Woman drinking pink gin from a wine glass on the Tube is back at it again | Metro News
London Underground to Heathrow. Where to catch trains Heathrow has three London Underground stations — one for Terminals 2 and 3 and one each at Terminal 4 and Terminal 5. All stations are in Travelcard Zone 6. Fares and tickets Underground tickets are available at all stations. Train times The first and last trains to and from Heathrow are shown below. Night Tube On Fridays and Saturdays the Piccadilly Line now operates a hour service, with night trains to and from Terminals 2, 3 and 5 on average every 10 minutes.
Back to top. Entry date. Entry time Select Select The day-to-day running of the corporation is left to the Commissioner of Transport for London. TfL eventually replaced London Regional Transport , and discontinued the use of the London Transport brand in favour of its own brand. The transfer of responsibility was staged, with transfer of control of the London Underground delayed until July , when London Underground Limited became an indirect subsidiary of TfL. This was undertaken before control passed to TfL, who were opposed to the arrangement.
Electronic ticketing in the form of the contactless Oyster card was introduced in The Underground serves stations. The line and the stations were transferred to the London Overground network in These are made up of the sub-surface network and the deep-tube lines. These lines have the exclusive use of a pair of tracks, except for the Piccadilly line, which shares track with the District line between Acton Town and Hanger Lane Junction and with the Metropolitan line between Rayners Lane and Uxbridge; and the Bakerloo line, which shares track with London Overground services north of Queen's Park.
Fifty-five per cent of the system runs on the surface. In some places, the tunnels are above each other for example, the Central line east of St Paul's station , or the running tunnels are on the right for example on the Victoria line between Warren Street and King's Cross St. Pancras, to allow cross-platform interchange with the Northern line at Euston. On the sections of line shared with mainline trains, such as the District line from East Putney to Wimbledon and Gunnersbury to Richmond, and the Bakerloo line north of Queen's Park, the centre rail is bonded to the running rails.
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The average speed on the Underground is The Metropolitan line can reach speeds of 62 mph. The London Underground was used by 1. The Underground uses several railways and alignments that were built by main-line railway companies. London Underground trains come in two sizes, larger sub-surface trains and smaller deep-tube trains.
Stock on sub-surface lines is identified by a letter such as S Stock , used on the Metropolitan line , while tube stock is identified by the year of intended introduction  for example, Stock , used on the Jubilee line. In the years since the first parts of the London Underground opened, many stations and routes have been closed. Some stations were closed because of low passenger numbers rendering them uneconomical; some became redundant after lines were re-routed or replacements were constructed; and others are no longer served by the Underground but remain open to National Rail main line services.
In some cases, such as Aldwych , the buildings remain and are used for other purposes. In others, such as British Museum , all evidence of the station has been lost through demolition. In June a groundwater cooling system was installed at Victoria station. The Deep Tube Programme, investigating replacing the trains for the Bakerloo, Central, Waterloo and City and Piccadilly lines, is looking for trains with better energy conservation and regenerative braking, on which it might be possible to install a form of air conditioning.
In the original Tube design, trains passing through close fitting tunnels act as pistons to create air pressure gradients between stations. This pressure difference drives ventilation between platforms and the surface exits through the passenger foot network. It also depends on an absence of turbulence in the tunnel headspace.
In many stations the ventilation system is now ineffective because of alterations that reduce tunnel diameters and increase turbulence. An example is Green Park tube station, where false ceiling panels attached to metal frames have been installed that reduce the above-head airspace diameter by more than half in many parts. Originally air turbulence was kept to a minimum by keeping all signage flat to the tunnel walls. Now the ventilation space above head height is crowded with ducting, conduits, cameras, speakers and equipment acting as a baffle plates with predictable reductions in flow. Temporary sign boards that stand at the top of escalators also maximise turbulence.
The alterations to the ventilation system are important, not only to heat exchange, but also the quality of the air at platform level, particularly given its asbestos content. Originally access to the deep-tube platforms was by a lift. The shortest, at Stratford, gives a vertical rise of 4. There are lifts,  and numbers have increased in recent years because of investment making tube stations accessible.
Over 28 stations will have lifts installed over the next 10 years, bring the total of step-free stations to over In mid London Underground, in partnership with Virgin Media , tried out Wi-Fi hot spots in many stations, but not in the tunnels, that allowed passengers free internet access. The free trial proved successful and was extended to the end of  whereupon it switched to a service freely available to subscribers to Virgin Media and others, or as a paid-for service.
Preparation works started in early The main tunnelling was completed in November , having started in April. The extension is due to open in Provision will be made for a possible future extension to Clapham Junction by notifying the London Borough of Wandsworth of a reserved course under Battersea Park and subsequent streets. Funding was agreed in December ,  and the final approval for the extension was given on 24 July ,  with the aim of completion by As of November , the project is on hold awaiting additional funding. With post-war austerity, the plan was abandoned.
In Ken Livingstone , the then Mayor of London , announced that within twenty years Camberwell would have a tube station. In , as part of the planning for the transfer of the North London line to what became London Overground , TfL proposed re-extending the Bakerloo line to Watford Junction. The London Borough of Hillingdon has proposed that the Central line be extended from West Ruislip to Uxbridge via Ickenham, claiming this would cut traffic on the A40 in the area. The proposal is being considered by the government.
In mid Transport for London issued a tender for up to 18 trains for the Jubilee line and up to 50 trains for the Northern line. These would be used to increase frequencies and cover the Battersea extension on the Northern line. The study had showed that, with new generation trains and re-signalling:. A notice was published on 28 February in the Official Journal of the European Union asking for expressions of interest in building the trains.
Some stations are in two zones, and the cheapest fare applies. In , TfL became the first public transport provider in the world to accept payment from contactless bank cards. Over million journeys have taken place using contactless, and TfL has become one of Europe's largest contactless merchants, with around 1 in 10 contactless transactions in the UK taking place on across the TfL network. A concessionary fare scheme is operated by London Councils for residents who are disabled or meet certain age criteria.
In addition to automatic and staffed faregates at stations, the Underground also operates on a proof-of-payment system. The system is patrolled by both uniformed and plain-clothes fare inspectors with hand-held Oyster-card readers. The tube closes overnight during the week, but since , the Central , Jubilee , Northern , Piccadilly , and Victoria lines, as well as a short section of the London Overground have operated all night on Friday and Saturday nights.
The first trains run from about and the last trains until just after , with later starting times on Sunday mornings. The Underground runs a limited service on Christmas Eve with some lines closing early, and does not operate on Christmas Day. On 19 August , London Underground launched a hour service on the Victoria and Central lines with plans in place to extend this to the Piccadilly, Northern and Jubilee lines starting on Friday morning and continuing right through until Sunday evening.
The service operates on the:. No services will operate on the other lines for the time being. Accessibility for people with limited mobility was not considered when most of the system was built, and before fire regulations prohibited wheelchairs on the Underground. The standard issue tube map indicates stations that are step-free from street to platforms. Access from platform to train at some stations can be assisted using a boarding ramp operated by staff, and a section has been raised on some platforms to reduce the step.
During peak hours, stations can get so crowded that they need to be closed. Passengers may not get on the first train  and the majority of passengers do not find a seat on their trains,  some trains having more than four passengers every square metre. In November it was reported that 80 people had died by suicide in the previous year on the London Underground, up from 46 in These were constructed in to aid drainage of water from the platforms, but also halve the likelihood of a fatality when a passenger falls or jumps in front of a train. The Tube Challenge is the competition for the fastest time to travel to all London Underground stations, tracked by Guinness World Records since The goal is to visit all the stations on the system, but not necessarily using all the lines; participants may connect between stations on foot, or by using other forms of public transport.
As of , the record for fastest completion was held by Andi James Finland and Steve Wilson UK , who completed the challenge in 15 hours, 45 minutes and 38 seconds on 21 May Early maps of the Metropolitan and District railways were city maps with the lines superimposed,  and the District published a pocket map in He presented his original draft in , and after initial rejection it was first printed in Today's tube map is an evolution of that original design, and the ideas are used by many metro systems around the world.
The current standard tube map shows the Docklands Light Railway, London Overground, Emirates Air Line, London Tramlink and the London Underground;  a more detailed map covering a larger area, published by National Rail and Transport for London, includes suburban railway services.
While the first use of a roundel in a London transport context was the trademark of the London General Omnibus Company registered in , it was first used on the Underground in when the UERL placed a solid red circle behind station nameboards on platforms to highlight the name.
The words "London Transport" were added inside the ring, above and below the bar. The Carr-Edwards report, published in as possibly the first attempt at a graphics standards manual, introduced stricter guidelines. Seventy of the London Underground stations use buildings that are on the Statutory List of Buildings of Special Architectural or Historic Interest , and five have entrances in listed buildings. Clapham Common. In the first decade of the 20th century Leslie Green established a house style for the tube stations built by the UERL, which were clad in ox-blood faience blocks.
The buildings had metal lettering attached to pale walls. When the Central line was extended east, the stations were simplified Holden proto- Brutalist designs,  and a cavernous concourse built at Gants Hill in honour of early Moscow Metro stations. The stations of the s extension of the Jubilee line were much larger than before  and designed in a high-tech style by architects such as Norman Foster and Michael Hopkins , making extensive use of exposed metal plating. Many platforms have unique interior designs to help passenger identification. The tiling at Baker Street incorporates repetitions of Sherlock Holmes 's silhouette,  at Tottenham Court Road semi-abstract mosaics by Eduardo Paolozzi feature musical instruments, tape machines and butterflies,  and at Charing Cross , David Gentleman designed the mural depicting the construction of the Eleanor Cross.
The first posters used various type fonts, as was contemporary practice,  and station signs used sans serif block capitals. The typesetters P22 developed today's electronic version, sometimes called TfL Johnston, in Early advertising posters used various letter fonts. The Johnston Sans letter font began appearing on posters from Numbers of commissions dropped, to eight a year in the s and just four a year in the s,  with images from artists such Harry Stevens and Tom Eckersley.
Art on the Underground was introduced in by Henry Fitzhugh to revive London Transport as a patron of the arts: the Underground commissioned six works a year,  judged first on artistic merit. Similarly, Poems on the Underground has commissioned poetry since that are displayed in carriages.
The London Underground Film Office received over requests to film in Popular legends about the Underground being haunted persist to this day. Call of Duty: Modern Warfare 3 has a single-player level named Mind The Gap where most of the level takes place between the dockyards and Westminster while the player and a team of SAS attempt to take down terrorists attempting to escape using the London Underground via a hijacked train.
The game also features the multiplayer map "Underground", in which players are combating in a fictitious Underground station. The London Underground map serves as a playing field for the conceptual game of Mornington Crescent  which is named after a station on the Northern line and the board game The London Game. The London Underground is frequently studied by academics because it is one of the largest, oldest, and most widely used systems of public transit in the world.
Therefore, the transportation and complex network literatures include extensive information about the Tube system. For London Underground passengers, research suggests that transfers are highly costly in terms of walk and wait times. Because these costs are unevenly distributed across stations and platforms, path choice analyses may be helpful in guiding upgrades and choice of new stations.
Since its beginnings in the 19th century, the Tube network has evolved greatly. London transport portal. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the London public transit system. For the suburban London rail network, see London Overground.
For the album by Herbie Mann, see London Underground album. A larger sub-surface Metropolitan line train at Farringdon bound for Aldgate. Main article: History of the London Underground. Main article: London Underground infrastructure. The line has been referred to as the Circle line at least since and first appeared separately on the tube map in Main article: London Underground rolling stock. Main article: List of former and unopened London Underground stations. See also: London Underground infrastructure: Lifts and escalators.
Main article: Northern line extension to Battersea.
Main article: Croxley Rail Link. Main article: Bakerloo line extension. Map of proposed termini of the line. The proposed alignment is not yet known. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Main article: New Tube for London. Main article: London Underground ticketing. Main article: Night Tube. Main article: Tube map. An early form of the roundel as used on the platform at Ealing Broadway and the form used today outside Westminster tube station.
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