Meyer adds: "There is no question but that Voltaire, particularly in his latter years, nursed a violent hatred of the Jews and it is equally certain that his animosity The counter-revolutionary Catholic royalist Louis de Bonald stands out among the earliest figures to explicitly call for the reversal of Jewish emancipation in the wake of the French Revolution. Under the French Second Empire, the popular counter-revolutionary Catholic journalist Louis Veuillot propagated Bonald's arguments against the Jewish "financial aristocracy" along with vicious attacks against the Talmud and the Jews as a "deicidal people" driven by hatred to "enslave" Christians.
In , the empress of Russia Catherine II forced the Jews into the Pale of Settlement — which was located primarily in present-day Poland, Ukraine and Belarus — and to stay in their shtetls and forbade them from returning to the towns that they occupied before the partition of Poland.
Konstantin Pobedonostsev , nicknamed the "black czar" and tutor to the czarevitch , later crowned Czar Nicholas II , declared that "One third of the Jews must die, one third must emigrate, and one third be converted to Christianity". Historian Martin Gilbert writes that it was in the 19th century that the position of Jews worsened in Muslim countries. Benny Morris writes that one symbol of Jewish degradation was the phenomenon of stone-throwing at Jews by Muslim children.
Morris quotes a 19th-century traveler: "I have seen a little fellow of six years old, with a troop of fat toddlers of only three and four, teaching [them] to throw stones at a Jew, and one little urchin would, with the greatest coolness, waddle up to the man and literally spit upon his Jewish gaberdine. To all this the Jew is obliged to submit; it would be more than his life was worth to offer to strike a Mahommedan. In the middle of the 19th century, J. Benjamin wrote about the life of Persian Jews , describing conditions and beliefs that went back to the 16th century: "…they are obliged to live in a separate part of town… Under the pretext of their being unclean, they are treated with the greatest severity and should they enter a street, inhabited by Mussulmans, they are pelted by the boys and mobs with stones and dirt….
In Jerusalem at least, conditions for some Jews improved. Moses Montefiore , on his seventh visit in , noted that fine new buildings had sprung up and; 'surely we're approaching the time to witness God's hallowed promise unto Zion. At the time of the Dreyfus trial in France, 'Muslim comments usually favoured the persecuted Jew against his Christian persecutors'.
The essay began as an attack on Jewish composers, particularly Wagner's contemporaries, and rivals, Felix Mendelssohn and Giacomo Meyerbeer , but expanded to accuse Jews of being a harmful and alien element in German culture , who corrupted morals and were, in fact, parasites incapable of creating truly "German" art. The crux was the manipulation and control by the Jews of the money economy: . According to the present constitution of this world, the Jew in truth is already more than emancipated: he rules, and will rule, so long as Money remains the power before which all our doings and our dealings lose their force.
Although originally published anonymously, when the essay was republished 19 years later, in , the concept of the corrupting Jew had become so widely held that Wagner's name was affixed to it. Antisemitism can also be found in many of the Grimms' Fairy Tales by Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm , published from to The middle 19th century saw continued official harassment of the Jews, especially in Eastern Europe under Czarist influence.
For example, in , 80 Jews approached the governor in Warsaw to retain the right to wear their traditional dress, but were immediately rebuffed by having their hair and beards forcefully cut, at their own expense. In America, even such influential figures as Walt Whitman tolerated bigotry toward the Jews. During his time as editor of the Brooklyn Eagle — , the newspaper published historical sketches casting Jews in a bad light. The Dreyfus Affair was an infamous antisemitic event of the late 19th century and early 20th century.
Alfred Dreyfus , a Jewish artillery captain in the French Army , was accused in of passing secrets to the Germans. As a result of these charges, Dreyfus was convicted and sentenced to life imprisonment on Devil's Island. The actual spy, Marie Charles Esterhazy, was acquitted. The event caused great uproar among the French, with the public choosing sides on the issue of whether Dreyfus was actually guilty or not.
This attitude among the majority of the French population reveals the underlying antisemitism of the time period. Adolf Stoecker — , the Lutheran court chaplain to Kaiser Wilhelm I , founded in an antisemitic, anti-liberal political party called the Christian Social Party. Some scholars view Karl Marx's essay On The Jewish Question as antisemitic, and argue that he often used antisemitic epithets in his published and private writings. Some further argue that the essay influenced National Socialist , as well as Soviet and Arab antisemites.
These scholars argue that "On the Jewish Question" is a critique of Bruno Bauer's arguments that Jews must convert to Christianity before being emancipated, and is more generally a critique of liberal rights discourses and capitalism. Wheen says that "Those critics, who see this as a foretaste of 'Mein Kampf', overlook one, essential point: in spite of the clumsy phraseology and crude stereotyping, the essay was actually written as a defense of the Jews.
It was a retort to Bruno Bauer, who had argued that Jews should not be granted full civic rights and freedoms unless they were baptised as Christians". McLellan concludes that readers should interpret the essay's second half as "an extended pun at Bauer's expense". Between and , approximately 1. This increase, combined with the upward social mobility of some Jews, contributed to a resurgence of antisemitism. In the first half of the 20th century, in the US, Jews were discriminated against in employment, access to residential and resort areas, membership in clubs and organizations, and in tightened quotas on Jewish enrolment and teaching positions in colleges and universities.
The lynching of Leo Frank by a mob of prominent citizens in Marietta, Georgia in turned the spotlight on antisemitism in the United States. At the beginning of the 20th century, the Beilis Trial in Russia represented modern incidents of blood-libels in Europe.
During the Russian Civil War , close to 50, Jews were killed in pogroms. Antisemitism in America reached its peak during the interwar period. The pioneer automobile manufacturer Henry Ford propagated antisemitic ideas in his newspaper The Dearborn Independent published by Ford from to The radio speeches of Father Coughlin in the late s attacked Franklin D. Roosevelt 's New Deal and promoted the notion of a Jewish financial conspiracy. Some prominent politicians shared such views: Louis T. McFadden , Chairman of the United States House Committee on Banking and Currency , blamed Jews for Roosevelt's decision to abandon the gold standard , and claimed that "in the United States today, the Gentiles have the slips of paper while the Jews have the lawful money".
Lesson: The Roots and Impact of Antisemitism | Facing History
In the early s the aviator Charles Lindbergh and many prominent Americans led The America First Committee in opposing any involvement in the war against Fascism. During his July visit to Nazi Germany , a few weeks before the Summer Olympics , Lindbergh wrote letters saying that there was "more intelligent leadership in Germany than is generally recognized".
The German American Bund held parades in New York City during the late s, where members wore Nazi uniforms and raised flags featuring swastikas alongside American flags. Sometimes race riots , as in Detroit in , targeted Jewish businesses for looting and burning. In Germany, Nazism led Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party , who came to power on 30 January shortly afterwards instituted repressive legislation which denied the Jews basic civil rights.
Antisemitism was commonly used as an instrument for settling personal conflicts in the Soviet Union , starting with the conflict between Joseph Stalin and Leon Trotsky and continuing through numerous conspiracy-theories spread by official propaganda. Antisemitism in the USSR reached new heights after during the campaign against the " rootless cosmopolitan " euphemism for "Jew" in which numerous Yiddish-language poets, writers, painters and sculptors were killed or arrested.
Similar antisemitic propaganda in Poland resulted in the flight of Polish Jewish survivors from the country. After the war, the Kielce pogrom and the " March events " in communist Poland represented further incidents of antisemitism in Europe. The anti-Jewish violence in postwar Poland has a common theme of blood libel rumours.
Physical assaults against Jews in those countries included beatings, stabbings and other violence, which increased markedly, sometimes resulting in serious injury and death. This rise in antisemitic attacks is associated with both the Muslim anti-Semitism and the rise of far-right political parties as a result of the economic crisis of In Eastern Europe the dissolution of the Soviet Union and the instability of the new states has brought the rise of nationalist movements and the accusation against Jews for the economic crisis, taking over the local economy and bribing the government alongside with traditional and religious motives for antisemitism such as blood libels.
What is the Labour anti-Semitism row and why have the Met Police opened an investigation into it?
Most of the antisemitic incidents are against Jewish cemeteries and building community centers and synagogues. Nevertheless, there were several violent attacks against Jews in Moscow in when a neo-Nazi stabbed 9 people at the Bolshaya Bronnaya Synagogue,  the failed bomb attack on the same synagogue in ,  the threats against Jewish pilgrims in Uman, Ukraine  and the attack against a menorah by extremist Christian organization in Moldova in Europeans are concerned about antisemitism because, historically, societies with a large degree of anti-Semitism are self-destructive.
Robert Bernstein , founder of Human Rights Watch , says that antisemitism is "deeply ingrained and institutionalized" in "Arab nations in modern times. In a survey by the Pew Research Center , all of the Muslim-majority Middle Eastern countries polled held few positive opinions of Jews. According to a exhibition at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington, United States, some of the dialogue from Middle East media and commentators about Jews bear a striking resemblance to Nazi propaganda.
Whereas this darkest of creeds is no longer tolerated in polite society in the West, in the Arab world, Jew hatred remains culturally endemic. Muslim clerics in the Middle East have frequently referred to Jews as descendants of apes and pigs, which are conventional epithets for Jews and Christians. Antisemitism has been explained in terms of racism , xenophobia , projected guilt , displaced aggression, and the search for a scapegoat. Such a perception may have arisen by many Jews having strictly kept to their own communities, with their own practices and laws. It has also been suggested that parts of antisemitism arose from a perception of Jewish people as greedy as often used in stereotypes of Jews , and this perception has probably evolved in Europe during Medieval times where a large portion of money lending was operated by Jews.
A March report by the U. State Department found that there was an increase in antisemitism across the world, and that both old and new expressions of antisemitism persist. Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor also noted a continued global increase in antisemitism, and found that Holocaust denial and opposition to Israeli policy at times was used to promote or justify blatant antisemitism.
Almost all Jews in Algeria left upon independence in Algeria's , Jews had French citizenship since briefly revoked by Vichy France in , and they mainly went to France , with some going to Israel. In Egypt , Dar al-Fadhilah published a translation of Henry Ford 's antisemitic treatise, The International Jew , complete with distinctly antisemitic imagery on the cover. On 5 May , after Shimon Peres visited Egypt , the Egyptian al-Akhbar internet paper said that "lies and deceit are not foreign to Jews[ For this reason, Allah changed their shape and made them into monkeys and pigs.
In July , Egypt's Al Nahar channel fooled actors into thinking they were on an Israeli television show and filmed their reactions to being told it was an Israeli television show. In response, some of the actors launched into antisemitic rants or dialogue, and many became violent. Actress Mayer El Beblawi said that "Allah did not curse the worm and moth as much as he cursed the Jews" while actor Mahmoud Abdel Ghaffar launched into a violent rage and said, "You brought me someone who looks like a Jew I hate the Jews to death" after finding out it was a prank.
Libya had once one of the oldest Jewish communities in the world, dating back to BCE. Despite the repression of Jews in the late , as a result of the pro-Nazi Fascist Italian regime, Jews were third of the population of Libya till In the Nazi German troops occupied the Jewish quarter of Benghazi, plundering shops and deporting more than 2, Jews across the desert. Sent to work in labor camps, more than one-fifth of this group of Jews perished. A series of pogroms started in November , while more than Jews were killed in Tripoli and most synagogues in the city looted.
After the Suez Crisis in , another series of pogroms forced all but about Jews to flee. When Muammar al-Gaddafi came to power in , all remaining Jewish property was confiscated and all debts to Jews cancelled. Jewish communities, in Islamic times often living in ghettos known as mellah , have existed in Morocco for at least 2, years. Intermittent large scale massacres such as that of 6, Jews in Fez in , over , Jews in Fez and Marrakesh in and again in Marrakesh in   were accompanied by systematic discrimination through the years.
In , 20 Jews were killed by a mob in Demnat , Morocco; elsewhere in Morocco, Jews were attacked and killed in the streets in broad daylight. In , approximately , Jews lived in Morocco. Between 5, and 8, live there now. In June , soon after Israel was established and in the midst of the first Arab-Israeli war, riots against Jews broke out in Oujda and Djerada , killing 44 Jews. In , 18, Jews left the country for Israel. After this, Jewish emigration continued to Israel and elsewhere , but slowed to a few thousand a year.
Through the early fifties, Zionist organizations encouraged emigration, particularly in the poorer south of the country, seeing Moroccan Jews as valuable contributors to the Jewish State: In , Morocco attained independence and emigration to Israel has increased further until then it was prohibited until , then resumed.
By , the Jewish population was down to 35,; however, most of this wave of emigration went to Europe and North America rather than Israel. Antisemitism has been present in history of South Africa since Europeans first set foot ashore on the Cape Peninsula. In the years — Jews were not allowed to settle at the Cape. An Act would sanction religious discrimination. Jews have lived in Tunisia for at least 2, years. In the 13th century, Jews were expelled from their homes in Kairouan and were ultimately restricted to ghettos, known as hara.
Forced to wear distinctive clothing, several Jews earned high positions in the Tunisian government. Several prominent international traders were Tunisian Jews. From to , Muhammad Bey relaxed dhimmi laws, but reinstated them in the face of anti-Jewish riots that continued at least until Tunisia, as the only Middle Eastern country under direct Nazi control during World War II, was also the site of racist antisemitic measures activities such as the yellow star, prison camps, deportations, and other persecution. In , approximately , Jews lived in Tunisia. Only about 1, remain there today.
Following Tunisia's independence from France in , a number of anti-Jewish policies led to emigration, of which half went to Israel and the other half to France. After attacks in , Jewish emigration both to Israel and France accelerated. There were also attacks in , , and most recently in when a suicide bombing  in Djerba took 21 lives most of them German tourists near the local synagogue, in a terrorist attack claimed by Al-Qaeda. In modern-day Tunisia, there have been many instances of antisemitic acts and statements. Since the government is not quick to condemn them, antisemitism spreads throughout Tunisian society.
For example, in February , when Egyptian cleric Wagdi Ghanaim entered Tunisia, he was welcomed by Islamists who chanted "Death to the Jews" as a sign of their support. The following month, during protests in Tunis, a Salafi sheikh told young Tunisians to gather and learn to kill Jews. In the past, The Tunisian government has made efforts to block Jews from entering high positions, and some moderate members have tried to cover up the more extremist antisemitic efforts by appointing Jews to governmental positions, however, it is known that Muslim clerics believe that if the Muslim Brotherhood leads the regime, that will enhance their hatred towards Jews.
Mahmoud Ahmadinejad , former president of Iran, has frequently been accused of denying the Holocaust. Other cartoons in the contest were antisemitic as well. The national director of the Anti-Defamation League, Abraham Foxman, condemned the cartoon, stating that "Here's the anti-Semitic notion of Jews and their love for money, the canard that Jews 'control' Wall Street, and a cynical perversion of the Western Wall, the holiest site in Judaism," and "Once again Iran takes the prize for promoting antisemitism.
The Japanese first learned about antisemitism in , during the cooperation of the Imperial Japanese Army with the White movement in Siberia. White Army soldiers had been issued copies of The Protocols of the Elders of Zion , and "The Protocols continue to be used as evidence of Jewish conspiracies even though they are widely acknowledged to be a forgery. In the post-war period, extremist groups and ideologues have promoted conspiracy theories. In , Al-Manar , a media network affiliated with Hezbollah , aired a drama series, The Diaspora , which observers allege is based on historical antisemitic allegations.
BBC correspondents who have watched the program says it quotes extensively from the Protocols of the Elders of Zion. Although Malaysia presently has no substantial Jewish population, the country has reportedly become an example of a phenomenon called "antisemitism without Jews. Jewish stinginess and financial wizardry gained them the economic control of Europe and provoked antisemitism which waxed and waned throughout Europe through the ages.
The Malay-language Utusan Malaysia daily stated in an editorial that Malaysians "cannot allow anyone, especially the Jews, to interfere secretly in this country's business When the drums are pounded hard in the name of human rights, the pro-Jewish people will have their best opportunity to interfere in any Islamic country," the newspaper said.
In March , the Israeli government issued a paper claiming that "Anti-Israel and anti-Semitic messages are heard regularly in the government and private media and in the mosques and are taught in school books," to the extent that they are "an integral part of the fabric of life inside the PA. The U. In Pakistan, Jews are often regarded as miserly.
The Peshawar Jewish community ceased to exist  although a small community reportedly still exists in Karachi. Pakistani political commentator Zaid Hamid claimed that Indian Jews perpetrated the Mumbai attacks. Saudi textbooks vilify Jews, call Jews apes; demand that students avoid and not befriend Jews; claim that Jews worship the devil; and encourage Muslims to engage in Jihad to vanquish Jews.
In , the official Saudi Arabia tourism website said that Jews and holders of Israeli passports would not be issued visas to enter the country. After an uproar, the restriction against Jews was removed from the website although the ban against Israeli passport-holders remained. In June , the Economist suggested that "The best way for Turks to promote democracy would be to vote against the ruling party". Both their security and the right to observe their faith are under our guarantee. According to a report from the Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs , antisemitism had increased significantly in Europe since , with significant increases in verbal attacks against Jews and vandalism such as graffiti, fire bombings of Jewish schools, desecration of synagogues and cemeteries.
Germany, France, Britain, and Russia are the countries with the highest rate of antisemitic incidents in Europe. Some claim that recent European antisemitic violence can actually be seen as a spillover from the long running Arab-Israeli conflict since the majority of the perpetrators are from the large Muslim immigrant communities in European cities.
However, compared to France, the United Kingdom and much of the rest of Europe, in Germany Arab and pro-Palestinian groups are involved in only a small percentage of antisemitic incidents. On 1 January , Britain's chief rabbi , Lord Jonathan Sacks , warned that what he called a "tsunami of antisemitism" was spreading globally. In an interview with BBC Radio 4 , Sacks said: "A number of my rabbinical colleagues throughout Europe have been assaulted and attacked on the streets.
We've had synagogues desecrated. We've had Jewish schools burnt to the ground—not here but in France. People are attempting to silence and even ban Jewish societies on campuses on the grounds that Jews must support the state of Israel, therefore they should be banned, which is quite extraordinary because British Jews see themselves as British citizens.
So it's that kind of feeling that you don't know what's going to happen next that's making Following an escalation in antisemitism in , which included the deadly shooting of three children at a Jewish school in France, the European Jewish Congress demanded in July a more proactive response. EJC President Moshe Kantor explained, "We call on authorities to take a more proactive approach so there would be no reason for statements of regret and denunciation.
All these smaller attacks remind me of smaller tremors before a massive earthquake. The Jewish community cannot afford to be subject to an earthquake and the authorities cannot say that the writing was not on the wall. France is home to the continent's largest Jewish community about , Jewish leaders decry an intensifying antisemitism in France,  mainly among Muslims of Arab or African heritage, but also growing among Caribbean islanders from former French colonies.
Jewish philanthropist Baron Eric de Rothschild suggests that the extent of antisemitism in France has been exaggerated. In an interview with The Jerusalem Post he says that "the one thing you can't say is that France is an anti-Semitic country. In March , Mohammed Merah opened fire at a Jewish school in Toulouse, killing a teacher and three children.
An 8-year-old girl was shot in the head at point blank range. President Nicolas Sarkozy said that it was "obvious" it was an antisemitic attack  and that, "I want to say to all the leaders of the Jewish community, how close we feel to them. All of France is by their side. He also claimed connections with al-Qaeda.
The teen was first verbally harassed and later beaten up by two assailants. Richard Prasquier from the French Jewish umbrella group, CRIF , called the attack "another development in the worrying trend of anti-Semitism in our country. The synagogue was vandalized three times in a ten-day period. Prayer books and shawls were thrown on the floor, windows were shattered, drawers were ransacked, and walls, tables, clocks, and floors were vandalized.
Cooper pressed Valls to take extra measures to secure the safety of French Jews, as well as to discuss strategies to foil an increasing trend of lone-wolf terrorists on the Internet. According to the annual reports of the Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution the overall number of far-right extremists in Germany dropped during the last years from 49, ,  45, ,  41, ,  40, ,  39, ,  to 38, in In July , two women were assaulted in Germany, sprayed with tear gas, and were shown a " Hitler salute ," apparently because of a Star of David necklace that they wore.
In late August , Berlin police investigated an attack on a year-old rabbi and his 6-year-old daughter, allegedly by four Arab teens, after which the rabbi needed treatment for head wounds at a hospital. The police classified the attack as a hate crime. The teen then attacked the rabbi while yelling antisemitic comments, and threatened to kill the rabbi's daughter. Berlin's mayor condemned the attack, saying that "Berlin is an international city in which intolerance, xenophobia and anti-Semitism are not being tolerated.
Police will undertake all efforts to find and arrest the perpetrators. In October , various historians, including Dr. Julius H. Schoeps, a prominent German-Jewish historian and a member of the German Interior Ministry's commission to combat antisemitism, charged the majority of Bundestag deputies with failing to understand antisemitism and the imperativeness of periodic legislative reports on German antisemitism. Schoeps cited various antisemitic statements by German parliament members as well.
Antisemitism in Greece manifests itself in religious, political and media discourse. The recent Greek government-debt crisis has facilitated the rise of far right groups in Greece, most notably the formerly obscure Golden Dawn. Jews have lived in Greece since antiquity, but the largest community of around 20, Sephardic Jews settled in Thessalonica after an invitation from the Ottoman Sultan in the 15th century.
After Thessalonica was annexed to Greece in , the Greek government recognized Jews as Greek citizens with full rights and attributed Judaism the status of a recognized and protected religion. Currently in Greece, Jewish communities representing the 5, Greek Jews are legal entities under public law. Its findings showed that less than 60 percent of the respondents think that holocaust teaching should be included in the curriculum. In the 21st century, antisemitism in Hungary has evolved and received an institutional framework, while verbal and physical aggression against Jews has escalated, creating a great difference between its earlier manifestations in the s and recent developments.
One of the major representatives of this institutionalized antisemitic ideology is the popular Hungarian party Jobbik , which received 17 percent of the vote in the April national election. The far-right subculture, which ranges from nationalist shops to radical-nationalist and neo-Nazi festivals and events, plays a major role in the institutionalization of Hungarian antisemitism in the 21st century. The contemporary antisemitic rhetoric has been updated and expanded, but is still based on the old antisemitic notions.
The traditional accusations and motifs include such phrases as Jewish occupation, international Jewish conspiracy, Jewish responsibility for the Treaty of Trianon , Judeo-Bolshevism, as well as blood libels against Jews. Nevertheless, the past few years have seen the reemergence of the blood libel and an increase in Holocaust relativization and denial, while the monetary crisis has revived references to the "Jewish banker class".
The ongoing political conflict between Israel and Palestine has played an important role in the development and expression of antisemitism in the 21st century , and in Italy as well. The Second Intifada , which began in late September , has set in motion unexpected mechanisms, whereby traditional anti-Jewish prejudices were mixed with politically based stereotypes. The Netherlands has the second highest incidence of antisemitic incidents in the European Union.
However, it is difficult to obtain exact figures because the specific groups against whom attacks are made are not specifically identified in police reports, and analyses of police data for antisemitism therefore relies on key-word searches, e. According to Centre for Information and Documentation on Israel CIDI , a pro-Israel lobby group in the Netherlands,  the number of antisemitic incidents reported in the whole of the Netherlands was in , 93 in , and in Some two thirds of this are acts of aggression.
There are approximately 52 Dutch Jews. Many people talk about moving to Israel," he said. According to the Anne Frank Foundation , antisemitism in the Netherlands in was roughly at the same level as in Verbal antisemitic incidents dropped slightly from in to in Antisemitism is more prevalent in the age group 23—27 years, which is a younger group than that of racist incidents in general. In , the Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation after one year of research, revealed that antisemitism was common among some 8th, 9th, and 10th graders in Oslo's schools. Teachers at schools with large numbers of Muslims revealed that Muslim students often "praise or admire Adolf Hitler for his killing of Jews ", that "Jew-hate is legitimate within vast groups of Muslim students" and that "Muslims laugh or command [teachers] to stop when trying to educate about the Holocaust ".
Additionally, "while some students might protest when some express support for terrorism , none object when students express hate of Jews", saying that it says in "the Quran that you shall kill Jews, all true Muslims hate Jews". Most of these students were said to be born and raised in Norway. One Jewish father also stated that his child had been taken by a Muslim mob after school though the child managed to escape , reportedly "to be taken out to the forest and hung because he was a Jew".
Norwegian Education Minister Kristin Halvorsen referred to the antisemitism reported in this study as being "completely unacceptable. In October , the Organization for Security and Co-Operation in Europe issued a report regarding antisemitism in Norway, criticizing Norway for an increase in antisemitism in the country and blaming Norwegian officials for failing to address antisemitism.
Since the early s, levels of antisemitism in Russia have been low, and steadily decreasing. At the same time experts warn that worsening economic conditions may lead to the surge of xenophobia and antisemitism in particular. Still, since the mids incorporation of antisemitic discourse into the platforms and speeches of nationalist political movements in Russia has been reported by human rights monitors in Russia as well as in the press.
After Germany and Austria, Sweden has the highest rate of antisemitic incidents in Europe, though the Netherlands has reported a higher rate of antisemitism in some years. Some of them are hostile to Israel because they support the weak side, which they perceive the Palestinians to be. Jewish cemeteries were repeatedly desecrated, worshippers were abused while returning home from prayer, and masked men mockingly chanted "Hitler" in the streets. Henrik Bachner, a writer and professor of history at the University of Lund, claimed that members of the Swedish Parliament have attended anti-Israel rallies where the Israeli flag was burned while the flags of Hamas and Hezbollah were waved, and the rhetoric was often antisemitic—not just anti-Israel.
Oleh Tyahnybok , the leader of the far-right Svoboda party, whose members hold senior positions in Ukraine's government , urged his party to fight "the Moscow-Jewish mafia ruling Ukraine. According to The Simon Wiesenthal Center in January "Ukraine has, to the best of our knowledge, never conducted a single investigation of a local Nazi war criminal, let alone prosecuted a Holocaust perpetrator.
According to Der Spiegel , Dmytro Yarosh , leader of the far-right Right Sector , wrote: "I wonder how it came to pass that most of the billionaires in Ukraine are Jews? According to the Israel's Ambassador to Ukraine, the antisemitism occurs here much less frequently than in other European countries, and has more a hooligan's nature rather than a system. In March , Ukrainian politician Nadiya Savchenko said during a television interview that Jews held disproportionate control over Ukraine. I'm telling you one more time - go to hell, zhidi [kikes], the Ukrainian people have had it to here with you.
Ukraine must be governed by Ukrainians. The antisemitism report for that Israel's Ministry of Diaspora Affairs under Naftali Bennett published in January stated that "A striking exception in the trend of decrease in antisemitic incidents in Eastern Europe was Ukraine, where the number of recorded antisemitic attacks was doubled from last year and surpassed the tally for all the incidents reported throughout the entire region combined. In an Institute for Jewish Policy Research survey found that the levels of antisemitism in Great Britain were among the lowest in the world, with 2.
In , a report by the Campaign Against Antisemitism CAA found that the previous year, , had been the worst on record for antisemitic hate crime in the UK. It also found that 1 in 10 antisemitic crimes was violent. Despite rising levels of antisemitic crime, the report said there had been a decrease in the charging of antisemitic crime.
In the report's foreword, the CAA's Chairman wrote: "Britain has the political will to fight antisemitism and strong laws with which to do it, but those responsible for tackling the rapidly growing racist targeting of British Jews are failing to enforce the law. There is a very real danger of Jewish citizens emigrating, as has happened elsewhere in Europe unless there is radical change.
The report gave various indications as to the cause of the fears, with British Jews identifying Islamist antisemitism, far-left antisemitism and far-right antisemitism as their main concerns, in that order. In , a group of British Members of Parliament set up an inquiry into antisemitism, which published its findings in Its report stated that "until recently, the prevailing opinion both within the Jewish community and beyond [had been] that antisemitism had receded to the point that it existed only on the margins of society.
The inquiry was reconstituted following a surge in antisemitic incidents in Britain during the summer of , and the new inquiry published its report in , making recommendations for reducing antisemitism. Although antisemitism in Canada is less prevalent than in many other countries, there have been recent incidents. The incidents included vandalism and other attacks on four synagogues, six cemeteries, four schools, and a number of businesses and private residences. In November , the U. Commission on Civil Rights examined antisemitism on college campuses.
It reported that "incidents of threatened bodily injury, physical intimidation or property damage are now rare", but antisemitism still occurs on many campuses and is a "serious problem. Department of Education 's Office for Civil Rights protect college students from antisemitism through vigorous enforcement of Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of and further recommended that Congress clarify that Title VI applies to discrimination against Jewish students. Director Charles Small of the Center cited the increase in antisemitism worldwide in recent years as generating a "need to understand the current manifestation of this disease".
After carrying out a routine review, the faculty review committee said that the initiative had not met its research and teaching standards. Donald Green , then head of Yale's Institution for Social and Policy Studies, the body under whose aegis the antisemitism initiative was run, said that it had not had many papers published in the relevant leading journals or attracted many students.
As with other programs that had been in a similar situation, the initiative had therefore been cancelled. The survey concluded that education was a strong predictor, "with most educated Americans being remarkably free of prejudicial views. Other views indicating antisemitism, according to the survey, include the view that Jews are more loyal to Israel than America, and that they are responsible for the death of Jesus of Nazareth.
The survey found that antisemitic Americans are likely to be intolerant generally, e. In August , the California state assembly approved a non-binding resolution that "encourages university leaders to combat a wide array of anti-Jewish and anti-Israel actions," although the resolution "is purely symbolic and does not carry policy implications. In April , Politico Magazine published an article purporting to show links between U. The article was condemned, with the head of the Anti-Defamation League Jonathan Greenblatt saying that it "evokes age-old myths about Jews".
In a news story, Michael Rowan and Douglas E. A minority has taken possession of all of the wealth of the world. In February , opposition candidate for the Venezuelan presidential election Henrique Capriles was subject to what foreign journalists characterized as vicious  attacks by state-run media sources. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Hostility to, prejudice, or discrimination against Jews. For total or partial opposition to Judaism as a religion and Jews as a religious group, see Anti-Judaism and Religious antisemitism.
Part of Jewish history Part of Discrimination. History of antisemitism Timeline Reference. Antisemitic canards. Antisemitic publications. Antisemitism on the Web. Boycotts Expulsions General Order No. General forms. Related topics. Religious discrimination Separation of church and state.
Status by country. Religious persecution. See also: Anti-Judaism , Christianity and antisemitism , and Islam and antisemitism. Main article: Racial antisemitism. Main article: New antisemitism. Main article: Indology. Main article: History of antisemitism. Main article: Jews in the Middle Ages. Main article: Antisemitism in the Arab world. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. July Main article: Geography of antisemitism. See also: Antisemitism in Africa. Further information: History of the Jews in Algeria.
Further information: History of the Jews in Libya. Further information: History of the Jews in Morocco. Further information: History of the Jews in South Africa. Further information: History of the Jews in Tunisia. Main article: Antisemitism in Japan. See also: History of the Jews in Malaysia. Main articles: Antisemitism in Europe and New antisemitism. Main article: Antisemitism in contemporary Austria.
Further information: History of the Jews in Germany. Main article: Antisemitism in Greece. Main article: Antisemitism in contemporary Hungary. Main article: Antisemitism in 21st-century Italy. Further information: History of the Jews in the Netherlands. Main article: Antisemitism in Norway.
Main article: Antisemitism in Russia. Main article: Antisemitism in Spain. Main article: Antisemitism in Sweden. Main article: Antisemitism in Ukraine. Jews are more loyal to Israel than to this country. Jews have too much power in the business world. Jews have too much power in international financial markets. Jews still talk too much about the Holocaust. Main article: Antisemitism in Canada.
Main article: Antisemitism in the United States. See also: History of antisemitism in the United States. Judaism portal. Oxford Dictionaries - English. Retrieved 27 October Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Johnson, Paul A History of the Jews. Lewis, Bernard. The paper is based on a lecture delivered at Brandeis University on 24 March Executive Council of Australian Jewry.
Archived from the original on 14 May Fairleigh Dickinson University Press. The History of Anti-Semitism, Vol. University of Pennsylvania Press. Westport, Conn. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Winter Jewish Social Studies. When the term "antisemitism" was first introduced in Germany in the late s, those who used it did so in order to stress the radical difference between their own "antisemitism" and earlier forms of antagonism toward Jews and Judaism. Farnham, Surrey: Ashgate Publishing.
Jaspal erroneously gives the date of publication as Vom nicht confessionellen Standpunkt aus betrachtet. Rudolph Costenoble. Translated by Rohringer, Gerhard. Jewish Virtual Library. Oxford University Press. The term "anti-Semitism" was unsuitable from the beginning for the real essence of Jew-hatred, which remained anchored, more or less, in the Christian tradition even when it moved via the natural sciences, into racism.
It is doubtful whether the term which was first publicizes in an institutional context the Anti-Semitic League would have appeared at all if the "Anti-Chancellor League," which fought Bismarck's policy, had not been in existence since The founders of the new Organization adopted the elements of "anti" and "league," and searched for the proper term: Marr exchanged the term "Jew" for "Semite" which he already favored.
It is possible that the shortened form "Sem" is used with such frequency and ease by Marr and in his writings due to its literary advantage and because it reminded Marr of Sem Biedermann, his Jewish employer from the Vienna period. The Jewish Encyclopedia.
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Aftershock: Anti-Zionism and Antisemitism. Dundurn Press. International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance. April Facing History. Archived from the original PDF on 5 March Archived from the original PDF on 7 March A History of the Holocaust. Franklin Watts. Constantine's Sword: The Church and the Jews. New York: Mariner. Brill Archive. It has long been realised that there are objections to the term anti-Semitism and therefore an endeavour has been made to find a word which better interprets the meaning intended.
Already in Bolkestein, for example, wrote an article on Het "antisemietisme" in de oudheid Anti-Semitism in the ancient world in which the word was placed between quotation marks and a preference was expressed for the term hatred of the Jews… Nowadays the term anti-Judaism is often preferred.
It certainly expresses better than anti-Semitism the fact that it concerns the attitude to the Jews and avoids any suggestion of racial distinction, which was not or hardly, a factor of any significance in ancient times. For this reason Leipoldt preferred to speak of anti-Judaism when writing his Antisemitsmus in der alien Welt l Peter Lang.
State Department , 5 January European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights. Archived from the original PDF on 5 January Retrieved 24 July EU racism agency unable to define term". Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 23 August Archived from the original on 10 February Retrieved 5 August Levy, "Marr, Wilhelm — " in Levy , vol. The New York Times , 11 March Charles C Thomas Publisher. Retrieved 2 June Translated by Blondheim, D. Cited in Gilbert, Martin. Kristallnacht: Prelude to Destruction. Harper Collins, , p. United States Jewry, — Wayne State University Press, , p.
Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, , p. Nansen Committee. Oneworld Publications. Materialien zur Kriminalsoziologie. VS Verlag. Anti-Semitism: Its History and Causes. Cosimo, Inc. Roots of hate: anti-semitism in Europe before the Holocaust. Cambridge University Press. Creative awakening: the Jewish presence in twentieth-century American literature, s.
Greenwood Publishing Group. Flor del Viento. Creative awakening: the Jewish presence in twentieth-century American literature. In search of memory: the emergence of a new science of mind. The Columbia Guide to the Holocaust. Columbia University Press. A concise history of American antisemitism. University of Pittsburgh Press. Westminster John Knox Press. Archived from the original on 28 February Retrieved 18 April September Behrman House, Inc. The Jews of Europe in the modern era: a socio-historical outline. Central European University Press.
Retrieved 15 August Retrieved 17 May Retrieved 12 June European Fundamental Rights Agency. Archived from the original PDF The Telegraph. Retrieved 11 January The New antisemitism Archived 29 July at the Wayback Machine , accessed 5 March "Jews predict record level of hate attacks: Militant Islamic media accused of stirring up new wave of antisemitism" , The Guardian , 8 August Todd M.
University of Toronto Press, , pp. David Matas. Robert S. The Myth of the New Anti-Semitism. There is no New Anti-Semitism , posted 5 February Retrieved 6 February Bagchee Joydeep Oxford: Oxford University Press. In Green, Peter ed. Hellenistic History and Culture.
University of California Press. Judeophobia , Harvard University Press, , p. John M. Journal of Biblical Literature. Antiquity volumes edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider. Brill, Brill Online. Alberto Ferreiro ed. The Visigoths: Studies in Culture and Society. University of Nebraska Press. Retrieved 28 August Back Bay Books. Archived from the original on 28 July Slack Historical Dictionary of the Crusades. Scarecrow Press. Originally written in Latin, the work was translated to French in six volumes by L. Bellaguet between and Archived from the original on 11 December Some of their supporters point out that they've been subject to criticism over their views on Israel that others haven't.
IlhanMN 's strength inspires me and so many. She is being targeted just like many civil rights icons before us who spoke out about oppressive policies. As she uplifts my Sity and other Palestinians in the name of justice and peace, she shows us real courage.
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Omar won 78 percent of the vote in the highly Democratic district in the election. The district is mostly urban, comprising Minneapolis and some of its suburbs to the north, south and west. Patrick Scully, 65, is a performing artist in Minneapolis and an Omar constituent. He said it's absurd for President Trump to criticize Omar for alleged bigotry, given the president's track record.
Scully said it's unfair to pass a resolution essentially criticizing Omar for her remarks when other members of Congress have clearly made bigoted remarks but avoided criticism — like that of Omar. Dan Israel, an Omar constituent from St. Louis Park, said he is troubled by what he views as a pattern of anti-Semitic comments by the congresswoman. He also said it's not hard to criticize the state of Israel without being anti-Semitic.
However, it is not OK to traffic in classic anti-Semitic tropes about Jews and money and power when making those criticisms. Aaron Albertson, a 5th District resident, wrote to the Public Insight Network that he appreciates Omar's position: "[I'm] grateful that I have a brave representative who is willing to criticize not just the Israeli government but also the U. Correction: An earlier version misstated the location of suburbs within the 5th District.