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Drug utilization by systems is shown in Figure 2. As per FDA regulations any drug that may lead to adverse reactions and that might cause serious injury or result in death should be labeled by black box warning [ 18 ]. The number of drugs with black box warning are 81 drugs As per the lists, only 7 3.
Tramadol and oxycodone are listed among top 60 most prescribed drugs in the US. Within top drugs the most common ADRs and their range according to the systems are shown in Figure 3.
The visual language of the top most prescribed drugs presented in the paper will foster long-term learning and enable students and residents to be more confident and competent before facing actual patients. Additionally, the drug lists will be handy for pharmacists, researchers and other healthcare professionals interested in developing new strategies for treating patients with various ailments.
We wish to acknowledge Melissa Santibanez for her critical analysis of our manuscript and Larkin University College of Pharmacy for providing access to Lexicomp and AccessPharmacy databases. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Pharmacy Basel v. Pharmacy Basel. Published online May Andrea V.
Making Sense of Medication Classification
Fuentes , Moises D. Pineda , and Kalyan C. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Received Mar 21; Accepted May This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Pharmacists have access to a plethora of information related to drugs.
Keywords: black box warning, oral administration, cardiovascular, central nervous system, endocrine, gastrointestinal, antibiotics, antihypertensive, inhalers, biologics, nasal, injection. Introduction Over the past few decades, the health care needs of our population changed along with the role of pharmacists [ 1 ]. Materials and Methods To accomplish the study objectives, this study was divided into two phases. Open in a separate window. Figure 1.
Results and Discussion Top most prescribed drugs shown in Figure 1 a—d, were developed using the data obtained from Clincalc website. Figure 2. Blackbox Warning As per FDA regulations any drug that may lead to adverse reactions and that might cause serious injury or result in death should be labeled by black box warning [ 18 ].
Biologicals and Chemicals As per the lists, only 7 3. For example, the general stem -cept refers to receptor molecules, and the subgroups define the targets e. New stems are constantly being created for novel pharmacologic categories of medications. However, pharmacists can help provide other healthcare professionals with information about the stems associated with the most common drugs prescribed or administered within their specialties, along with the stems for drugs used to treat common chronic conditions.
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Short educational programs covering a few stems at a time related to a specific class of medications are recommended. This should be accompanied by information regarding the clinical effects and common or dangerous adverse effects found within each class of drugs. ISMP is borrowing the idea from an outstanding effort that is already underway in the French publication, Prescrire International , a subscription-based journal provides reliable, independent information that enables fully informed decision-making about medications.
USAN Council. January 13, American Medical Association. Procedure for USAN name selection. Drahl C. Where drug names come from. Behind every generic name lies a specific process. However, the stem helps position an unfamiliar drug with others in a class and provides clues as to its use and effects. For example, drugs ending in the stem -olol belong to the class of drugs known as beta blockers.
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Some examples of beta blockers available in the US include atenolol, bisoprolol, esmolol, metoprolol, and propranolol. While this class of drugs may be used to treat a variety of conditions, in general, a drug with an -olol stem in its generic name is often used to treat heart failure, cardiac arrhythmias, and hypertension, and shares similar adverse effects, like bradycardia and hypotension.
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Another example is the group of drugs ending with the stem -oxetine used for antidepressants FLU oxetine type. These drugs are selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors SSRI. They work by increasing levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin in the brain by blocking their reabsorption or reuptake.
These drugs are used for various psychiatric disorders such as depression, anxiety, and obsessive-compulsive disorder.
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They share many of the same side effects. Once the nonproprietary names are built using the appropriate stem and other conventions, occasionally the pharmaceutical company supplies a syllable or two that may be meaningful to the drug development process. The single generic name also facilitates communication in global professional journals and research.
Generic names may be a mystery requiring brute memorization, and these healthcare professionals may not associate the drug with potential adverse effects within a certain class of drugs. Some healthcare professionals may have received extensive education during academic and clinical training regarding medications, including pharmacology, therapeutic uses, possible adverse effects, and potential interactions, but the drug nomenclature and importance of stems may not have been stressed.