As such, the Russian reader should be seen as part of textuality, not its aftermath. These expectations annul the story of what actually happened: how he fell off a horse, sprained his arm, and ignominiously fled from a Frenchman.
Politics In Russia: A Reader - Joel M. Ostrow - Google книги
And so he told them all that. But many Russian writers were less squeamish about modifying their text on cues from their readers. A reception of an earlier work could also to some degree fashion a subsequent one. This is the real Ukrainian or Belorussian petty gentry, in all its beauty. Such noblemen, with such mores and tricks [ ukhvatki ], are not to be found in the Great Russian districts. Taught by his earlier experiences, Gogol is at pains to establish that his satirical edge is aimed at Russia, not its imperial peripheries.
These include the three famous lyrical digressions, which Gogol added to his novel in the final stages of his work: about the Russian word, Russian space, and Russia as troika. Taken jointly, these digressions provide the nationalistic antidote though not without its own ironies to the distinctly anti-nationalistic main body of the novel that paints a satirical image of contemporary Russia. Happy is the writer who, after ignoring characters that are boring, repulsive, astounding in their sad actuality, gravitates toward characters that manifest the high dignity of man, who […] has chosen only a few exceptions, who not once has altered the elevated pitch of his lyre […].
All clap their hands and hasten after him, and rush to follow his triumphal chariot. A great universal poet they dub him, one who soars high above all the other geniuses of the world […] But such is not the lot […] of the writer who has made bold to summon forth […] all the dreadful, appalling morass of trifles that mires our lives, all that lies deep inside the cold, fragmented, quotidian characters with which our earthly path swarms […] [T] he false, unfeeling judgment of the time, which will brand as worthless and base the creations cherished by him, will assign him an ignoble corner in the ranks of those writers who offend humanity, will attach to him the qualities of the heroes depicted by none but himself […] For the judgment of the time does not acknowledge that much spiritual depth is needed to illuminate a picture drawn from ignoble life and elevate it into the pearl of creation […] and that lofty enraptured laughter is worthy of taking its place beside the lofty lyrical impulse.
The stormy reception of his comedy shocked him. I regret that no one noticed the positive character in my play. Indeed, laughter is deeper and more meaningful than people suppose. Since Gogol was hailed as a mesmerizing lector, he had reasons to worry about this soporific reception. An unfavorable reaction of a small group of friends caused Turgenev to destroy it. Turgenev was eager at the time to make a transition from the short story genre, which brought him fame with his Notes of a Hunter Zapiski okhotnika, , to longer narrative forms.
He later reported to V. Yet from the perspective of Russian intellectual and literary history, it is significant that the opposition to these works was in large measure ideological or grounded in artistic objections that do not in themselves appear sound today. It is on account of his politically sensitive obituary of Gogol, published in The Moscow News Moskovskie vedomosti 32  , that Turgenev was exiled to his estate and placed under police supervision in the years We know a lot about censorship as a tool of ideological surveillance in tsarist Russia.
Additions or changes to texts that continue their life to the present day was another. The story actually exists in domestic and export varieties, so to speak. This is how they report their reaction:.
History, Culture, Politics
You yourself are not to blame at all, but one senses here some general, national guilt, something resembling a crime. This is a story not just about first love, but about the anxieties of empire, and the weight of state violence that dooms a Russian idyll. I support the second view. The Western European reader needed to be sensitized to what the cultural native could read between the lines. This would certainly have been a censorable sentiment within Russia, so it belonged between the lines. Un premier amour Paris, E. Dentu, This signals a subtle change.
But for the purpose of French readers, this aspect is brought to the fore. Turgenev allows his work to participate in French essentializing of Russia. Up to this point, he had consistently done so in other volumes of his fiction translated into French, presenting himself as a purveyor of Russian couleur locale and of authentic contemporary Russia. Rose offers an example of one mid-century chapbook edition of Robinson Crusoe that is eight pages long and mentions Friday only in the last paragraph. Translations could be geared toward foreign audiences, but the domestic audience was also further differentiated, for publishing purposes, by class or educational level.
My claim that readers should be seen as co-generators of texts may well seem obvious. We all know that writers routinely ask friends for opinions about their work-in-progress and are typically sensitive about published reviews Gogol and Turgenev certainly were. We all know about the practice of self-censorship. And it is also true that, whatever the advice, the author nearly always exercises the ultimate say.
Meaning is not an object to be decoded, but an effect of a tension between the explicit and implicit that is to be experienced. Russian readers influenced the course of Russian literature not merely from birth, but from inception. If I may be permitted a clinical metaphor, theirs were in utero interventions. The reaction against the Gogolian trend in Russian literature, to which Gogol himself and later Turgenev were subjected, was marshaled by an influential elite of readers with close ties to the authors.
Their role begins prior to the completion of a work of art. As such, we should see the reader as part of textuality, not its aftermath. The Russian readers wrote themselves into texts. As scholars, we should write them back in too. Bojanowska E. Press: — Press: 31— Brouwer S. Chartier R.
Evdokimova S. Finkelstein D.
Fish S. Girard R. Akademii nauk SSSR. Iser W. Whether readers follow the fate of Russia chronologically or use the book as a kaleidoscope to explore different facets of Russian life and culture, they will find a treasure trove of beautiful, dramatic, and tragic readings for exploring Russian history and culture across the ages.
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The World Readers More about this series. Book Pages: Illustrations: 96 photos, incl. Most of the selections are by Russians, and thirty are translated into English for the first time. Paperback Cloth. Availability: In stock.
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Politics in Russia: A Reader
Table of Contents Back to Top. Acknowledgments xi General Introduction 1 I. Icons and Archetypes 13 II.
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Reform to Revolution 97 IV. Far Pavilions: Siberia V. A Changing Countryside VI. Revolution VIII. Rising Stalinism X. The Great Terror XI. Life under Advanced Socialism XV. Rights Back to Top.