten by the focal group remained rather stable throughout the study. Interestingly, in period 2 March-August , the consumption of Dialium sp. Accordingly, the pattern of strata use changed, and the group spent more time above 20 meters up to 40 meters , because Dialium sp.
Although at this high stratum the visibility was unclear due to the dense undergrowth, therefore resulting in behaviours being unspecified about half the time, the behavioural data successfully collected showed higher proportion of feeding, especially on Dialium fruits data available on request , similarly to wild counterparts [ 40 ]. Play behaviours accounted for a large part of the entire between-gorillas social interactions The graphical representation of the procrustean analysis revealed that all play behaviours i.
Proportions of total play and between-gorillas play both decreased through months and were positively correlated to the proportion of social interactions but negatively to feeding proportion, negatively correlated to the proportion of leaves eaten including G.
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On the contrary, they were positively correlated with the proportion of succulent fruits eaten All significant Spearman's rho tests are presented in table 4. February and March are the only two months with positive values on the first axis and the two with the highest proportion of play behaviours in activity-budget. Through the study, the frequency of play interactions among the group decreased. The Sidak test then showed that the mean difference during the period of high frugivory period 1 was significantly higher, therefore the group was more socially cohesive than during the period of high folivory period 3 , when play interactions occurred sporadically after Bumbi died.
As a result, the social networks of play interactions enlarged i. In period of Dialium fruits consumption period 2 , the frequency of play interactions decreased but not significantly. Regarding the social networks of close proximity with the nearest neighbour Fig.
Additionally, both also appear frequently as the nearest neighbour of the three other captive-born orphans. The social networks are scaled for comparisons between periods. Scales of a and b are not comparable. Period 1 of high frugivory and play comprises February and March, period 2 of Dialium fruits consumption stretches from April to August and period 3 of high folivory comprises September and October The eigenvector centrality scores of network positions [ 63 ] evcent were calculated and only given as descriptive statistics, more central individuals i.
Diet composition, activity-budget and pattern of strata use were the three ecological tables investigated to distinguish three ecologically homogeneous periods: high frugivory period, Dialium fruits consumption period and high folivory period. The consequences of these variations on the play behaviour used as proxy of well-being and the sociality cohesion of the group and relationships between individuals of the orphans in rehabilitation were examined.
The shift from a highly frugivorous to a folivorous diet during periods of fruit scarcity is in accordance with previous reports on wild WLGs [ 32 , 64 — 68 ]. First, wild WLGs also increase their bark consumption, especially of the family Apocynaceae [ 35 , 37 , 65 ], in the same period of fruit scarcity; second, they also consume large amounts of terrestrial herbaceous vegetation all year long, such as Commelinaceae, Marantaceae or Zingiberaceae piths that represent their staples foods [ 35 , 36 , 69 ]; third, Dialium sp.
Interestingly, the group also consumed the same ant species as wild gorillas [ 70 ]. Therefore, the diet composition and variation of the group was similar to that of wild WLGs whereas they were not taught by humans what to feed on. Individuals may have benefited from the experience of each other, especially from wild-borns, but they may also have learnt spontaneously by tasting. The part of trial and error innovation and social transmission of knowledge, though of interest [ 71 ], has not been evaluated here.
Furthermore, the more the group fed on succulent fruits, the less they allocated time for feeding, and the more time they spent in social interactions, essentially consisting of play. In wild juvenile primates, consumption of large amounts of succulent fruits is also associated with short feeding time and, conversely, longer social play time, probably because high-energy fruits tend to increase excitement and stimulate all forms of social behaviour, especially play gelada baboons Theropithecus gelada : [ 72 ]; WLGs: [ 32 ].
Additionally, the procrustean analysis showed that high fruit intake was not only associated with high levels of social play but with all forms of play behaviour. This finding reinforces the previous assumption that sugary fruits stimulate young gorillas to play together or alone, strengthening their social link and their well-being [ 73 — 75 ]. The social networks pictured this observation, since, in period of high frugivory and play period 1 , individuals were highly associated close proximity network analysis and often interacted together social play network.
On the contrary, during the period of Dialium fruits consumption period 2 and even more during the folivory period period 3 , the frequency of play behaviours dramatically decreased and the structure of the group became less cohesive lower spatial proximity, less interactions.
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This finding of lower cohesion among group members during the low fruit season is contrary to wild WLG findings [ 32 ]. In the wild however, the group cohesion is lower during frugivory period because the group spread to gather more dispersed food resources [ 34 ]. Because of human influence on gorillas displacements from patch to patch, both resting and travel times, which remain rather stable, are not discussed. In the wild, high frugivory would be associated with an increase in travel time in WLG [ 32 , 68 ].
This difference may be explained by the fact that the study group were fed three times a day with milk, so that their energetic requirements from natural foods may also be lower. The absence of adults in the group may have stimulated the older immatures to behave more like adults, which resulted in less playful interactions.
This point, however, needs further investigation. The pattern of strata use of our study group underlined their terrestriality. As humans stay on the ground, this result has to be taken with caution. In the wild, WLGs change their activity patterns in response to changes in the diet [ 32 ]. Similarly, in our case, when Dialium sp. Ecologically speaking, the rehabilitation process appears to be successful, the orphans using their environment and interacting socially in a similar way to wild gorillas, but the influence of humans in their activity-budget remains high.
This influence is however necessary to have better control on young individuals, to provide better protection to them and to slowly stimulate them to become less dependent on humans. The period 3 September-October: period of folivory was particular in many ways and the interpretation of our observations raises some issues.
One individual Bumbi died after being attacked by a wild chimpanzee. After this incident, individuals were poorly associated and rarely interacted, causing a reduction in the group cohesion. It is not possible to detect the respective role of each phenomenon but the shift toward a folivorous diet together with Bumbi's disappearance appeared to have directly affected the group dynamics and activity pattern. All individuals witnessed the aggression of the adult male chimpanzee, which happened in tree and lasted for a few hours until Bumbi let herself fall from a branch to escape.
The aggression consisted of violent smashing on trunk, then on biting and hitting, which was a highly stressful event for all others. After Bumbi stopped defending herself and vocalizing, the chimpanzee rested near her, sometimes hitting or biting her again. Her fingers and ears were deeply cut, her abdomen was opened. During the aggression, the rest of the group was grouped around the caretakers, who tried to intervene and intimidate the chimpanzee, however they were not successful. To reduce the stress, two caretakers moved with the gorillas to another area, while two others tried to get Bumbi back.
This might be the only case on record of a chimpanzee attacking and killing a gorilla in a wild context. However, it stresses the need to precisely estimate the local chimpanzee population size and the subsequent risk to introduce gorilla orphans into chimpanzee territories, peripheral or core. But the reasons why Bumbi's disappearance has reduced the group cohesion might be explained in a number of different manners. There, the gorillas may have found the need to discover and accommodate a new environment stressful.
Second, the disappearance of an individual Bumbi decreased the different possibilities of interactions and associations. Fourth, as playing frequency varied a lot in wild gorillas according to age, older infants decrease their feeding while when becoming juveniles they increase it again, possibly explaining the observed variation. Fifth, being wild-born could have made her more socially skilled to maintain the group cohesion. Indeed, in period 2 period of Dialium fruits consumption , Bumbi became the most central individual, followed by Lekoko in both social networks, these two wild-borns formed the preferential dyad of social play interactions and were obviously highly central in the social network Fig.
Though not investigated here, individual variations in experience may be of crucial importance in such rehabilitation projects and identifying variations between individuals according to their age, sex and life history is important. In our case, it is likely that wild-born orphans were more experienced than captive-borns and therefore are more aware of what food to gather and that this knowledge was transmitted to others. Skilled individuals may also play an important role in maintaining the cohesion and well-being of the entire group.
Given their implications in ecology and evolution [ 76 — 78 ], individual variations in social competence, cognitive traits e. However, since many wild infant gorillas are captured each year [ 23 ], since they appear more suitable to be released into the wild and less susceptible to stress than captive-borns, and since human and financial resources are limited, top priority should be the rehabilitation of illegally captured wild-born infant gorillas and, in general, wild-born rescued animals.
We thank the Ministry of Water and Forests and the National Agency for National Parks of the government of Gabon, and The Aspinall Foundation of UK for their long-term commitment to and funding of the reintroduction and protected area management projects.
Good Morning, Gorillas
We are grateful to the reviewers, in particular Shelly Masi, for their very useful and appreciated comments, and to Valerie Durand-Hernandez for English editing. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. PLoS One. Published online Mar Thomas Boraud, Academic Editor. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.
Received May 21; Accepted Feb 2. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are properly credited. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Associated Data Supplementary Materials S1 Table: Non exhaustive list of the main vegetal species present within the three habitats composing the study area and parts eaten.
S2 Table: Ethogramm of the different behavioural units considered within every 6 activity categories. Abstract Rehabilitation of animals followed by reintroduction into the wild can benefit conservation by supplementing depleted wild populations or reintroducing a species in an area where it has been extirpated or become extinct.
Introduction For the past decades, loss and fragmentation of habitats, zoonotic diseases, poaching, ecological disaster, live animal trade and other human-related activities has led to the rapid decline of hundreds of species [ 1 ]. Open in a separate window. Fig 1. Location of the study site left and map area of the study group right. Bee Nature's Tiny Miracle. Moon Night-time Around the World. Dingo Nature Storybooks. Rebel Cats! Brave Tales of Feisty Felines. Under the Southern Cross. View Wishlist.
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