It concludes with a reflection on the background of scientific knowledge and a plea for a reflexive cultural sociology. Towards a Cultural Explanation of Institutional Change more. Such a conception might prove useful to explain complex institutional and societal changes. First, it is argued that the growing legitimacy of torture after the terrorist attack is an effect of a specific narrative background pattern: the ticking bomb scenario.
Second, it is shown how the visual properties of the Abu Ghraib images in relation to the cultural background of the United States triggered the prison scandal in The photographs documenting the abuse not only shocked the collective conscience but subverted the predominant ticking bomb narrative. Last but not least, it is argued that the Abu Ghraib scandal had an impact on legal and political decisions concerning the treatment of detainees in the War in Terror as well as on the torture debate and American popular culture. These effects cannot be regarded as direct consequences of the scandal, but have to be explained via changes in the cultural background.
The Background of Social Reality. Heidelberg; New York: Springer, , pp.
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Searle , War on Terror , and Abu Ghraib. View on springer. Un essai de typologie sociologique [The elementary forms of performative action. Toward a sociological typology]. The article investigates the use of performance in contemporary theories and develops a threefold typology of performative action. Ritual performances are primarily concerned with the conformity of their participants 1.
Theatrical performances are characterized by fictionality and introduce a distinction between performers and audiences 2. Social performances are also directed at audiences, but have to appear authentic in order to be successful 3. These elementary forms of performative action constitute complex social processes such as fictional stage dramas and non-fictional social dramas. However, stage dramas are often based on historical events and frequently cite social performances and estabilished rituals in order to achieve resonance in the cultural background of an audience.
In the end, it will become clear that all three forms of performance are empirically interwined - and they all tap the same cultural reservoir of the social imaginary. Positions de la sociologie, pp. Amok, Folter, Hooligans. Sociology of violence after Georges Bataille and Victor Turner] more. Our approach is situated between a phenomenology of violence, that is prominent in recent approaches in the phenomenology of violence and a constructivist perspective that takes the social attribution of violence serious.
Instead of Instead of adopting a pedagogical attitude towards the alleged increase of violence we try to get a grasp on the consciousness of perpetrators. This neglected perspective we try to develop by a synthesis of the works of Georges Bataille and Victor Turner. The paper aims to confront the sociology of violence according to Bataille and Turner with empirical phenomena of violence such as school shootings, torture and hooliganism. Starting with the autistic violence of school shootings to the escalating violence of torture and the collective violence of hooligans we show the usefulness as well as the limits of Bataille's and Turner's theories for the sociology of violence.
Published in: Michael Riekenberg ed. Zur Gewalttheorie von Georges Bataille. The Emergence of Iconic Depth. Secular Icons in a Comparative Perspective more. Secular icons are widely regarded as images of extraordinary symbolic power and as carriers of collective emotions and Secular icons are widely regarded as images of extraordinary symbolic power and as carriers of collective emotions and meanings.
The following contribution offers a theoretical elaboration and a comparative case study of secular icons. I will first discuss the role of visuality in social life and the relation of image and text. The second part of this study focuses on the sacred in sociology and modern society in order to clarify in what sense secular icons can be regarded as sacred.
Third, I will develop a catalogue of formal criteria for secular icons that can also be viewed as dimensions of iconicity. The fourth part applies this model to the Abu Ghraib photographs, in particular to the image that became the icon of the scandal. The fifth part introduces a comparative case, the most iconic photographs of the Vietnam war. Finally, my conclusion offers a resume, a short discussion of two problematic cases and some reflections on the growing importance of secular icons in a globalizing civil sphere. More Info: Published in: Jeffrey C. Materiality and Meaning in Social Life.
New York; Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan, , pp. What's at Stake in Torture? Drawing on the Abu Ghraib scandal and the photographs that helped precipitate it, the chapter discusses torture as a form of ritualization calculated to forge an enemy and consolidate absolute power. Torture, it shows, bears similarities Torture, it shows, bears similarities to forms of initiation, but it is actually a systematic elaboration of cruelty for political purposes.
To study torture as ritual, the chapter argues, undercuts any view of torture as merely, or primarily, a technique of interrogation. Rather, it is a means of social control that transgresses the very rule of law that it supposedly upholds. Assuming an explicitly ethical stance, the chapter argues that concerted opposition to torture is not only possible but necessary. Opposition, it says, can be successful only if supported by alternative liturgies aimed at building up the social body.
More Info: With Tom F. Driver und Barry Stephenson. Ritual, Media, and Conflict. View on oxfordscholarship. Ritual Dynamics of Torture. State, Power, and Violence. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, , pp. View on sai. Violence, Communication and Imagination. More Info: Published in: Postoutenko, Kirill ed.
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Totalitarian Communication. Hierarchies, Codes and Messages. Bielefeld: transcript, , pp. More Info: Published in: Schaub, Mirjam ed. Metaphysik und Grausamkeit. Bielefeld: transcript, View on edocs. Book Reviews. In: Neue Politische Literatur 59 2 , , pp. View on recensio. Reviews: Danger and security. The book by Michael Blain offers an empirical and critical investigation of the American War on Terror. In terms of methodology, the study focuses on American political discourses combining quantitative content analysis with detailed In terms of methodology, the study focuses on American political discourses combining quantitative content analysis with detailed qualitative interpretations.
According to the author, the American power elite can be characterized by its imperial agenda, even though the United States remains an empire in denial: George W Bush as well as Barrack Obama promoted policies of empire, while publicly denouncing any imperial ambition. More Info: In: International Sociology 29 5 , , pp.
Publication Date: Sep 1, View on iss. Reviews: Theory From a Historical Perspective. More Info: In: International Sociology 25 5 , , pp. Publisher: iss. Unpublished Manuscripts. Abu Ghraib als Imageproblem. Stigma, Tabu und Endogamie. Erstens besteht ein Risiko, dass die alevitische Minderheit in dem von Sunniten dominierten Einwanderermilieu als Gruppe mit niedrigerem Prestige und somit die alevitische Herkunft als Stigma wahrgenommen wird.
Diese Norm wird vor allem von der Einwanderergeneration getragen, aber sie beeinflusst auch das Heiratsverhalten der nachfolgenden Generation. Invited Talks. Abu Ghraib als ikonische Wende im Krieg gegen den Terror more. My dissertation investigated the American discourse on Abu Ghraib offering an interpretation of the scandal photos as well as an extensive My dissertation investigated the American discourse on Abu Ghraib offering an interpretation of the scandal photos as well as an extensive analysis of press articles and television transcripts Thus, for the first time the aftermath of the scandal in politics, law, art, popular culture and the torture discourse shifted into focus of analysis.
Despite the fact that the reconstruction of an historical event, tracing its causes and consequences, is a legitimate topic on its own, I followed my theoretical ambitions too. I would like to present a few selected arguments from different parts of my dissertation that are closely connected to each other. Thus, the much discussed binaries are only part of the story of culture; the rich texture of social meanings is not confined to concrete performances and symbols but also extends to shared and diffuse imaginary significations. From there I will move to the interpretation of the scandal photographs that were crucial for the outbreak of the scandal.
I will show how the visual meanings of the images and the cultural background of the audiences shaped the public perception of and reaction to the photographs which rendered certain narratives implausible and allowed for the re-election of President Bush. The decisive shift in the framing of Abu Ghraib happened only after the presidential elections, when Senator McCain proposed a critical reading of the scandal that found resonance in a broader audience.
Finally, I want to address the problem raised by the fact that the Abu Ghraib incidents were successfully framed as cases of abuse, not torture. Nevertheless, the torture discourse shifted after Abu Ghraib dramatically and references to the abuses and images were omnipresent. View on hse. Cultural sociological explanations do not stop at the surface level of conventional signs and expressive intentions and, but aim to uncover a deep cultural logic. The surface has to be interpreted as manifestation of a deep structure, whereas the deep structure is only accessible through the interpretation of the surface.
Gross, for example, underestimates the fact that the definition of a situation as problematic presupposes a pre-intentional and pre-reflexive background of action. Problems in action do not arise out of the blue, but, as Garfinkel would probably have put it, when a background understanding is violated. In contrast to sociological pragmatism, cultural sociology can account for this background understanding.
Elster pointed out that mechanisms often come in complementary pairs, though it remains unclear which mechanism is triggered under what circumstances. I will argue that cultural and specifically narrative structures play an important role in triggering these mechanisms. The Long Road to Abu Ghraib. History and Memory in the War on Terror more. View on hiso.
America's Image Problem in the War on Terror more. The sociological analysis of public scandals provides unique insights into the moral and cultural foundations of modern societies and into the problem of social change. The broadcasting of photographs documenting the abuse of Iraqi This study offers an explanation of the development and the long-term effects of the Abu Ghraib scandal. The empirical findings suggest that the scandal could only emerge when the abuse images were framed as a threat to the collective identity of the United States. The study shows further, how President Bush was able to win the upcoming elections, being able to redress the crisis early and profiting from a polarized political environment.
However, the time after the election shows that the scandal was simply not going away. The civil power of the scandal influenced the Supreme Court and political decisions on detainee policies, the debate on torture, American popular culture and the upcoming presidential elections. Location: Yale University, New Haven. View on ccs. Conference Presentations - English. Populism and the Power of Performative Transgressions more. They have to obey to the norms of civility and They have to obey to the norms of civility and avoid any form of symbolic pollution in order to become a sacred representation of a societal community.
The performative strategies of populist politicians around the world and in particular the electoral success of Donald Trump suggests otherwise. I propose to revisit our theoretical assumptions regarding the theory of the sacred and performance theory. Cultural Sociology , Populism , and Transgression. View on isaconf. In my talk, I address some results of an ongoing research project investigating the public commemoration of the Czech reformer Jan Hus in the context of the th anniversary celebrations of the Council of Constance Informed by approaches in cultural sociology and memory studies, we analyze commemoration practices, public discourses and museum exhibitions in Germany as well as in the Czech Republic.
In this talk, I will focus on our ethnographic fieldwork conducted in Constance, the place were Hus was burned years ago, in the first week of July, While participating in a variety of events and visiting different exhibitions, we witnessed tensions resulting from different appropriations of Hus. I would like to address how this religious heritage was appropriated by different parties involved in the festivities and how the meanings of Hus were debated and negotiated.
There were, for example, difficulties to incorporate the tragic burning of Jan Hus into the general celebrative framework of the Council Anniversary in Constance. Among the Czech participants, the conflict between religious and secular meanings of Hus was predominant. The nationalist reading was criticized by all religious representatives, which did not prevent them from fighting over the heritage of Hus among themselves. The Catholic Church as well as various protestant groups claimed Hus as one of them, including the members of a small Pentecostal church in Constance, who celebrated Hus as a religious martyr and local figure representing the second reformation to come.
All in all, our findings show that the heritage of Jan Hus is far from being settled. Structural Hermeneutics Reconsidered more. In my talk, I will provide the outline of an interpretative methodology that is suitable for all kinds of data. Following Jeffrey Alexander and Philip Smith, I will call this methodology structural hermeneutics, because it combines a I will further argue that we have to go beyond the model proposed by Alexander and Smith, whose main flaw is a certain disconnect between surface and depth rooted in their structuralist linguist assumptions.
Cultural Sociology , Qualitative methodology , and Hermeneutics. Biography and Form of Life. Toward a Cultural Analysis of Narrative Interviews more. This paper introduces the concept of form of life, borrowed from Wittgenstein, as a tool for the analysis of biographies and life trajectories. Forms of life can be understood as socially shaped and shared meaning structures informing the Forms of life can be understood as socially shaped and shared meaning structures informing the beliefs, aspirations and decisions of actors during their life course in their material and other contexts.
As a concept, form of life can be used on different analytical levels, ranging from individual biographies and typical trajectories to whole cultures. The concept renders the integrity of biographies and cultures intelligible without suppressing their contradictions and tensions, which are in fact a crucial part of every form of life. We state further that forms of life cannot be understood in isolation, but exist in constellations involving meaningful and non-meaningful elements.
Thus our approach provides a realistic and at the same time non-reductive account of culture. The analysis of forms of life can be understood as a kind of structural hermeneutics treating the interview text as a manifestation of a deeper meaning structure. Narrative, symbolic binaries and metaphors play a crucial role in such an analysis.
Finally, the approach is illustrated with the interpretation of two narrative interviews from the qualitative strand of a broader longitudinal panel study. Collective Intentionality and Methodological Individualism more. Nevertheless, the notion of collectivity has mostly been taken for granted Nevertheless, the notion of collectivity has mostly been taken for granted and thus remained ambiguous and under-theorized to this day. What distinguishes a collective belief from individual beliefs shared by actors?
Or is there no meaningful distinction? Even though collective forms of action and shared mental states should be of eminent interest for most sociologists, few attempted to theorize these concepts properly.
Drawing on the recent philosophical debates, I would like to analyze the concept of collective intentionality and discuss its ontological and methodological consequences. Searle offers a strong reading of collective intentionality that claims to be compatible with methodological and ontological individualism.
The arguments of both authors can be brought together in a sociological conception of collective intentionality that has strong similarities to the Durkheimian homo duplex. Collective states and actions always entail a normative component. Collective emotions and beliefs are not only shared, but one feels an obligation to share them. Searle , and Emile Durkheim. Shifting Risk Perception after Shocking Events. Our risk perception not only changes in social and political contexts but is also mediated through pre-existing cultural patterns.
By investigating an American and a German By investigating an American and a German case, we would like to show how shocking events bring about decisive shifts in our risk perception and governance and how specific cultural patterns frame those shifts. Similarly, the shocking accident at the Fukushima nuclear plant following the big earthquake had a profound impact on the risk perception of nuclear energy in Germany and changed the government policies.
But these discursive and political shifts cannot be thought of as a direct consequence of these events. It is rather the specific framing of events in particular national contexts that leads to shifts in risk perception and governance. This is particularly clear in the German case: the recent energy policy change was mediated through a discursive pattern of nuclear resistance, which is deeply rooted in the German political culture.
An Interpretive Analysis of Narrative Interviews more. Educational and occupational decisions are characterized by varying degrees of uncertainty. Thus, we expect culture to manifest itself at decision points of life trajectories such as high-stakes educational choices. We take her observation as a confirmation of our hypothesis that in times of crisis culture exerts a more visible and direct influence on social life — and individual lives. We will exemplify different types of how culture matters in biographies with interview excerpts from the Russian trajectories project.
Theoretically and methodologically, critical and transitional periods seem to be suited best to study the impact of culture — despite the fact that cultural patterns are also effective in everyday habitual life. Toward a Cultural Hermeneutics of the Visual more. The Sociology of Tomorrow and the Study of Culture more.
View on casopishalas. Narrating Abu Ghraib more. Interpretation and Explanation in Cultural Sociology more. The paper discusses the relation between interpretation and explanation in cultural sociology, develops a three-step model of interpretation and demonstrates how this model can be applied to images and discourses.
Drawing on the early Drawing on the early sociological works of Karl Mannheim, different levels of interpretation can be distinguished and used to explain action.
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At first there is the level of individual intentions, literal meanings, discursive utterances and visual textures that require an act of interpretation by the observer, though this is seldom noticed in everyday life. The next step of interpretation focusses on more complex conventional meanings, such as specific motifs, narratives and metaphors. However, a cultural sociological explanation proper does not stop at the surface level of individual intentions and conventional meanings, but aims to uncover a deep cultural logic and the corresponding cultural mechanisms.
The proposed interpretative circle might seem at first futile, but it can be quite fertile, if different phenomena are taken into account. Finally, the usefulness of this approach will be demonstrated in an analysis of the torture question in the American War on Terror and the Abu Ghraib scandal, based on the study of relevant literature and government documents, popular culture and iconic images as well as an extensive discourse analysis of American newspapers and television programs Ultimately, the meaning of the Abu Ghraib images changed the popular imagination of torture on a deep cultural level.
Cultural Sociology , Qualitative methodology , and Karl Mannheim. View on conf. Image, Self-Image and Identity.
The Case of Abu Ghraib more. View on soc. Culture and Action. A Proposal for the Missing Link more. However, despite recent developments in cultural theory and sociological action theory, the causal link between However, despite recent developments in cultural theory and sociological action theory, the causal link between culture and action — although widely recognized — remains theoretically ambiguous.
In my paper, I would like to address the shortcomings of cultural sociologists as well as the negligence of culture in recent theories of action. A cultural conception of the background and background causality might help us to understand how classification systems and values, symbolic binaries and narratives inform and shape human action.
Conservatism and Liberalism in the USA more. Collective Feelings and Methodological Individualism more. The Cocktail Bar. A Qualitative Analysis of Bar Keeping more. The cocktail is a cultural phenomenon that became a global icon during the second half of the last century. Nowadays, cocktail bars can be found all over the world, even in Konstanz, where we collected several hours of video material in Nowadays, cocktail bars can be found all over the world, even in Konstanz, where we collected several hours of video material in order to analyze the social behavior in a cocktail bar.
We were mainly interested in the following research questions: How do the barkeepers manage their work and the limited space behind the bar? How do they interact with each other and the objects around them? And what role do the customers play? We decided against a grounded theory approach and chose to begin with a flexible theoretical framework consisting of two terminological triplets.
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Space, body and artifact are not only observable items of the social world, but specifically arranged and encoded in a cocktail bar. Practice, ritual and performance are used by us as modes of action that have specific characteristics and fulfill different social functions. After having defined and situated these concepts with regard to the contemporary sociological literature, a selection of our video material will be shown and discussed.
A qualitative analysis of the empirical data enables us to see how actors deal with the enabling constraints of body and space; furthermore, the multiple functions of artifacts and performances become visible. This study is a first step towards an understanding of the cocktail bar as a culturally significant phenomenon.
Soziologische und sozialpsychologische Aspekte psychischer Erkrankungen
To deepen our insights in this complex microcosm, we wish to discuss our findings with a broader audience. Collective Feelings in Theory and Society. Contested Memories. The Vietnam War and American Identity more. Social Ontology and Cultural Sociology. The paper presented explores the use of ritual science for a deeper understanding of torture.
The three leading questions are: Can torture be conceptualized as a ritual of violence? How has is it to be conceptualized? And what is the gain And what is the gain of such a conception? Starting point is a thesis of Randall Collins: Overt violence as a form of cruelty has to be understood as a Durkheimian ritual. But this rather static notion of the ritual needs an update from performative approaches to the ritual.
Otherwise, we not only fail to grasp the social dynamic of violent rituals, but also miss an important part of their symbolic meaning. In the second half of the talk, the proposed concept of torture as a ritual will be tested on a case study: The abuses in the Abu Ghraib prison depicted on the infamous photographs. Not only had the camera recorded those abuses, it had also been a part of the humiliating rituals themselves. They were, at least in part, staged for the camera.
Not by chance was the first impression of some observers that these images were a piece of modern performance art. If we look at them from a performative perspective, we could gain a better understanding of their strange setting and the posing of the soldiers. My talk has mainly two aims. I will start to argue that our typology of cultural traumata is incomplete.
In order to get a more comprehensive understanding of cultural trauma, we have to add the trauma of failure to the trauma of victims In order to get a more comprehensive understanding of cultural trauma, we have to add the trauma of failure to the trauma of victims and perpetrators. I will further argue that the American memory of the Vietnam War is characterized by a threefold trauma. These three conflicting narratives shape the discourse of American civil society until now. Download reference work entry PDF. Open image in new window. Chronische Belastungen sind v. Insofern stellt z.
Im Vergleich zu den eben genannten Netzwerktypen unterscheiden sich die sozialen Netzwerke schizophrener Patienten signifikant in allen o. Die Familie als soziale Ressource ist jedoch u. Meist wird z. Nach Kelstrup et al. Prozessmodell von Bruggemann Hier werden verschiedene Formen von Zufriedenheit konzipiert, die aufgrund unterschiedlicher psychischer Verarbeitungsmechanismen der Soll-Ist-Differenzen entstehen. Lauer ; Priebe et al. In Patientenbefragungen z. Der Wertewandel vom Paternalismus zur individuellen Autonomie bzw. Die Partizipation des Patienten setzt voraus, dass ihm entsprechende Entscheidungshilfen in Form ausreichender Informationen an die Hand gegeben werden, z.
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