To date, editions have alternated between Edinburgh International Edinburgh , Edinburgh , Edinburgh and Gadda Giovani Milan , Montecassino , with the fifth edition, Harvard , held in the US as a special early career award sponsored by Tony Crolla and the Vittoria Group Edinburgh. Gadda Giovani is a national award open to Junior Citizens , and has so far taken place primarily but not exclusively in Italy, with pilots in Scotland, in , and international young people mobility programmes in Scotland and in Italy in and People , moments and places are the essence of our project.
Several extensive conference reports attest to research vitality in Italian studies and strong links between Italianists and colleagues in a variety of other disciplines. Inevitably, some of the events have passed in the period between submission and distribution, so we urge all event organizers to send details not only to Adalgisa, but also to Phil Cooke p.
Richardson leeds. It is intended, however, that a revised format for submissions and information retrieval be outlined at the forthcoming AGM. The question of submissions — or the lack of them — for regular features, such as the Staff List compiled by Simon Gilson and to be sent in the forthcoming mailing to all members and the Chronicle, has prompted us to include in this edition deadlines and recapiti, in the hope that individual members and departments will let us have all their relevant information in good time for Number 34 These deadlines will also be circulated in the November mailing.
My thanks go to everyone who has been involved in putting together this edition of the Bulletin: to the authors, who have waited patiently and responded promptly; to Adalgisa Giorgio, George Ferzoco, and Phil Cooke and Brian Richardson, who quietly make their enormous annual contributions; to Karen Mulcahy of the Italian Department UCC for administrative assistance; and, of course, to my co-editors, Penny Morris and Simon Gilson for all their hard work. I would also like to thank Katia Pizzi for agreeing to come on board for the next three years.
Finally, I have the pleasure of extending a very warm welcome to Olivia, who joined the editorial team on 14 August at 7lb 5oz. Congratulazioni a Penny e Antony! She was a keen hill-walker, reader, opera-goer and lover of cats, generous in her hospitality and a splendid exponent of Italian cooking. Francesca graduated in Italian and French at Reading University, where, in , she obtained her doctorate for a thesis on the theme of exile in the early novels of Cesare Pavese. Only a few years after nursing her husband, who died of cancer, she too was diagnosed with the disease in June Despite increasing suffering, she fought the disease for nearly a year, with a mixture of courage, strength and amazing good humour.
Sadly Francesca was to lose her battle, and died on 19 April , aged only She was due to be married to her partner Nigel the following day. This is based on a paper she gave to the SIS conference in Malta. As her colleagues, we will naturally keep her memory alive, but we would like to make a lasting tribute to her, which will benefit students of Italian for years to come. For this purpose we have started the Francesca Gibson Memorial Fund. Should the memorial fund not be sufficient for this, we would consider an alternative memorial, such as buying Italian books for the library, planting a tree or placing a bench on campus.
UBC Theses and Dissertations
Reforms of the organizational structure of the university system have, however, been few, limited in scope and rarely applied. In particular, the educational reforms introduced by education minister Ruberti had only limited effect and failed substantially to transform the system. The working party reported in October and the document was issued for consultation. The Martinotti report is in three parts: the first part explains the background to the reform proposals, the second lists the organizational principles according to which reform is to be undertaken, and the third advances a series of specific proposals for change.
A review of this report will provide an introduction to the issues which the government is seeking to address.
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The report cites as examples the misuse of the national appointments procedures, designed to ensure fairness and equality at a national level but subject to corporatist manipulation; or the system of freedom of access to universities, designed to provide equality of opportunity but resulting in massive imbalances and distortions in the student population.
The report argues that not everything is wrong with the system and that there have been local examples of innovation and renewal, and in any case, all university systems are facing similar pressures increasing numbers, declining resources and there are no universal solutions. The report also recognizes that there are other reforms under way which need to be taken into account, such as the reform of the secondary education system, the needs of post-school vocational education and training, and the continuing learning needs of the adult population at large.
The report does not propose a total redesign of the system, firstly because the system is too complex to tackle via legislation alone; secondly because interests are sufficiently well entrenched to be able to resist any attempt at innovation imposed by central government any proposals for reform being rejected on the grounds that they represent a lowering of quality ; and thirdly, because the process of autonomy which has already been set in motion has reduced the capacity to introduce reform from the centre.
The report therefore suggests a series of partial reforms, which are nevertheless linked and have clearly defined objectives and time frames for implementation, rather than an organic reform of the system as a whole. The second section of the Martinotti report outlines the organizational principles which are intended to inform the final proposals. The third section of the report details a number of specific proposals related to credit rating of courses, course structures, internal and external monitoring and evaluation, student support and guidance orientamento , cooperation and competition between institutions, links with other European systems, and the collection of data the analysis of which will form the basis for further development of the system.
Credit rating The credit rating of university courses was already provided for by law no. Martinotti also indicates that a credit accumulation system which is flexible enough to recognize learning carried out in professional and vocational contexts is an important constituent of lifelong learning. Course structures The award titles allowed by the Italian university system are the laurea undergraduate degree, usually four years long for most disciplines , the diploma universitario university diploma of two or three years duration and often with a more specific vocational orientation, sometimes referred to as the laurea breve and the dottorato or research degree.
These laws also allow for a two-year credits university certificate certificato universitario di base, c. The purpose behind the development of these new awards is at least in part to address the enormous wastage of the Italian university system. Sixty-five to seventy per cent of students who register for the first year subsequently fail to graduate and those who drop out are not entitled to any award or certificate.
Martinotti proposes that the certificate, diploma and degree should be designed to allow continuity and progression but also exit points at the lower levels and curricula should be designed to allow able and diligent students to complete their course within the specified period. In order to facilitate this, Martinotti suggests that the system should provide tutorial support for students so that they make appropriate choices among a variety of articulated curricular possibilities. In summary, the report suggests a first year of foundation studies, common to a broad curricular area, and forming the basis of study which could lead to either a diploma after one-two further years or to a degree after a further three years and with a further possible exit point after one year with a university certificate.
What is perhaps significant about this part of the report is that there is no discussion of the new qualifications which emerged post such as the university diploma. The qualification would become redundant if the curriculum ran in series with the existing proposed new degree structure, but the report does not address the issue of those diplomas which run in parallel with the degree, offering a more vocational orientation.
Courses should be described in terms of credits, 60 for each academic year or 30 for each semester, which may be accumulated at a slower rate by part-time students. Universities should also make provision for the recognition and accreditation of prior learning. The report also specifies that intermediate and final assessments should be organized in such a way that students are not required to do more than three in any semester.
Ministerial control over university courses is reduced to that of ensuring that a certain number of criteria are met. All of these reforms are to be introduced gradually over a two to four year period but during the transitional period a proportion of the resources allocated to the university sector will be held back and directed towards those universities which have already adopted the reforms. Additional resources will also be allocated to universities which develop ways of ensuring that without lowering standards courses are designed so that students can complete them within the prescribed duration.
This of course, begs the key question: how do you get students through the system within the prescribed period if they are not preselected and the school leaving exam is too easy? Martinotti is silent on this, though this is an issue on which the government was forced to take quick action see below. Monitoring and evaluation It is a fundamental principle of the law on university autonomy no. The report observes that some ninety percent of universities have evaluation procedures but that these are uneven and that overall the provisions for internal monitoring are unsatisfactory, especially in the areas of student satisfaction and the evaluation of the technical and administrative functions.
The report is vague about what internal evaluation procedures and processes should be in place, and also about how these should link with external monitoring, except to say that each university should agree a system with the ministry. The issue of external evaluation is not addressed either in the report or in the subsequent implementation instructions. Student support and guidance The report addresses a wide range of issues which relate to the support provided for students before, during and beyond their university studies orientamento including accurate and useful information to school pupils about alternative post-secondary educational opportunities, academic and personal tutorial support for students at university, general cultural and social awareness and citizenship, development of the student as an autonomous learner, and preparation for the world of work.
Cooperation and competition Martinotti affirms that if universities fully embrace the responsibilities and opportunities provided by institutional autonomy this can and must lead to both competitive differentiation and regional cooperation between universities. The thrust behind these proposals though this is not explicit in the report seems at least in part to be to try to address the problem of overcrowding in some universities: Italy has 46 public universities with a further thirty-five subsidiary colleges or sedi distaccate in other towns and 1. Employment trends should be monitored so that both overeducation and undereducation can be eliminated.
The occupations of students who drop out of the system should be monitored to identify gaps and further training needs. Non-university post-secondary training needs to be developed and should also include continuing vocational training needs and this should also include in-house company training schemes. It is instructive to examine the ways in which changes have been introduced. Credit rating The difficulties associated with the introduction of a credit-rating system are illustrated by the guidelines Nota di indirizzo sent by the ministry to the vice chancellors in June advising them on the implementation of the reforms.
One section of the circular advises on the implementation of the credit accumulation and transfer system. Universities are advised that 1 credit is to represent 30 hours of learning, and that one year of a course would equate to 60 credits and hours of learning. Simple arithmetic tells us that this requires Italian students to spend 36 hours per week for 50 weeks of the year or 60 hours a week for a more typical week academic year to accumulate the annual credit target.
Universities are further advised that in order to implement the credit system it is sufficient simply to allocate 60 credits per year to existing courses and to divide the total for the year by the number of subjects to be studied to derive the credit weighting of each subject.
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As the figures suggest, this cannot be achieved without first tackling the real problem, which is the apparent overload of the curriculum. The ministry identifies subject groupings macro-aree, of which there will be five: health; science and technology; humanities; law, economics and social science; and engineering and architecture , which will be the subject of further guidelines at a later date. This unfortunately provides precisely the loophole that universities have exploited in the past.
Universities will defend the academic content of their courses on the grounds that to reduce it would be inevitably to lower standards — and it would be a brave or foolhardy university that was the first to break ranks. The ministry has in fact already begun to modify its advice to universities on the credit-rating of courses. But even here, subject areas are allowed to vary this credit-rating by twenty percent. If the curriculum is already crowded and to reduce it would be to lower academic standards, this is an equally powerful argument to resist some of the other proposed curricular reforms the right of students to study electives from outside their main discipline of study, foreign language tuition and IT training for all students etc.
The universities are also reminded that the ministry is committed to announcing its decision on all curriculum reform proposals within sixty days. To this end, the universities have the power to set up any managerial or decision- making structures they see fit and are not constrained within traditional structures. It is difficult to see how this could be operationalized, however, given the highly democratic nature of the academic management structure — chairs of boards of studies, deans of faculties and vice-chancellors are all elected to their fixed term positions.
It would be impossible for elected officers to introduce the sort of managerial changes which are allowed under the law. The course structures finally agreed between the ministry and CRUI are a degree laurea — intended as the basic qualification for entry at a professional level on the labour market — and a specialized degree laurea specialistica — providing more advanced professional education.
Universities may also award diplomas of specialization diploma di specializzazione and credit Masters degrees, and research doctorates dottorato di ricerca.
The degree is three years in length credits , and may be followed by a specialized degree of a further credits. The diploma of specialization requires a further credits depending on the discipline after the degree. The existing two-year university diploma is to be credit-rated and the credits recognized towards the award of the degree. The university diploma and other experimental degree structures introduced between and are effectively discontinued.
The commentary on the implementation guidelines 8 makes it clear that specialist, post-secondary, higher courses are to be limited in future to courses specifically required by the application of Italian or EU law or regulations. Such provision is normally to be made via the post-degree specialization courses.
The thrust of these reforms appears to be to separate academic and vocational education in the post sector, leaving the universities to concentrate on the academic provision. The reform of post-secondary vocational training is the subject of further legislation and is outside the scope of this article.
Numero chiuso, numero aperto There has been considerable debate in Italy in recent years about the capping of student numbers in certain disciplines the so-called numero chiuso leading to the referral of the matter to the Constitutional Court in December The decision of the Court was that although it was legal for the government and the ministry to limit access to university places, it could only do so if there existed a legal framework which set out the criteria by which student numbers could be capped — but the government had failed to introduce the necessary legislation to define these criteria.
The ministry and not the individual universities, as was previously the case will set the number of places open on such courses numero aperto in relation to the ability of the sector to cope numbers of academic and support staff, available laboratory space and classrooms, etc. In determining the criteria, the minister explicitly rejected other criteria suggested by fellow ministers, such as the needs of the labour market for example for trained personnel in the health service. From now onwards, marks will be awarded out of instead of 60, with the pass mark set at Students who obtain 70 or above will be entitled to means-tested grants, subsidized university accommodation and fees exemptions.
Conclusion The objectives for the government, set out by under-secretary Guerzoni at a conference in Bologna in June , 13 are: 1 a gradual reduction in the drop-out rate and in the number of students who are unable to complete their studies within the prescribed time limits; 2 a fall in the average age of graduates and a rise in the number of graduates; 3 improved employability for holders of university qualifications degrees and diplomas ; 4 the same opportunities on the domestic and international labour market for young Italians as compared with their contemporaries in other European countries.
The programme of university reforms is far more radical and consistent and the guidance on implementation provided to universities far more detailed than hitherto. The elective nature of senior management positions in universities is a further institutional barrier to reform. In the debate over access, the government has explicitly rejected market needs as one of the criteria for setting student targets and has thereby rejected one of the mechanisms it could have used in encouraging the sector to serve the needs of the economy as a whole.
The target for implementation set by the government implies that the universities will have eighteen months in which to redefine their courses and syllabuses in time for the reform to be enacted in the academic year. The scale of the university reform is ambitious but each of the perceived weaknesses is addressed systematically, even if there are still some loopholes which reluctant universities could exploit.
However, the scope of the reforms and the timescale for their implementation imply a revolution on a scale never before witnessed in the sector and a commitment on the part of the universities to abandon deeply-rooted traditions and working practices. Whether such commitment exists remains to be seen. Legge 15 maggio , n. Brierley, op. CRUI has broader membership all vice-chancellors and a broader remit to discuss all matters of relevance to its members, not simply to advise the ministry.
Italian is among them, and while women writers are featured in a variety of modules, two modules currently concentrate exclusively on women and writing in Italy in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. I began to consider the possibility of producing an annotated edition of the text for English speaking students, hoping that while the novel was out of print, and indeed when it was reissued, they would refrain from reading the very good English translation only. Fortunately, Francesca Duranti is a wonderful speaker.
The conversation carried on into the evening, after I had had a tour of the park and of the estate, accompanied by Francesca and her menagerie of cats and dogs, during which I recognised settings from La bambina and Lieto fine. The high point of my visit came, however, very early the following morning, when I found myself reading Progetto Burlamacchi on the wide portico overlooking the sloping gardens which had once belonged to Francesco Burlamacchi, the resident ghost.
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I have transcribed the interview as I recorded it, and without later additions. I lettori e, nel caso specifico, le lettrici sono sempre molto avidi di materiale autobiografico, di storie vere. DdF: E quello comincia dalla sua vita personale?
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FD: Comincia da qualcosa che capita. DdF: E cosa Le fa scegliere di adottare un particolare punto di vista nella storia? Io qua sto parlando di professione; La bambina non era ancora professione, era una prima cosa. Oppure, come nel caso di Lieto fine, a una prima persona che ogni tanto sparisce, e si va alla terza persona. Manipolata, secondo me, freddamente e quindi stando fuori dalla vita. DdF: Un rapporto molto complesso dunque. FD: Certo, io le condivido oltrettutto queste sue insofferenze. E al tempo stesso viene influenzato, mi sembra, molto profondamente da quello che legge… FD: Questo non ci ho mai pensato, se leggeva male.
Per esempio, quando lo vede Lei che legge male? DdF: Certo, quando lo dice lui stesso, quando parla di aver letto Chamisso e riconosce che aveva tradotto, ma non aveva capito che certi patti vanno sempre a finire male. Lui invece non la prende in questo modo. DdF: Mi sembra che sia molto influenzato da questi autori che traduce, ma senza rendersene conto. DdF: La sua idea sulle donne, su come dovrebbero essere le donne, gli deriva da Fontane? Gli deriva da Doeblin? FD: No, non credo a queste cose. Credo che gli derivi dalla propria impotenza e debolezza. DdF: Per quello gli piacciono le donne con i legacci, con i tiranti.
Lo deprime da un punto di vista sessuale, in un certo senso. Come vuole che leggiamo i suoi romanzi? DdF: E se i lettori interpretano i Suoi romanzi in modo che non aveva anticipato, va bene lo stesso? FD: Certe volte, anzi, scopro delle cose che mi convincono e che io… non ci avevo pensato per niente. Le donne del popolo hanno lavato i panni e cucinato le cene.
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Lei pensa piuttosto che ogni generazione ha bisogno di ribellarsi. DdF: Nei Suoi libri io trovo sempre una forte opposizione al dualismo, un invito alla tolleranza verso modi di essere diversi. Come si possono educare i giovani alla tolleranza? Mi sembra che il dualismo sia talmente fondamentale nel pensiero occidentale.
Mio padre, per esempio, mi ha veramente educata alla tolleranza. Mio padre era un uomo di una generazione in cui gli uomini stavano pochissimo con i loro figli, e quando io ero piccola lui era perseguitato dal fascismo, era ricercato dai tedeschi, spesso stava con i partigiani, quindi proprio lo vedevo anche poco. E che quindi non esiste il percorso giusto in assoluto. Allora qui viene fuori il devo: io devo agire conformemente al mio pensiero, ma devo anche rispettare il tuo.
Io lo capisco questo, lo capisco e non lo faccio. Questo in America non esiste, tutti sono specializzati, sanno fare male una cosa e tutto il resto non sanno fare niente. Eppure tante idee del femminismo io le ritrovo nei Suoi libri. La scrittura femminile abbiamo dovuto affermare che esisteva e adesso lo sappiamo.
Esistono altri specifici: la scrittura giovanile contrapposta alla scrittura dei vecchi o degli adulti, esiste la scrittura di un credente rispetto alla scrittura di un ateo. DdF: Allora facciamo male a insegnare corsi di letteratura che si occupano di scrittrici contemporanee?
The novel was reprinted by Rizzoli in June I am also thankful to Sharon Wood and Danielle Hipkins for their encouragement. The intensity of war, with its moments of supreme harmony and ineffable poetic vision ironic products of the trenches which dictated the Allegrian order of things, has been replaced by a dull monotony where such moments are unknown and perhaps unknowable.
The poet feels lost and directionless in this uncharted terrain, prey to an inner conflict ironic product of peace-time which will necessitate a new order better suited to the realities which now face him. In this they indicate an ending and a new beginning which are ambivalently congruent as implied in their shared heading and opposite as suggested in their opposing positional roles in the respective texts. They constitute an obvious link between the collections, straddling the divide and suggesting a certain continuity, 3 yet, at the same time, their own internal division represents the fracture or separation between the two books and the experiences which they embody, thereby marking the trajectory from one to the other as itself essentially an experience of schism.