Younger people might be happier with questions about less deep subjects, which is fine. Guide the group as you consider appropriate. Multiple Intelligences. Personality types and models.
Play as a team game in pairs, threes, fours or fives, which keeps everyone involved all the time, and introduces teamwork and tactics. The game is essentially team bowls played like beach bowls or green bowls using balls of newspaper. Scoring is one point for each ball closest to the 'jack' ball. If a team gets say three or four of its balls closer than the balls of any other team then three or four points would be scored accordingly.
The potential to score high - notably for big groups split into big teams - means a winning team can emerge surprisingly late, which sustains full involvement of all players. The larger the floor area then the more energetic the game will tend to be. The game can also be played outside provided there is no strong wind. For a more messy game outside for kids, supply a bucket of water and instruct that the balls should be wet.. The game is very adaptable. Consider and decide your own rules and scoring for your own situation. If playing the game with individuals for example in a small group of five , allow players two balls each.
This makes the game more interesting for individuals, in which the order of throwing can be reversed for the second ball, making it fairer for all, assuming playing only one 'end'. Or play big 'marbles' instead - best on a square playing area - in which players eliminate other players by rolling their ball to hit another player's balls. Players take turns to roll their balls.
The winner is the last player remaining whose ball has not been hit by another ball. Players have to decide how close to risk leaving their balls to other balls, so it becomes quite a tactical exercise. Simplest rule here is to eliminate only the first ball hit with each roll, not rebounds. This is a quick adaptable exercise for small groups, or for large groups if split into self-facilitating teams, or alternatively pairs.
Take a minute to consider - What thirty seconds of your life would you most want to re-live, if you only had thirty seconds left? For the purposes of the exercise participants can choose several different life experiences, provided the total time is no more than thirty seconds. Exclude sex from highlights if there is a risk that it will unhelpfully distract, embarrass or be too dominant. Shorten and concentrate the exercise by reducing the highlights time period from thirty to ten seconds, or lengthen and deepen the exercise by increasing the time period to ten minutes or an hour.
Note: To make the exercise more dynamic and forward-looking you can encourage people to consider especially life highlights which can be repeated or extended in some way. Childbirth is for many people a highlight which is not likely to be repeatable, although this can of course prompt thoughts and discussions about the importance of family compared to other life issues. This website accepts no liability for any marital or romantic strife arising if you play this game socially in couples, especially under the influence of drink or other inhibition-reducing substance.
Here's a really quick exercise, ideal for ice-breakers - minutes - for groups any age or size. Equipment: Lots of coins, in case participants need extra. At last a use for all the shrapnel in your piggy bank.. Large groups can be spilt into teams of people. Combine team coins. Produce a single team logo, themed according to the situation. Optionally ask teams to guess the meaning of other teams logos, before the explanations. Split the group into two. Half leave the room while remaining half make their personal coin logos.
Half return to room and try to match logos to people. Repeat the process enabling the guessers to make, and the makers to guess. Ask participants to explain their logos to the group, or if pressed for time and for large groups - split the group and have the logos explained among teams of threes.
If running the exercise in teams - review the discussions and feelings leading to the design of the logo, and the team theme if appropriate. The activity is more dynamic if played in competitive teams, minimum three players per team, ideally per team. The exercise involves devising and using a simple coded non-verbal unspoken communications system.
This is a very flexible game concept, and can be adapted in many ways to suit your situation and purposes. These instructions are for competitive teams playing the game. Adapt it accordingly for a single group. For groups of four people or more, best with six people or more. Teams of more than ten become chaotic which is okay if that's what you are seeking to demonstrate. It's a very flexible concept; adapt it to suit your needs. This exercise is subject to a lot of variation, including the solutions that people devise.
If you are a facilitator trying to imagine how it works, this might help.. At least three strings need to be connected to the top open end or near the top of the transporter tube, which keeps the tube upright and hanging from the connected strings being pulled tight by team members, and enables the tube potentially to be suspended and moved anywhere by and between the stringholders. Given that people cannot move their positions once the ball is loaded into the transporter tube, the method of 'playing out' string, as well as pulling it, is crucial.
Strings that are too short become a problem. At least one team member needs a string connected to the bottom of the tube to enable the tipping. If just one string is connected to the bottom of the tube then the tube can be tipped from just one direction, which means the team needs to have good control over the positioning of the tube.
Having more than one string connected to the bottom of the tube from more than one position increases the options for the direction of the tipping, but the downside is that beyond a certain point, depending on the coordination capability of the team the difficulty tends to increase with more people having more strings connected. Any bottom-connected string that crosses with a top-connected string will encounter a problem when it comes to tipping, because logically the bottom-connected string must get higher than the top-connected strings, hence the example solution which follows.
At its simplest, imagine the receptor tube the target into which the ball must be tipped being in the centre of a clock face. Three team members are positioned at, say, 12, 4 and 8 o'clock, each of whom has a string connected to the top of the transporter tube, and a fourth team member, say, at 6 o'clock, has a string connected to the bottom of the transporter tube to enable the tipping. The ball is placed in the transporter tube, say by the team member at 12 o'clock.
At this time no one can move from their position. The people at 4 and 8 take up the slack while 12 string is kept tight enabling the tube to be lifted. While 4 and 8 pull the tube towards the clockface centre, 12 plays out, keeping a tight string. When the tube is in the correct position for tipping, 6 can pull, while the other three strings stay tight to keep the tube's position, or adjust as necessary.
A quicker simpler version of this game can be played using drinking straws, a ball of rolled-up paper and a very thin dinner-table place mat:. A quick simple ice-breaker or bigger exercise related to questioning, and working together, here is the instruction, for groups of any size and any ages:. You can devise your own situations besides these to suit your purposes.
There are countless other possible situations. Increasing the variety of situations allocated will tend to increase the time of the activity and especially its review. There are no absolute 'right' or best questions - there are many effective questions, depending on the situation and people's needs, but there are certainly questions which do not work well and which should be avoided. This exercise does not suggest that we can or should use merely one question to identify solutions for anything, especially crucial partnerships.
The purpose of the exercise is to focus attention on quality, relevance, style and preparation of questioning, according to the situation and people involved. Questioning is powerful and helpful when prepared well, but wastes everyone's time and creates problems when it is not. This is a simple exercise requiring no equipment or materials preparation, for groups of any size and age. We all tend to classify and stereotype each other - 'pigeon-holing' is a common expression for this. Usually this sort of classification is subjective, unhelpfully judgemental, and sometimes of course it's unfair to the point of being illegal discrimination.
If as a facilitator you use these examples feel free to instruct the group to think of their own ideas, and not merely to use one of the examples. The purpose of the exercise is to encourage people to get to know each other better, to collectively consider the nature of all individuals within the team, and to think of each other in ways that are quite different to how people tend usually to classify others. You can stipulate how many subgroups should be classified within the team s , and how many different classifications are required one split using a single classification is simplest and quickest , or you can offer wider more open flexibility, and see what the teams develop for themselves.
Approach the activity with a broader view than reminding people about employment law and discrimination:. The way we understand and regard each other is a big subject, offering far more helpful outcomes than merely applying a legal code. For groups of four to ten people.
Split larger groups into teams with leaders who can facilitate the exercise. Introduction: Facial expressions are an important part of communications. There are many different emotions and corresponding facial expressions. Some are easier to interpret than others. This exercise helps illustrate different expressions and how some are more obvious and easy to 'read' than others. Each team member must think of one emotion or two or three emotions, for a longer exercise , which they should then write separately on a slip of paper.
Fold the slips of paper and put it into a cup or glass in the centre of the table, to enable 'blind' selection. Each person must then in turn take one of the folded slips and show the emotion on their face to the team, who must guess the emotion. Cut the picture retaining a copy into as many pieces - ideally equal squares or oblongs - as as there are participants for the exercise. Issue each person a piece of the picture.
The exercise is more challenging and fascinating if the group does not see the whole original picture until the end of the activity, although this question is entirely a matter for local judgement. Instruct people to create a copy of their piece of the picture exactly for example ten times bigger, according to length and width dimension. Size increase ten-times, five-times, twenty-times, etc is up to you - the more then the longer the activity takes, and the bigger the final result.
You should clarify what 'ten-times bigger, according to length and width dimension' actually means, or different interpretations of this could spoil the result which is a lesson in itself about consistency of planning and communications, etc. Multiplying width and length dimensions by ten produces an area which is actually a hundred-times bigger in area. This seems a lot, but it's very reasonable if seeking to produce a good sized result to stick onto a wall. For example, if individual pieces are say 2 inches square, i.
Technically 'ten times bigger' refers to area, but this isn't very easy to imagine - it's easier to plan and explain the exercise in terms of width and length dimensions. Give a time limit minutes depending on complexity of the work and the magnification level you specify. When all the enlargements are completed ask people to assemble them into a giant copy of the original picture - on the table, or onto a wall using sticky putty, be careful not to use a wall whose surface could be damaged when removing the sticky putty..
London Underground Tube Map. Other ideas for pictures: geographical maps and weather maps, biological diagrams, well-known posters and cartoons. You can adapt the exercise by altering the 'ten-times widthand length dimensions' enlargement factor, for instance five-times would make the task easier and quicker; twenty or a hundred-times would make it more difficult and longer, and also more impactful, if you have time and space, and enough paper drawing materials The resulting assembled whole picture will indicate how well each team communicated and managed its own divisionalization of the task.
Based on an old numbers game this activity can be adapted in many different ways for groups and teams of all sizes. You can easily expand the game, add complexity, and turn it into a much longer planning and tactics exercise. With increased complexity the activity becomes increasingly suitable for teams and allowing a strategic planning stage.
Complex versions of the game are far less easy to plan and control. The game obviously allows mathematically-minded people who are often quiet and understated in the background to demonstrate their value to the group, which can be an additional benefit of the exercise. Obviously, given snowy weather, take everyone outside and build a snowman. Or several of them.
Throwing snowballs can be harmful to your team-mates' health and to the managing director's office windows. You have been warned. If the MD or other senior executive sees what is happening and asks you to explain the purpose of the activity, here are some suggested answers delete as appropriate :. Given all the training budget cut-backs it would have been daft not to make use of so much free material.
It was a positive thinking exercise and motivational analogy to illustrate how even in seemingly negative circumstances credit crunch, recession, snow, etc it's perfectly possible to innovate new things and to be constructive in some way. Having fun and building things is very good for the soul, and great for team morale.
We are all now thoroughly energised and will never again see the snow as a problem, only an opportunity to be special and different compared to everyone else who sits on their backsides complaining. Being out in the cold for so long meant that we could turn down the heating when we all came back in to save further costs.
When we find out who built the ten foot snow-willy the culprit will be given a serious ticking off that's not a sexual pun in case you are wondering. Businessballs accepts no liability for damages arising from inappropriate use of this activity. If in doubt, make some newspaper towers instead. Activities and exercises for group selection days and assessment centres can be designed to stretch the participants more if the task is issued several days before the day of the assessment. This allows more preparation and team-working among the candidates, which in turn enables a fuller deeper test and demonstration of people's capabilities.
The exercise can be used if issued on the day of the assessment, but obviously due allowance must be made for the resulting time pressure in meeting such a big challenge. Accordingly the exercise is suited to training courses lasting two days or more when delegates can work evenings in their team on the activities. Create presentation to sell proposition to the 'board of directors' or an investor - a part which can be played by the recruitment team. This is a helpful and non-threatening way to show the effects of stress and confusion, especially in teams, and by implication the effects of stress on productivity, organisational performance and healthy working.
Ideally for teams of eight to ten people. Split larger groups into teams of and establish facilitation and review as appropriate, appointing and briefing facilitators since each team requires facilitation. You will need for each team about five balls of various sizes, compositions, weights, shapes, etc. Five balls is probably adequate for most teams of eight people.
Using very different balls makes the exercise work better for example a tennis ball, a beach ball, a rugby ball, a ping-pong ball, etc - use your imagination. The ball must be kept moving the facilitator can equate this to the processing of a task within the work situation. A dropped ball equates to a failed task which the facilitator can equate to a specific relevant objective.
A held ball equates to a delayed task. When the team can satisfactorily manage the first ball, the facilitator should then introduce a second ball to be thrown and caught while the first ball remains in circulation. Equate the second ball to an additional task, or a typical work complication, like a holiday, or an extra customer requirement. Continue to introduce more balls one by one - not too fast - each time equating them to work situations and complications.
Allow the sense of increasing stress and confusion to build, according to the ball-handling capability of the team. Introducing balls too quickly will not allow the stress to build. Stress theory and stress management. This is a quick simple activity for groups of any size.
For large groups spilt into teams of about six people and organise the appointment of team leaders for self-facilitation and review. You will perhaps think of other questions on similar lines. Use one or a number of questions to prompt discussion and thereafter a review of the issues. Most people unsurprisingly tend to favour their sense of sight.
You will find plenty of variation aside from this however, and generally the activity and discussion provides a quick and interesting way to explore personal strengths and preferences without the aid of a testing instrument. Your group might have additional ideas about other 'senses' which you can include in the considerations, for example speech, movement, etc.
If so then the exercise relates more strongly to Multiple Intelligences theory. Everyone would prefer Christmas and New Year celebrations to more suitably address the needs and issues of the modern age. What changes would you make? You can add a context if you wish, for example, changes for business, changes for society, changes for kids, changes for the planet, changes for global cooperation, etc. The exercise especially demonstrates the influencial power of mobile phones and by inference other communications methods such as emails to disrupt effective working, time management and organisational efficiency.
Say that this is a demonstration of the disruptive and negative effects of technology controlling people rather than vice-versa. Ask everyone to text a friend or two or several friends each whom they know to be keen in responding to text messages. Then continue with the training or conference session, and wait for the chaotic interruptions to begin.
The chaos is a very audible demonstration of what typically happens in organisations where people are not managing their incoming communications which according to most research is the vast majority of folk. Charlie Chaplin died on Christmas Day Seasonal acronym for when work and customers must necessarily fit in around the festivities and holidays. Seasonal acronym explaining why most business comes to a grinding stop for two whole weeks at the end of the year. Yuletide acronym, when procrastinators everywhere are joined by most of the western world in deferring anything other than a life-threatening emergency until the Christmas blow-out is properly organized and maximum enjoyment extracted.
Customer services and despatch expression, especially appropriate approaching department close-down for weekends, holidays, Christmas, etc. Understandable response from overworked despatch departments and customer services staff when attempting to explain quite reasonably that it's not possible to process urgent last-minute orders received at lunchtime on the day before holiday shut-down. Expression origin - "Boxing day" - the day after Christmas - from the custom in seventeenth and eighteenth centuries of servants receiving gratuities from their masters, collected in boxes in Christmas day, sometimes in churches, and distributed the day after.
Spaghetti and Marshmallow Towers. Helium Stick. Baking Foil Models. Animal Perceptions Exercise. Businessballs Quickies. Ask the group to think of an example - any example, from their own personal life not too personal or from work or the world of media, politics, economy, anything. Discuss how and why things can seem crucial one day, yet often can soon become completely insignificant, given a little time. Discuss the influences of emotions, peer pressure, zietgeist, the media, daft unquestioning management, personal mood, etc. This is a creative planning process and template for individuals and for groups facing or desiring career change, especially a move into self-employment or starting up their own new business.
It can be helpful for people facing decisions about new work or business direction, especially to encourage thinking outside of habits and conditioning, at any stage of a person's working life. It's a simple formula. For example, subject to time available, encourage people to think through the stages of the process:. Issue a single sheet of paper A4 or international equivalent to each group member or one sheet per team if the exercise is to be played as a team game. Using the sheet of paper only - no other materials - construct the tallest free-standing structure - in 5 minutes. Incidentally the best technical approach to this task almost certainly requires the construction and use of connectable tubular rolled or triangular telescopic sections, made from lengthways strips of the sheet.
Using this technique it is possible to make a tower at least three times higher than the length of the sheet. The exercise can be adapted to suit your situation, for example giving group members 15 minutes for the task and issuing an extra practice sheet of paper will increase the depth and complexity of the task and the review. Focus especially on the differences in expectations between mutually depending groups. Ask people - what does each tree swing look like?
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What does their own tree swing look like, and what tree swing do they expect of others? And what can you best provide? When you understand the differences it's easier to work on bridging them, so the differences have to be considered and shared first, or the gaps persist indefinitely. Drawing - especially given an unusual perspective like the tree swing - is good for creativity and for exploring and sharing feelings and opinions - especially about gaps and matching expectations - which otherwise might not surface in normal discussions.
Split the group into relevant teams - threes usually work well, although the exercise is adaptable for any numbers provided the team split reflects the development aims, and the exercises are facilitated to keep everyone involved. The exercise does not aim to produce brilliant artwork - instead it aims to produce fresh thinking and simple visual ideas about the issues which cause outcomes to differ from expectations. Successful work, business and organizations largely depend on matching needs and delivery in one way or another.
The tree swing provides a simple way to consider the differences between what's asked for, and what's provided, and then to explore which qualities in each are actually fair and valid, with a view to bridging the understanding and expectations gaps. The activity is adaptable for young people in schools, as well as for grown-ups in any sort of work situation. For everyone of course, there is also the opportunity to work with different media - even if it's just a few boxes of cheap coloured pencils from the pound shop.
Here are some ideas for bringing poetry into your workplace or school, whether for development activities or for the pure fun of it:. You will think of many more ideas for using poetry to add fresh perspective to work and play. Send your own ideas , and I'll add them here. Optionally you can first establish what sort of learning qualifies to be mentioned, or leave that aspect open because it's obviously an interesting debate in itself which tends naturally to arise from the discussions prompted by the question.
Larger groups can be split into smaller work teams to explore what teams have learned and the extent to which learning is shared and assimilated and applied. This exercise was inspired by a brief story in Leo Buscaglia's wonderful book 'Love', in which Buscaglia recalls his father asking his children at the end of each day, "What did you learn today? This expectation encouraged them to seek facts and knowledge - about anything - and the habit was very significant in forming Buscaglia's positive approach to life and lifelong learning. I'm grateful to Kiran for reminding me of the source of this, and that Buscaglia's book 'Living, Loving and Learning' contains the same story.
Equipment: a table at least four feet diameter with a smooth surface, some coins, and optionally blu-tack, paper, colouring pens and scissors. The activity also adapts as a larger-scale ball game on ground-level, explained at the end of this item. Split the group to make at least two teams - maximum three people per team.
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Five teams of three per team is fine, so is four pairs or other similar splits. Size of teams, number of teams, and number of coins can all be adjusted to suit the situation. Increase the number of coins to increase the complexity and duration of the game, and to enable more players per team. Issue each team at least six coins - ideally different sorts of coins, and ensure each team has the same number of similar coins. Different size coins create more tactical options.
Then, optionally instruct the team to create a team logo or emblem and to cut out and colour the shape and fix to their coins using the blu-tack, like a little sail. This is to make it easy to tell the difference between the teams when the coins are in play. Otherwise, ensure that when the coins are placed flat on the table each team somehow differentiates their coins from the other teams. For example if two teams are playing, one team can be heads and the other tails.
Or you can issue coloured sticky spots or stars, etc. The object of the game is to shove the coins, one coin at a time, from the table edge, to create the closest grouping of coins on the table compared to the efforts of the other team s. Each coin should be moved once only by pushing it 'shove ha'penny'-style, using the pad of the hand at the base of the thumb: Place the coin about a third of it off the table edge, and strike it from the side against the edge of the table, using the pad of the hand.
The facilitator must be able to demonstrate this, and allow some practice for the teams to get used to the method and speed of the table, and for the teams to decide who in the team will do the shoving. Before the game the facilitator should consider especially the timing of this game. It can take a long time if you have lots of teams and lots of coins. This format has different tactical implications. Bigger scale indoor or outdoor versions of this game are possible using coloured tennis balls on a playground or a suitably marked floor or grass area, in which case a hula-hoop serves as an ideal measuring template.
The subject is how the increasing proportion of older people in society will change the world, but actually the subject can be about any large-scale trend. The activity will prompt the use of visioning and imagination, and the consideration of big system changes, consequences, causes and effects. In the case of an ageing society these changes are already upon us, so it's not a hypothetical exercise.
The activity obviously also encourages people to think about ageism and age equality issues. The views of the group members can be discussed or presented or debated depending on the facilitator's aims and constraints of the session. Appreciating fundamental issues of competence and job profiling necessary for determining suitability, training and qualifications is quite a dry subject. It can be brought to life by applying the thinking to a different situation - different from normal work.
The facilitator can adapt this basic idea for group size, timings, and the precise training aspects of job profiling and candidate selection, development, qualification, etc. Incidentally if anyone comes up with constructive and enlightened answers to the last two questions I'd love to see them.. This exercise seeks to enable clearer understanding of positive behaviour and positive thinking, extending to the notion that positive behaviour produces positive effect or reward for the person or group acting positively.
Instead of trying to unravel the secrets of the karmic universe or the meaning of religious and spiritual life, we can perhaps understand better the effects of our own positive behaviour or that of a group or entire corporation by considering how we personally respond to the positive behaviour of others. Ask group members to consider how they personally feel and respond towards someone who behaves in the following ways:.
Extend some of the examples above to imagine long-term relationships and issues of trust, reputation, recommendation, willingness to do business with such a person, etc. Extend the examples to the responses of many thousands of customers, to many positive behaviours of a corporation, and then consider the opposite effects: i. Positive behaviour of one person is sometimes immediately rewarded or acknowledged by others, but often the effects are not immediate. Cause and effect can be separated by many years, and can be connected by many links in different chains of events.
However, positive behaviour in an organisation of many employees and actions inevitably multiplies and accelerates all these effects. The cause and effect cycle - good or bad - is dramatically shortened because there are so many interactions. Positive behaviour is sometimes described using the analogy of ripples from a pebble thrown into a pond - the effects radiate far and wide, and one day reflect back helpfully in ways that are difficult to predict beforehand, or to measure afterwards.
Positive behaviour in an organisation could be compared to hundreds of pebbles in a pond every day. Consider your own organisation - are they good ripples or bad ripples? The term 'pseudo-scientific' rightly applies to most concepts linked with positive behaviour, because they cannot be measured and substantiated in conventional scientific ways. Yet millions of people believe strongly that goodness and positivity are more likely to be rewarded in life than selfishness and negativity. And almost without exception successful happy people seem to exhibit and aspire to positive behaviours.
The exercise should confirm how positively we each respond to positive behaviour and negatively to negative behaviour. It's far simpler than karma. Vague terminology such as karma and religious or spiritual associations create further obstacles to exploring the subject. Positive behaviour concepts are confused by lots of vague and emotive terminology and theories, e. This exercise offers a way to explore the essential meaning and benefits of positive behaviour, without reference or need to buy in to any of the above. Intangible concepts like positive behaviour can often be better explored from a personal viewpoint, instead of using fixed definitions or rules.
This flexible activity is based on using coins to create a 'picture' or diagram of an organizational system or structure which is relevant to the group's work or learning. For example, a subject could be a team, department, division, or an entire corporation, or a market including suppliers, customers, competitors, etc. Or a school, college, a community or an industry sector, or even a region or country, or view of the world.
If the main aim is instead to get people working creatively together for instance young people in school, or a creative workshop session then the choice of structure is not significant, aside from something that the group will find interesting, and the facilitator can allow the group to choose a structure for their 'moneygram'. The room layout must enable people to make a display on a table or floor and for others to see the display clearly, or for the whole group to work around on a single large display on a table. Coins are of course various values, sizes, colours, years and designs - both sides - and can be stacked, and some stood on their edges.
The exercise provides a completely different way unlike normal words, discussion, diagrams, etc for people to interpret and present their own view of a particular situation. This enables a tactile, fresh, liberating and more objective way for people to express and share their perceptions. The facilitator obviously needs to consider and decide the best way to equip the group with sufficient 'materials' coins for the activities.
For example a mature adult group could be asked to use the coins from their own pockets and purses. A less mature group should ideally have the coins provided by the facilitator. Complex themes and big require lots of coins. Happily 1p and 2p copper coins very inexpensive materials - in fact probably cheaper than plastic counters and play-money nowadays - and it's useful to have a plentiful supply of coppers, or whatever is your currency equivalent. Foreign coins add international interest and diversity if you have some.
If the situation allows, you can ask group members to bring in their piggy banks. The creative use of banknotes, cheques and credit cards is not recommended for obvious reasons. Messing around with loose change carries few risks; bigger values are not appropriate for play materials. If you have any doubts about using real money in the exercise then playing cards can be used instead, which offers another perspective and different interpretations.
Be mindful of the time available for the activity and limit the complexity of the subjects accordingly. You cannot expect anyone to map out the global commodities market or the future of the world wide web in a five minute icebreaker with a pocketful of change. As with any exercise much of the value comes from reviewing and discussing the issues arising from the learning experience, and where relevant encouraging people to determine their own preferred reactions.
An activity of this nature will tend to highlight various opportunities for future clarification and follow-up actions, especially for work-team leaders. This is a flexible and fascinating scenario-based activity for groups up to 12 people and all ages. Split larger groups into teams and adapt presentations and reviews accordingly.
Schools could potentially develop various extensions to this activity. A mixed group age, gender, ethnicity, religion of a few hundred lucky people has survived it's helpful to agree where - anywhere - because location will influence some aspects of the approach to the question. Optionally and ideally ask delegates to justify their suggestions.
The number of roles can be the same as the number of delegates, especially if you choose to extend the activity. The exercise can be extended by adding any of the following supplementary questions, which can optionally be approached as if the delegates are the survivors leadership team, allocated the key roles identified. They can assess spiritual health outcome using ISHS by comparing it at admission and discharge time. Nursing scholars can provide further examination for reliability and validity of the ISHS with diverse Muslim patient populations in other countries and other regions in Iran.
Concurrent validity of the ISHS with other instruments to assess spiritual health or spiritual well-being may also be explored. Confirmatory factor analysis research of the three domains of the ISHS and item response theory analysis for further analysis of construct of spiritual health is also a possible target for further research. Conclusion ISHS measures identified and scored attributes associated with the possession of the essence of spiritual health within the Iranian culture and these domains were appropriate indicators of it.
Efforts were made to ensure that there was a differentiation for spiritual health between Iranian culture and other cultures. Also, we mentioned test measures that have been specifically designed to address the concept of spiritual health as it relates to the Islamic Iranian culture. Disclaimer: None. Conflict of Interest: None. References 1. Tanzanian nurses understanding and practice of spritual care. ISRN Nurs. The daily spiritual experience scale: Development, theoretical description, reliability, exploratory factor analysis, and preliminary construct validity using health-related data.
Ann Behav Med. Diddle G, Denham SA. Spirituality and its relationships with the health and illness of Appalachian people. J Transcul Nurs. Sadler JJ. Analysis and observation of the concept of caring in nursing. Harris YJ. Yousofi H. Human health and religious practices in Quraan. Procedia-Soc Behav Sci. Spiritual health, a model for use in nursing. J Med Ethics. Ind J Comm Med. Spirituality and health: A knowledge, attitude and practice study among doctors of North India. Spirit Health Inter. Oh P, Kang K. Spirituality: concept analysis based on a hybrid model.
Taehan Kanho Hakhoe Chi. Carr EW, Morris T. Spirituality and patients with advanced cancer: A social work response. J Psych Oncol. Gray J. Measuring Spirituality: Conceptual and Methodological Considerations. J Theory Construct Test. Differences in the self- reported spiritual health of male Juvenile offenders and non- offenders. Amer J Health Studies. Spiritual health in nursing based on Islam view. J Iranina Redcresent.
J Irani Redcresent. Rodgers B. Philosophical foundations of concept development. Earp MS. Clark LA, Watson D. Constructing validity: basic issues in objective scale development. Psycho Assess. Delvis RF. Scale development, theory and applications. J Edu Measur. McSherry W. Nurses perceptions of spirituality and spiritual care. Nurs Standard. Thompson I. Mental health and spiritual care. Measuring dimensions of spirituality in chemical dependence treatment and recovery: Research and practice. Inter J Ment Health Addic. Gray MA.
Spiritual health inventory score and abstinence. The concept of nursing in holistic theories: An integrative review. Evidence base journal. Swinton J. J Clin Nurs. Riley-Taylor E. New York: Oxford, Spirituality: Living our connectedness. Albany: Delmar; Howden J. Development and psychometric characteristics of the Spirituality Assessment Scale. Caring for self: Becoming a self-reflective nurse. Holist Nurs Pract. Delaney C. The spiritulaity scale: Development, refinement and psychometric testing of an instument to assess the human spiritual dimension: J Holist Nurs.
Jossey-Bass; McGinn B. The letter and the spirit: spirituality as an academic discipline. Christian Spirituality Bulletin. Developing and validating a questionnaire to measure spirituality: a psychometric process. Nursing Research. Generating and assessing evidence for nursing practice. The time lag in data collection is valuable to minimize common method bias Podsakoff et al.
Hence, our methodology helps ensure measures of religion are independent from measures of work. Sixty percent of individuals selected for the study-specific sample completed both waves of the survey. The final sample included 1, individuals. The mean age of respondents was 44 years old. Eighty percent were white, non- Hispanic. Average education level was some college but no degree.
In this sample, the factor loadings changed but the two factor solution was confirmed with Eigenvalues of 1. The two belief scales also had high internal reliability. Stage 4: Convergent and Divergent Validity The final stage of scale development involved analyzing the belief scales with other measures. Using the national sample, we assessed the relationship of the belief scales to Lynn et al. Convergence with Lynn et al.
Additionally, despite the Mirels and Garret PWE measure being devoid of religious language, historically the work ethic it measures has been attributed to faith beliefs. Divergent validity was assessed in the same sample by exploring the relationship of the belief scales with two personality variables, Conscientiousness and Neuroticism. Since we have no theoretical reason for expecting convergence and the measurements were separated in time, we did not expect substantial associations. We used established three-item scales to measure Conscientiousness and Neuroticism Goldberg et al.
Although a few small associations were evident, overall the associations indicate that these beliefs scale differ from personality scales. Given our interest in our beliefs scales predicting behavior, we made simple comparisons of our scales with two types of workplace behavior. Entrepreneurial behaviors are the actions taken in the process of discovering, evaluating, and realizing opportunities to create new or improved goods and services McCline et al. Entrepreneurial behavior can manifest inside an existing organization and, therefore, contribute to innovation and continuous improvement or it can be directed toward starting a new entity.
Historically, religious beliefs have been linked to the entrepreneurial behavior of individuals Elangovan et al. Helping behavior in the workplace involves voluntary acts of consideration and cooperation Van Dyne and LePine Outside the workplace, helping behavior has been related to intrinsic religious motivations and church attendance Benson et al.
Both opportunities to be entrepreneurial and help others within an organization are broadly available to most workers. We expect both types of behavior to be positively associated with our belief scales. To test these relationships, we used the item entrepreneurial behavior scale from Pearce et al. We used a two-item helping scale created by VanDyne and LePine The correlations shown in Table 2 demonstrate the potential utility of our belief measures.
In regression models not shown , we explored the relationship of workplace behaviors and HGW controlling for gender, age, education, religious tradition, conscientiousness, congregational FWS, and PWE. More rigorous analyses using these scales is planned for research to follow. This hints at a possible mediating effect of PWE worth further investigation.
Nevertheless, based on our overall findings, individuals who believe that God is honored by their work are more likely to engage in creative, innovative actions at work. They are also more likely to be collaborative in their work. These relationships follow our expectations. The relationships of prosperity beliefs to the two workplace behaviors are less straight-forward.
Believing that God rewards the faithful with financial gain is not associated with risk-taking, change-oriented activity as measured in the entrepre- neurial behavior scale. In addition, persons with prosperity beliefs may be more independent, thus less inclined to engage in collaborative, helping behavior at work. Additionally, we compared our belief scales across religious traditions. We used measures of religion, denomination, and congregation to categorize individuals into broad religious traditions of Evangelical Protestant, Black Protestant, Mainline Protestant, Catholic, other traditions, and no affiliation Steensland et al.
Religious tradition is a recognizable measure of religion with wide application in social science research. Religious traditions capture differences in doctrine, history and culture. For example, among Christians, Evangelical Protestants and Black Protestants tend to be the most orthodox in religious belief and practice Kohut et al. The view of God in these traditions is as an active presence with clear ideals for right and wrong Froese and Bader It is within Evangelical and Black Protestant traditions that Pentecostalism, and presumably the prosperity gospel by extension, is most prevalent Smidt et al.
On the other end of the religious continuum are those with no religious affiliation. To the extent that they believe in God or some higher power, the unaffiliated think of the divine as disengaged with humanity; consequently, it is up to human effort to remedy social ills Froese and Bader With this background, we can look for predicable patterns in our belief scales by religious tradition. Table 3 reveals statistically significant differences across religious traditions for both scales. Evangelical Protestants have the second highest scores on these scales 3. As expected, persons with no religious affiliation were lowest on both scales.
Conclusion Beliefs about cosmic order and the purpose of life are foundational to human beings. Yet, the connection between beliefs and work-related behavior has received limited attention due to on-going disagreements among religious researchers regarding the import of religious beliefs to behavior and a paucity of available, validated, and specific belief scales. Encouraged by recent evidence of specific beliefs explaining behavior e.
Our contribution lies in developing new scales that assess two specific religious beliefs: 1 belief that work honors God; and 2 belief that God promises financial prosperity to the faithful. These scales emerged from a systematic process of the authors generating items, experts rating content validity, and pilot testing of psychometric properties of potential scales. The scales also showed acceptable levels of convergent validity with constructs deemed to have theoretical relevance to the proposed beliefs and demonstrated divergent validity with constructs that lacked theological relevance.
We believe these two scales represent an important addition to studies of religion and work. They are more specific and relevant to work and business than existing scales. They demonstrated strong reliability in a pilot test with students as well as in a national sample of working adults. The two scales are distinct and not reducible to religious tradition. Although both sets of beliefs presume a divine being that takes interest in human action thus the two are correlated much as are religious behaviors such as attending religious services and prayer , the scales tap into different understandings about the nature of God and, thus, have different implications for explaining work-related behavior.
Honoring God beliefs are related to entrepreneurial behavior and helping behavior in the workplace. With confidence that their work is honoring God, people may be willing to take more risks or, conversely, to take only risks with a high likelihood of positive results. This requires more fine-grained attention to the types of entrepreneurial behavior beliefs about HGW may promote and which behaviors it may prevent such deviance behavior. Employees with these beliefs seem to provide assistance to co-workers out of a sense that these actions please God.
Are they also strong contributors as team members? Overall, this points to the potential of beliefs about HGW to promote behavior that contributes to organizational success and the need to explore this potential through additional research. We believe the mixed findings for our PGB scale in predicting the behaviors in this study should not be interpreted as a failure of the measure. A careful process of scale development is behind the measure. Moreover, experts and pilot testing establish the scale as valid and reliable. What our preliminary findings indicate is that prosperity beliefs correspond to a more independent orientation toward work that does not translate into entrepreneurial activity and may impede helpful interactions with others.
In contrast to behaviors that have collective benefit, prosperity beliefs may motivate individuals to engage in individually-oriented performance behavior such as making sales to earn a commission or completing tasks that might lead to a raise or promotion. Studies of work choices and work habits for those who hold prosperity beliefs would be a fascinating addition to the literature.
Numerous intriguing questions await further research.
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Do those who believe that God will provide financial success work harder, longer, or at more arduous tasks to achieve the promised blessing? Do prosperity beliefs motivate individuals to start or persevere in particular types of businesses? What other productive or counterproductive behaviors might PGB predict? There are limitations that must be acknowledged. These belief items may best capture Christian beliefs.
Although our pilot sample of students and national sample of working adults were not restricted to Christians, Christianity was the dominant religious perspective of the respondents. Additionally, our samples consisted of people from within the United States. Religious beliefs about the role of work and business are likely to differ across religions and cultures. Additional research is necessary to test these scales on a larger sample of non-Christian respondents. Further research should consider Muslim, Jewish and other world religion belief systems with comparable metrics that account for different conceptions of the divine, human relationship to the divine, and the effect on work and entrepreneurial enterprises.
Finally, our scales are certainly not exhaustive of all religious beliefs pertaining to work, nor can they explain all types of work behavior. Our findings are promising but future research should explore other beliefs and their relation to work behavior. In sum, this research makes a contribution to supporting the assertion that beliefs can influence behavior, particularly when the beliefs are specific and relevant to the behaviors of interest Weaver and Agle There is more to be learned.
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