Some months earlier, Osty had the opportunity of testing the efficiency of his system at the expense of a Polish medium, Stanislawa Popielska. In darkness, as the medium was announcing that the conjured ghost was about to produce a phenomenon, Osty pressed on the shutter release on his camera. The picture showed Stanislawa, freed from her bonds, stretching her arm over the table to seize the object her medium power was supposed to levitate!
It was published with the account, by Osty, of the reactions caused by the discovery of the fraud. The husband, left in Poland, far from harbouring ideas of murders, gave his own explanation of the picture, summed up by the Osty in these words :. Before entering the room, Rudi was undressed and dressed with pajamas bearing fluorescent stripes on the sleeves and trousers. Next to them, some people present were sitting in a line. On a high table, about one meter distant from Rudi and behind him, a white handkerchief, a flower and a bell were laid.
A weak adjustable orange-coloured light, coming from the ceiling covered the table and its surroundings. To follow her movements in the darkness, the usual curtains of the spiritualist cabinet were adorned with fluorescent stripes on their borders and little bell at the bottom.
Because of translation problems, Osty did not judge necessary to explain to Rudi the exact nature of the controls. The young Austrian only knew that he was again the subject of concern of scientists wishing to witness strange phenomena. At times, she said she was Lola Montes, an adventurer who had her hour of glory in America, performing episodes of her own life on stage. But whenever asked precise questions about Lola Montes, she was never able to give the right answers, as Schrenck-Notzing had noticed before. She used to ask the people present to create a joyous atmosphere, to have fun, to hum songs or to talk of this and that.
She even sometimes asked people she disliked to leave. Olga usually required a break after a fifteen or twenty minutes wait, so as for Rudi to take some rest before turning to more serious issues. His breathing was often compared to the noise of a train engine. He was sometimes shook by sudden nervous moves and streaming with sweat.
But Osty did not make any particular comment on that strange matter. Nevertheless, Rudi remained perfectly visible in the red light, sitting on his chair, in his fluorescent outfit. For Osty, this was a high disappointment. The shy moves of the curtains were nothing compared to the violent gusts attested by Schrenck-Notzing or Harry Price. What was wrong with Rudi?
Gerda knew Rudi and his family very well. On November 28, , Osty wrote :. But they were enough, considering the seriousness of the control, to give me the complete assurance that Rudi S. I claim this with my mind perfectly at ease. Photographic records of the phenomena, by the way of invisible rays, have not been made yet, for we wish the medium to get acquainted to the place and things, and because the phenomena have been too rare.
None of the classical phenomena happened, but, for the first time, Osty set his infrared rays and cameras control system. A new high table was set, screw to the floor, with only the white handkerchief on it. At A moment later, the first flash of magnesium was lighting the room. Olga explained that the sudden light prevented her from lifting the handkerchief, and asked for Rudi to take a rest. A second flash of magnesium.
The people present were on their seats, Rudi was visible, prostrated, his back facing the table, the mirrors reflecting the rays were in their right place… and the handkerchief was still on the table. Osty suggested a possibility:. We found nothing. Osty kept the control on the cameras thanks to a switch. Nine minutes passed before the phenomenon of the day before came back. When Olga announced that the Force was coming close to the handkerchief, the bell rang.
At the second ringing, Osty took a picture. The bell ring again many times, up to 44 seconds in a row, and always whenever Olga was telling that the Force was coming to or from the table. After a while, Olga offered that the table be unscrewed, promising that she would be able to lift it. It was arranged with Olga that she would warn the audience herself as to when to take the picture. On this day, the table did not levitate.
Even if not visible on photographs, the Force could anyway absorb infrared rays it went through when coming out of the spiritualist cabinet curtains. According to Osty, the discovery was all the more convincing since young Rudi ignored the nature of the control he was submitted to. On November, 4, , Rudi finally came back from Austria. On January, 12, , Gerda Walther wrote to Osty :.
I am sending you a report of two of them, written for the Austrian paper Das Neue Licht. It is probably the longest series to which a medium has ever been submitted to. Wishing to be sure that the Force was clearly confined to a place, Osty then made modifications in his system, creating two independent sources of rays instead of a single one. One of the rays came in front of the table, the other behind. Then, Osty interested himself to the maximum rate of absorption by the ray when the Force crossed it.
He obtained a maximum value of 70 to 75 percent of the initial intensity. The infrared ray was then never completely cut, as it would have been if a solid and opaque substance had crossed it. Bookseller Inventory Book Description Condition: New. Reprinted in with the help of original edition published long back .
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This work is in the public domain in the United States of America, and possibly other nations. Richet also managed to find a place for final causes in his hotchpotch Lamarcko-Darwinism. Richet was so intent on expelling chance from the world that he confused law with purpose, efficiency with final causes, and cause with effect. As Conry , p. He apparently had a better understanding of both Lamarck and Darwin.
Richet probably had as little time to answer in detail as we have to deal with Sully-Prudhomme here.
OEUVRES / WORKS - Pierre JANET ()
Yes, Richet did indeed speak too much, and in his non-experimental work he seldom said anything original. Most of his work boils down to an unrestrained flow of personal utterances, more than a few of which are simply educated versions of the sort of conversation you can hear in any bar. He showed a tiresome tendency to repeat himself, with merely rhetorical variations or with genuine contradictions.
In other words, as one of my students not well versed in the niceties of academic language might put it, he was a pompous windbag, a muddler affected by logorrhea, and a repetitive bungler. In spite of all this, his case is interesting from a historical as well as general point of view. His practical proposals met with a mixed reception, which may be why the way he presented them fluctuated over time. Sterilisation and euthanasia were far from generally accepted, although they were supported by a larger number of doctors and social hygienists than is generally imagined, even in pre-Vichy France Carol, , p.
Historians have documented convergences as well as divergences, in Europe generally and in France in particular, between pro-natalism and eugenicism, and the presence of figures representing different political opinions in each of them. As was his habit, Richet saw no contradiction. And whatever the case, quality was more important than quantity, he added. However, after , the year Richet died, it was Alexis Carrel, the Nobel laureate for medicine, who set the stage for a renewed debate on drastic means of dealing with the unfit thanks to the enormous international success of Man, the unknown , published that year Mucchielli, ; Reggiani, I do not believe it is an exaggeration to state that after the early s Richet survived by rehashing his views some way or another and by an imitation of himself.
Richet is only a particularly striking instance of something that is normal in the history of science, and of ideas in general: it possible to be an important scientist and still pronounce nonsense in the name of science.
Traité de métapsychique
But that nonsense is part of history, and the historian must take it seriously. Science does not per se protect scientists from themselves. Luckily, it is self-correcting in the long run, despite the sad fact that scientists often are not. Richet, Charles. In: Tort, Patrick Org.
Paris: Presses Universitaires de France. In: Tort, Patrick Ed. Population et Avenir , v. Perspectives in American History. Reproducing the French race : immigration, intimacy, and embodiment in the early twentieth century. Durham: Duke University Press. Paris: Seuil. Social Darwinism in France. Alabama: The University of Alabama Press. Paris: Vrin. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
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On the origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. London: John Murray. Pro-natalism and hygienism in France, the example of the fight against venereal disease. Population , v.
- Traite De Metapsychique by Charles Richet.
- Scientific work;
- Synonyms and antonyms of cryptesthésie in the French dictionary of synonyms.
- Traite De Metapsychique (French Edition) (Paperback).
- Traité de métapsychique.
Eugenics in France and in Scandinavia: two case studies. In: Robert A. Peel Ed. Essays in the history of eugenics. London: The Galton Institute. Richet Paris: CNDP. Breadwinners and citizens : gender in the making of the French social model. Gender, the family, and the fascist temptation: visions of masculinity in the natalist-familiarist movement, The French right between the wars : political and intellectual movements from conservatism to fascism.
New York: Berghahn. Gender, anti-individualism and nationalism: the Alliance Nationale and the pronatalist backlash against the Femme Moderne, French Historical Studies , v. Pacifismo eugenetico. In: Carlo Altini Org. Bologna: Il Mulino. Paz por el bien de la raza. In: Redondo, Francisco A. Paris: Marpont et Flammarion.
Criminals and their scientists : the history of criminology in international perspective. Paris: Esprit. Charles Richet READ, Geoff. Was there a fascist femininity? Gender and French fascism in political context. The republic of men : gender and the political parties in interwar France.
Oxford: Berghahn. Des hommes et des citoyens : paternalism and masculinity on the Republican right in interwar France, Au secours! Paris: Peyronnet. Paris: Montaigne. Paris: Aubier.