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Sort order. The collection holds a wide variety of brilliant stories. Elizabeth Engstrom's effortless way of placing the reader within the story experience is in fact a product of her great skill at building characters and weaving mysterious tales, taut with suspense and warmly human. I highly recommend this book. Feb 21, Karry rated it liked it Shelves: short-stories. I like quite a few of these but there were also some that just didn't engage me, so it seems to go with short stories and me.
I like the suspicious kind of mind that questions everything, but there must be SOME things that one can depend on, at least most of the time. I'm looking forward to hearing her speak in April. Apr 25, Chris rated it really liked it Shelves: general-reading. Strange short stories. Margaret rated it liked it Jun 15, John Ervin rated it it was amazing Aug 31, Christopher Conlon rated it liked it Jun 19, Liza rated it really liked it Jan 07, David rated it really liked it Feb 16, Alan Clark rated it it was amazing Feb 07, Sammy Wilbanks rated it really liked it May 07, Carissa Thrush rated it liked it Jul 21, Alexis Duran rated it really liked it Mar 29, Ribblefizz added it Feb 05, Jt marked it as to-read May 03, Sarah marked it as to-read Oct 17, Sarah marked it as to-read Nov 12, Brooke Wood marked it as to-read Jan 31, Renee Kaupp added it Feb 11, Mad Giles Giles A.
Madding marked it as to-read Jun 16, Rune Mu marked it as to-read Feb 16, Gazmend Kryeziu marked it as to-read Mar 26, Katie marked it as to-read May 01, Willow Croft marked it as to-read Nov 11, Early children's literature consisted of spoken stories, songs, and poems that were used to educate, instruct, and entertain children.
He explains that children were in the past not considered as greatly different from adults and were not given significantly different treatment. Other scholars have qualified this viewpoint by noting that there was a literature designed to convey the values, attitudes, and information necessary for children within their cultures,  such as the Play of Daniel from the twelfth century. During the seventeenth century, the concept of childhood began to emerge in Europe. Adults saw children as separate beings, innocent and in need of protection and training by the adults around them. In Locke's philosophy, tabula rasa was the theory that the human mind is at birth a "blank slate" without rules for processing data, and that data is added and rules for processing are formed solely by one's sensory experiences.
A corollary of this doctrine was that the mind of the child was born blank and that it was the duty of the parents to imbue the child with correct notions. Locke himself emphasized the importance of providing children with "easy pleasant books" to develop their minds rather than using force to compel them: "Children may be cozen'd into a knowledge of the letters; be taught to read, without perceiving it to be anything but a sport, and play themselves into that which others are whipp'd for.
In the nineteenth century, a few children's titles became famous as classroom reading texts. Another influence on this shift in attitudes came from Puritanism , which stressed the importance of individual salvation. Puritans were concerned with the spiritual welfare of their children, and there was a large growth in the publication of "good godly books" aimed squarely at children.
Chapbooks , pocket-sized pamphlets that were often folded instead of being stitched,  : 32 were published in Britain; illustrated by woodblock printing , these inexpensive booklets reprinted popular ballads , historical re-tellings, and folk tales. Though not specifically published for children at this time, young people enjoyed the booklets as well. Hornbooks also appeared in England during this time, teaching children basic information such as the alphabet and the Lord's Prayer.
The first such book was a catechism for children written in verse by the Puritan John Cotton. Another early book, The New England Primer , was in print by and used in schools for years. The primer begins with "The young Infant's or Child's morning Prayer" and evening prayer. It then shows the alphabet, vowels, consonants, double letters, and syllables before providing a religious rhyme of the alphabet, beginning "In Adam's fall We sinned all In , the Pentamerone from Italy became the first major published collection of European folk tales.
Charles Perrault began recording fairy tales in France, publishing his first collection in They were not well received among the French literary society, who saw them as only fit for old people and children. It is considered to be the first picture book produced specifically for children. A Pretty and Splendid Maiden's Mirror , an adaptation of a German book for young women, became the first Swedish children's book upon its publication.
Called the first European storybook to contain fairy-tales, it eventually had 75 separate stories and written for an adult audience. Russia 's earliest children's books, primers , appeared in the late sixteenth century. The modern children's book emerged in midth-century England. A Little Pretty Pocket-Book , written and published by John Newbery , is widely considered the first modern children's book, published in It was a landmark as the first children's publication aimed at giving enjoyment to children,  containing a mixture of rhymes, picture stories and games for pleasure.
The book was child—sized with a brightly colored cover that appealed to children — something new in the publishing industry. Known as gift books, these early books became the precursors to the toy books popular in the nineteenth century. According to the journal The Lion and the Unicorn , "Newbery's genius was in developing the fairly new product category, children's books, through his frequent advertisements The improvement in the quality of books for children and the diversity of topics he published helped make Newbery the leading producer of children's books in his time.
He published his own books as well as those by authors such as Samuel Johnson and Oliver Goldsmith ;  : 36  the latter may have written The History of Little Goody Two-Shoes , Newbery's most popular book. Another philosopher who influenced the development of children's literature was Jean-Jacques Rousseau , who argued that children should be allowed to develop naturally and joyously. His idea of appealing to a children's natural interests took hold among writers for children.
Rousseau's ideas also had great influence in Germany, especially on German Philanthropism , a movement concerned with reforming both education and literature for children. Its founder, Johann Bernhard Basedow , authored Elementarwerk as a popular textbook for children that included many illustrations by Daniel Chodowiecki.
Another follower, Joachim Heinrich Campe , created an adaptation of Robinson Crusoe that went into over printings. He became Germany's "outstanding and most modern"  : writer for children. The Brothers Grimm preserved and published the traditional tales told in Germany. This dislike of non-traditional stories continued there until the beginning of the next century. As professors, they had a scholarly interest in the stories, striving to preserve them and their variations accurately, recording their sources.
By compiling these stories, they preserved Norway's literary heritage and helped create the Norwegian written language. Danish author and poet Hans Christian Andersen traveled through Europe and gathered many well-known fairy tales and created new stories in the fairy tale genre. In Switzerland , Johann David Wyss published The Swiss Family Robinson in , with the aim of teaching children about family values, good husbandry, the uses of the natural world and self-reliance. The book became popular across Europe after it was translated into French by Isabelle de Montolieu.
The shift to a modern genre of children's literature occurred in the midth century; didacticism of a previous age began to make way for more humorous, child-oriented books, more attuned to the child's imagination. The availability of children's literature greatly increased as well, as paper and printing became widely available and affordable, the population grew and literacy rates improved. Tom Brown's School Days by Thomas Hughes appeared in , and is considered to be the founding book in the school story tradition.
Regarded as the first "English masterpiece written for children"  : 44 and as a founding book in the development of fantasy literature, its publication opened the "First Golden Age" of children's literature in Britain and Europe that continued until the early s. If we follow little Alice in her wanderings in the "Wonderland", we will soon see that the fairy-tale absurdity has solid historical ground.
With the clear eyes of a child, Lewis Carroll made us look at the various phenomena of contemporary life. The absurd in the fairy tale shows the satire of the author and the embodiment of the serious problems of the Victorian era. Lewis Carroll is ironic about the prim and all-out regulated life of the "golden" Victorian century. These were classified as such for the themes they contained, consisting of fighting and work.
Charles Kingsley , which became extremely popular and remains a classic of British children's literature. In , Carlo Collodi wrote the first Italian fantasy novel, The Adventures of Pinocchio , which was translated many times. In that same year, Emilio Salgari , the man who would become "the adventure writer par excellence for the young in Italy"  first published his legendary character Sandokan.
Barrie told the story of Peter Pan in the novel Peter and Wendy in Johanna Spyri 's two-part novel Heidi was published in Switzerland in and Boys' book writer Oliver Optic published over books. In , the "epoch-making"  : 45 Little Women , the fictionalized autobiography of Louisa May Alcott , was published. This " coming of age " story established the genre of realistic family books in the United States.
Mark Twain released Tom Sawyer in In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, a plethora of children's novels began featuring realistic, non-magical plotlines. The Chinese Revolution of and World War II brought political and social change that revolutionized children's literature in China.
Western science, technology, and literature became fashionable. China's first modern publishing firm, Commercial Press , established several children's magazines, which included Youth Magazine , and Educational Pictures for Children. Yuxiu encouraged novelist Shen Dehong to write for children as well. Dehong went on to rewrite 28 stories based on classical Chinese literature specifically for children. The Chinese Revolution of changed children's literature again. Many children's writers were denounced, but Tianyi and Ye Shengtao continued to write for children and created works that were aligned with Maoist ideology.
The death of Mao Zedong provoked more changes that swept China. The work of many writers from the early part of the century became available again. In came General Anthology of Modern Children's Literature of China , a fifteen-volume anthology of children's literature since the s. Literature for children had developed as a separate category of literature especially in the Victorian era , with some works becoming internationally known, such as Lewis Carroll 's Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and its sequel Through the Looking-Glass. At the end of the Victorian era and leading into the Edwardian era, Beatrix Potter was an author and illustrator best known for her children's books, which featured animal characters.
Potter eventually went on to produce 23 children's books and become a wealthy woman. Michael O. Tunnell and James S. Jacobs, professors of children's literature at Brigham Young University, write, "Potter was the first to use pictures as well as words to tell the story, incorporating coloured illustration with text, page for page.
In the latter years of the 19th century, precursors of the modern picture book were illustrated books of poems and short stories produced by English illustrators Randolph Caldecott , Walter Crane , and Kate Greenaway. These had a larger proportion of pictures to words than earlier books, and many of their pictures were in colour. Heath Robinson , Henry J. Ford , John Leech , and George Cruikshank. The Kailyard School of Scottish writers, notably J. Barrie , creator of Peter Pan , presented an idealised version of society and brought fantasy and folklore back into fashion.
Short Story: Two Weeping Willows – The Cat's Write
In Hugh Lofting created the character of Doctor Dolittle , who appears in a series of twelve books. The period before World War II was much slower in children's publishing. The main exceptions in England were the publications of Winnie-the-Pooh by A. Milne in , the first Mary Poppins book by P.
Travers in , The Hobbit by J. White in Children's mass paperback books were first released in England in under the Puffin Books imprint, and their lower prices helped make book buying possible for children during World War II. Enid Blyton 's books have been among the world's bestsellers since the s, selling more than million copies. Blyton's books are still enormously popular and have been translated into almost 90 languages. She wrote on a wide range of topics including education, natural history, fantasy, mystery, and biblical narratives and is best remembered today for her Noddy , The Famous Five , The Secret Seven , and The Adventure Series.
In the s, the book market in Europe began to recover from the effects of the two world wars. An informal literary discussion group associated with the English faculty at the University of Oxford, were the "Inklings", with the major fantasy novelists C. Lewis and J. Tolkien as its main members. Lewis published the first installment of The Chronicles of Narnia series in , while Tolkien is best known, in addition to The Hobbit , as the author of The Lord of the Rings The latter is an adaptation of the myth of Blodeuwedd from the Mabinogion , set in modern Wales — it won Garner the annual Carnegie Medal from the Library Association , recognising the year's best children's book by a British author.
Mary Norton wrote The Borrowers , featuring tiny people who borrow from humans. Philippa Pearce 's Tom's Midnight Garden has Tom opening the garden door at night and entering into a different age. The heroine of Charlotte Sometimes by Penelope Farmer is already shaken by her arrival in a girls' boarding school when she finds herself waking as another girl in the same bed, but decades earlier. She needs urgent help from nearby children to hide her cat and kittens. Roald Dahl rose to prominence with his children's fantasy novels , often inspired from experiences from his childhood, with often unexpected endings, and unsentimental, dark humour.
Fox , The Witches , and Matilda Starting in , Michael Bond published humorous stories about Paddington Bear. Boarding schools in literature are centred on older pre-adolescent and adolescent school life, and are most commonly set in English boarding schools. Ruth Manning-Sanders collected and retold fairy tales. Raymond Briggs ' children's picture book The Snowman has been adapted as an animation, shown every Christmas on British television, and for the stage as a musical.
The Reverend. Margery Sharp 's series The Rescuers is based on a heroic mouse organisation. Anthony Horowitz 's Alex Rider series begins with Stormbreaker It follows the coming of age of two children, Lyra Belacqua and Will Parry, as they wander through a series of parallel universes. The three novels have won a number of awards, most notably the Whitbread Book of the Year prize, won by The Amber Spyglass. Northern Lights won the Carnegie Medal for children's fiction in the U. Rowling 's Harry Potter fantasy sequence of seven novels chronicles the adventures of the adolescent wizard Harry Potter.
The series began with Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone in and ended with the seventh and final book Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows in ; becoming the best selling book-series in history. The series has been translated into 67 languages,   so placing Rowling among the most translated authors in history. Adventure stories written specifically for children began in the nineteenth century. The Victorian era saw the development of the genre, with W.
Kingston , R. Ballantyne and G. Henty specializing in the production of adventure fiction for boys. In the years after the First World War, writers such as Arthur Ransome — developed the adventure genre by setting the adventure in Britain rather than distant countries. Ransome began publishing in his Swallows and Amazons series of children's books about the school-holiday adventures of children, mostly in the English Lake District and the Norfolk Broads.
Many of them involve sailing; fishing and camping are other common subjects. Biggles made his first appearance in the story The White Fokker , published in the first issue of Popular Flying magazine and again as part of the first collection of Biggles stories, The Camels Are Coming both Johns continued to write Biggles books until his death in , the series eventually spanning nearly a hundred volumes — including novels and short story collections — most of the latter with a common setting and time. Geoffrey Trease and Rosemary Sutcliff  brought a new sophistication to the historical adventure novel.
An important aspect of British children's literature has been comic books and magazines. Amongst the most popular comics have been The Dandy  and The Beano. It was his job to give his family a home, food and clothes. Many prominent authors contributed to the Boys Own Paper : cricketer W. Ballantyne , as well as Robert Baden-Powell , the inspiration for the Scout Movement , Between — there was 60 issues with stories about Biggles by W.
Johns ,  and in the s occasional contributors included Isaac Asimov and the respected astronomer Patrick Moore. Between and , Captain W. Johns contributed sixty stories featuring the female pilot Worrals. The Eagle was a popular British comic for boys, launched in by Marcus Morris , an Anglican vicar from Lancashire.
Revolutionary in its presentation and content, it was enormously successful; the first issue sold about , copies. Eagle also contained news and sport sections, and educational cutaway diagrams of sophisticated machinery. Children's literature has been a part of American culture since Europeans first settled in America. The earliest books were used as tools to instill self-control in children and preach a life of morality in Puritan society. Eighteenth-century American youth began to shift away from the social upbringing of its European counterpart, bringing about a change in children's literature.
It includes what is thought to be the earliest nursery rhyme and one of the earliest examples of a textbook approaching education from the child's point of view, rather than the adult's. One of the most famous books of American children's literature is L. Children's reading rooms in libraries, staffed by specially trained librarians, helped create demand for classic juvenile books. Reviews of children's releases began appearing regularly in Publishers Weekly and in The Bookman magazine began to publish regular reviews of children's releases.
The first Children's Book Week was launched in In that same year, Louise Seaman Bechtel became the first person to head a juvenile book publishing department in the country. She was followed by May Massee in , and Alice Dalgliesh in The American Library Association began awarding the Newbery Medal , the first children's book award, in The young adult book market developed during this period, thanks to sports books by popular writer John R.
The already vigorous growth in children's books became a boom in the s, and children's publishing became big business. White published Charlotte's Web , which was described as "one of the very few books for young children that face, squarely, the subject of death". The s saw an age of new realism in children's books emerge. Given the atmosphere of social revolution in s America, authors and illustrators began to break previously established taboos in children's literature.
Controversial subjects dealing with alcoholism, death, divorce, and child abuse were now being published in stories for children. Maurice Sendak's Where the Wild Things Are in and Louise Fitzhugh 's Harriet the Spy in are often considered the first stories published in this new age of realism. Taylor in Roll of Thunder, Hear My Cry continued the tradition of the historical adventure in an American setting. Laura Numeroff published If You Give a Mouse a Cookie in and went on to create a series of similarly named books that is still popular for children and adults to read together.
Lloyd Alexander 's The Chronicles of Prydain was set in a fictionalized version of medieval Britain. Erik Werenskiold , Theodor Kittelsen , and Dikken Zwilgmeyer were especially popular, writing folk and fairy tales as well as realistic fiction. The translation into English by George Webbe Dasent helped increase the stories' influence. Swiss author Marcus Pfister's Rainbow Fish series has received international acclaim since By the s, literary realism and non-fiction dominated children's literature. More schools were started, using books by writers like Konstantin Ushinsky and Leo Tolstoy , whose Russian Reader included an assortment of stories, fairy tales, and fables.
Books written specifically for girls developed in the s and s. Publisher and journalist Evgenia Tur wrote about the daughters of well-to-do landowners, while Alexandra Nikitichna Annenskaya 's stories told of middle-class girls working to support themselves. Vera Zhelikhovsky , Elizaveta Kondrashova , and Nadezhda Lukhmanova also wrote for girls during this period. Children's non-fiction gained great importance in Russia at the beginning of the century. A ten-volume children's encyclopedia was published between and Vasily Avenarius wrote fictionalized biographies of important people like Nikolai Gogol and Alexander Pushkin around the same time, and scientists wrote for books and magazines for children.
Children's magazines flourished, and by the end of the century there were Realism took a gloomy turn by frequently showing the maltreatment of children from lower classes. The most popular boys' material was Sherlock Holmes , and similar stories from detective magazines. The state took control of children's literature during the October Revolution. Maksim Gorky edited the first children's Northern Lights under Soviet rule. With a children's branch, the official oversight of the professional organization brought children's writers under the control of the state and the police.
Communist principles like collectivism and solidarity became important themes in children's literature. Authors wrote biographies about revolutionaries like Lenin and Pavlik Morozov. Alexander Belyayev , who wrote in the s and s, became Russia's first science fiction writer. Today, the field is in a state of flux because some older authors are being rediscovered and others are being abandoned. The series is considered representative of Brazilian children's literature and the Brazilian equivalent to children's classics such as C. Lewis , The Chronicles of Narnia and L. Christian missionaries first established the Calcutta School-Book Society in the 19th century, creating a separate genre for children's literature in that country.
Magazines and books for children in native languages soon appeared. Nobel Prize -winner Rabindranath Tagore wrote plays, stories, and poems for children, including one work illustrated by painter Nandalal Bose. They worked from the end of the nineteenth century into the beginning of the twentieth. Tagore's work was later translated into English, with Bose's pictures. His stories were didactic in nature. The first full-length children's book was Khar Khar Mahadev by Narain Dixit , which was serialized in one of the popular children's magazines in Other writers include Premchand , and poet Sohan Lal Dwivedi.
Bengali children's literature flourished in the later part of the twentieth century. Educator Gijubhai Badheka published over books in the Children's literature in Gujarati language , and many are still popular. In , political cartoonist K. Shankar Pillai founded the Children's Book Trust publishing company. The firm became known for high quality children's books, and many of them were released in several languages. He wrote biographies of many historical personalities, such as Kapila Deva. In , the firm organized a writers' competition to encourage quality children's writing.
One of the pioneering children's writer in Persian was Mehdi Azar-Yazdi. Originally, for centuries, stories were told by Africans in their native languages, many being told during social gatherings. Stories varied between mythic narratives dealing with creation and basic proverbs showcasing human wisdom. These narratives were passed down from generation to generation orally. Most children's books depict the African culture and lifestyle, and trace their roots to traditional folktales, riddles, and proverbs.
Publishing companies also aided in the development of children's literature. Children's literature can be divided into categories, either according to genre or the intended age of the reader. A literary genre is a category of literary compositions. Genres may be determined by technique, tone, content, or length.
According to Anderson,  there are six categories of children's literature with some significant subgenres :. The criteria for these divisions are vague, and books near a borderline may be classified either way.
Books for younger children tend to be written in simple language, use large print, and have many illustrations. Books for older children use increasingly complex language, normal print, and fewer if any illustrations. The categories with an age range are these:.
Pictures have always accompanied children's stories. Generally, artwork plays a greater role in books intended for younger readers especially pre-literate children. Children's picture books often serve as an accessible source of high quality art for young children. Even after children learn to read well enough to enjoy a story without illustrations, they like their elders continue to appreciate the occasional drawings found in chapter books.
According to Joyce Whalley in The International Companion Encyclopedia of Children's Literature , "an illustrated book differs from a book with illustrations in that a good illustrated book is one where the pictures enhance or add depth to the text. Acting as a kind of encyclopedia, Orbis Pictus had a picture on every page, followed by the name of the object in Latin and German.
It was translated into English in and was used in homes and schools around Europe and Great Britain for many years. Early children's books, such as Orbis Pictus , were illustrated by woodcut , and many times the same image was repeated in a number of books regardless of how appropriate the illustration was for the story. One of the first uses of Chromolithography a way of making multi-colored prints in a children's book was demonstrated in Struwwelpeter , published in Germany in English illustrator Walter Crane refined its use in children's books in the late 19th century. Another method of creating illustrations for children's books was etching , used by George Cruikshank in the s.
Most pictures were still black-and-white, and many color pictures were hand colored, often by children.