They watched the unfolding of the French Revolution with shared enthusiasm. Hegel at this time envisaged his future as that of a Popularphilosoph, i. Although the violence of the Reign of Terror in dampened Hegel's hopes, he continued to identify with the moderate Girondin faction and never lost his commitment to the principles of , which he would express by drinking a toast to the storming of the Bastille every fourteenth of July.
In , he wrote another essay entitled "The Spirit of Christianity and Its Fate", unpublished during his lifetime. In , Hegel came to Jena with the encouragement of his old friend Schelling, who held the position of Extraordinary Professor at the University there.
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Hegel secured a position at the University as a Privatdozent after submitting the inaugural dissertation De Orbitis Planetarum, in. Founded on 4 April , it is Switzerland's oldest university and among the world's oldest surviving universities ; the university is traditionally counted among the leading institutions of higher learning in the country.
The associated Basel University Library is the largest and among the most important libraries in the country; the university hosts the faculties of theology , medicine and social sciences, science and business and economics, as well as numerous cross-disciplinary subjects and institutes, such as the Biozentrum for biomedical research and the Institute for European Global Studies. In , the University boasted professors. International students accounted for 24 percent of the student body.
The institution is associated with nine Nobel prize winners and two Presidents of the Swiss Confederation. The University of Basel was founded in connection with the Council of Basel ; the deed of foundation given in the form of a Papal bull by Pope Pius II on November 12, , the official opening ceremony was held on April 4, The University of Basel was decreed to have four faculties—arts, medicine and jurisprudence ; the faculty of arts served until as the foundation for the other three academic subjects.
In the eighteenth century as Basel became more commercial, the university, one of the centres of learning in the Renaissance , slipped into insignificance. Enrollment, over a thousand around , dropped to sixty in with eighteen professors; the professors themselves were sons of the elite. Over the course of centuries as many scholars came to the city, Basel became an early centre of book printing and humanism. Around the same time as the university itself, the Basel University Library was founded. Today it is the largest library in Switzerland. Located in what was once a politically volatile area, the University's fate ebbed and flowed with regional political developments, including the Reformation , the Kantonstrennung, both World Wars ; these factors affected student attendance, university-government relations.
In the Canton of Basel split in two with the Federal Diet requiring that the canton's assets, including the books at the University library, be divided—two-thirds going to the new half canton of Basel-Landschaft ; the city, Basel-Stadt , had to buy back this share and the university became so impoverished that it drastically reduced its course offerings. Students were expected to continue their education after two years or so at a German university. Student enrollment surged after the University shed its medieval curriculum and began to add more faculties those in the humanities and sciences.
Liberal Arts became a faculty in , from which the Philosophy and History and Natural History faculties were derived in During the 20th century, the University grew from one thousand students in to eight thousand in ; the first woman, admitted to the University, Emilie Frey, began her medical studies in After the seizure of power in the year by the Nazis , numerous renowned German professors decided to emigrate to Basel and started to work at the University of Basel. On January 1, , the University of Basel became independent from the cantonal government and thus earned its right to self-government.
In , the Canton of Basel-Landschaft voted in favor to share the sponsorship of the University in parity with the Canton Basel-Stadt. The Council consists of eleven voting members and three non-voting members, including the President, the Executive Director, the Secretary of the Council. Beneath the University Council are the President's Board; the member Senate consists of the senior members of the President's Board, faculty deans, professors and research assistants, assistants and administrative and technical employees.
The President's Office is tasked with leading the overall university business. From until its closure in , it was named Friedrich Wilhelm University. During the Cold War the university found itself in East Berlin and was de facto split in two when the Free University of Berlin opened in West Berlin ; the university received its current name in honour of Alexander and Wilhelm von Humboldt in The university is divided into nine faculties, including its medical school shared with the Free University of Berlin, has a student enrollment of around 32, students, offers degree programmes in some disciplines from undergraduate to postdoctorate level, its main campus is located on the Unter den Linden boulevard in central Berlin.
The university is known worldwide for pioneering the Humboldtian model of higher education , which has influenced other European and Western universities, the university has been called "the mother of all modern universities. It was regarded as the world's preeminent university for the natural sciences during the 19th and early 20th century, is linked to major breakthroughs in physics and other sciences by its professors such as Albert Einstein.
Former faculty and notable alumni include eminent philosophers, artists, politicians, mathematicians and Heads of State ; the University of Berlin was established on 16 August , on the initiative of the liberal Prussian educational politician Wilhelm von Humboldt by King Friedrich Wilhelm III, during the period of the Prussian Reform Movement.
The university was located in a palace constructed from for the late Prince Henry, the younger brother of Frederick the Great. After his widow and her ninety-member staff moved out, the first unofficial lectures were given in the building in the winter of Humboldt faced great resistance to his ideas, he submitted his resignation to the King in April , was not present when the school opened that fall.
The first students were admitted on 6 October , the first semester started on 10 October , with students and 52 lecturers in faculties of law, medicine and philosophy under rector Theodor Schmalz; the university celebrates 15 October as the date of its opening. From to , the school was named the Friedrich Wilhelm University, in honor of its founder. Ludwig Feuerbach one of the students, made a comment on the university in "There is no question here of drinking and plesant communal outings.
Compared to this temple of work, the other universities appear like public houses. Du Bois and European unifier Robert Schuman , as well as the influential surgeon Johann Friedrich Dieffenbach in the early half of the s; the structure of German research-intensive universities served as a model for institutions like Johns Hopkins University. Further, it has been claimed that "the'Humboldtian' university became a model for the rest of Europe with its central principle being the union of teaching and research in the work of the individual scholar or scientist.
In addition to the strong anchoring of traditional subjects, such as science, philosophy, history and medicine, the university developed to encompass numerous new scientific disciplines. Alexander von Humboldt, brother of the founder William, promoted the new learning. With the construction of modern research facilities in the second half of the 19th Century teaching of the natural sciences began.
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During this period of enlargement, the university expanded to incorporate other separate colleges in Berlin. In , King Friedrich I had built a quarantine house for Plague at the city gates, which in was rechristened by the "soldier king" Friedrich. Steiner gained initial recognition at the end of the nineteenth century as a literary critic and published philosophical works including The Philosophy of Freedom.
At the beginning of the twentieth century he founded an esoteric spiritual movement, with roots in German idealist philosophy and theosophy. In the first, more philosophically oriented phase of this movement, Steiner attempted to find a synthesis between science and spirituality, his philosophical work of these years, which he termed "spiritual science", sought to apply the clarity of thinking characteristic of Western philosophy to spiritual questions, differentiating this approach from what he considered to be vaguer approaches to mysticism.
In a second phase, beginning around , he began working collaboratively in a variety of artistic media, including drama, the movement arts and architecture, culminating in the building of the Goetheanum , a cultural centre to house all the arts. In the third phase of his work, beginning after World War I , Steiner worked to establish various practical endeavors, including Waldorf education, biodynamic agriculture, anthroposophical medicine. Steiner advocated a form of ethical individualism , to which he brought a more explicitly spiritual approach, he based his epistemology on Johann Wolfgang Goethe's world view, in which "Thinking… is no more and no less an organ of perception than the eye or ear.
Just as the eye perceives colours and the ear sounds, so thinking perceives ideas. Steiner's father, Johann Steiner, left a position as a gamekeeper in the service of Count Hoyos in Geras , northeast Lower Austria to marry one of the Hoyos family's housemaids , Franziska Blie, a marriage for which the Count had refused his permission. Steiner entered the village school, but following a disagreement between his father and the schoolmaster, he was educated at home. In , the family moved to Inzersdorf to enable Steiner to attend the Vienna Institute of Technology , where he enrolled in courses in mathematics , chemistry, botany and mineralogy and audited courses in literature and philosophy, on an academic scholarship from to , at the end of which time he withdrew from the Institute without graduating.
When he was nine years old, Steiner believed that he saw the spirit of an aunt who had died in a far-off town asking him to help her at a time when neither he nor his family knew of the woman's death. Steiner related that as a child he felt "that one must carry the knowledge of the spiritual world within oneself after the fashion of geometry In this feeling I found the justification for the spiritual world that I experienced I confirmed for myself by means of geometry the feeling that I must speak of a world'which is not seen'. At 21, on the train between his home village and Vienna, Steiner met an herb gatherer, Felix Kogutzki, who spoke about the spiritual world "as one who had his own experience therein".
Kogutzki conveyed to Steiner a knowledge of nature, non-academic and spiritual. Steiner remained with the archive until ; as well as the introductions for and commentaries to four volumes of Goethe's scientific writings, Steiner wrote two books about Goethe's philosophy: The Theory of Knowledge Implicit in Goethe's World-Conception, which Steiner regarded as the epistemological foundation and justification for his work, Goethe's Conception of the World.
During this time he collaborated in complete editions of the works of Arthur Schopenhauer and the writer Jean Paul and wrote numerous articles for various journals. In , Steiner received a doctorate in philosophy at the University of Rostock , for his dissertation discussing Fichte's concept of the ego, submitted to Heinrich von Stein, whose Seven Books of Platonism Steiner esteemed. Sociology Sociology is the scientific study of society, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, culture of everyday life. It is a social science that uses various methods of empirical investigation and critical analysis to develop a body of knowledge about social order and change or social evolution.
While some sociologists conduct research that may be applied directly to social policy and welfare, others focus on refining the theoretical understanding of social processes. Subject matter ranges from the micro-sociology level of individual agency and interaction to the macro level of systems and the social structure; the different traditional focuses of sociology include social stratification, social class, social mobility, secularization , sexuality and deviance. As all spheres of human activity are affected by the interplay between social structure and individual agency, sociology has expanded its focus to other subjects, such as health, economy and penal institutions, the Internet, social capital, the role of social activity in the development of scientific knowledge.
The range of social scientific methods has expanded.
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Social researchers draw upon a variety of quantitative techniques; the linguistic and cultural turns of the midth century led to interpretative and philosophic approaches towards the analysis of society. Conversely, the end of the s and the beginning of the s have seen the rise of new analytically and computationally rigorous techniques, such as agent-based modelling and social network analysis. Social research informs politicians and policy makers, planners, administrators, business magnates, social workers, non-governmental organizations, non-profit organizations, people interested in resolving social issues in general.
There is a great deal of crossover between social research, market research, other statistical fields. Sociological reasoning predates the foundation of the discipline. Social analysis has origins in the common stock of Western knowledge and philosophy, has been carried out from as far back as the time of ancient Greek philosopher Plato , if not before.
The origin of the survey, i. There is evidence of early sociology in medieval Arab writings; some sources consider Ibn Khaldun , a 14th-century Arab Islamic scholar from North Africa , to have been the first sociologist and father of sociology. The word sociology is derived from both Greek origins; the Latin word: socius, "companion". Sociology was defined independently by the French philosopher of science, Auguste Comte in as a new way of looking at society. Comte had earlier used the term social physics , but that had subsequently been appropriated by others, most notably the Belgian statistician Adolphe Quetelet.
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Comte endeavoured to unify history and economics through the scientific understanding of the social realm. Writing shortly after the malaise of the French Revolution , he proposed that social ills could be remedied through sociological positivism , an epistemological approach outlined in The Course in Positive Philosophy and A General View of Positivism. Comte believed a positivist stage would mark the final era, after conjectural theological and metaphysical phases, in the progression of human understanding.
In observing the circular dependence of theory and observation in science, having classified the sciences, Comte may be regarded as the first philosopher of science in the modern sense of the term. Comte gave a powerful impetus to the development of sociology, an impetus which bore fruit in the decades of the nineteenth century. To say this is not to claim that French sociologists such as Durkheim were devoted disciples of the high priest of positivism, but by insisting on the irreducibility of each of his basic sciences to the particular science of sciences which it presupposed in the hierarchy and by emphasizing the nature of sociology as the scientific study of social phenomena Comte put sociology on the map.
To be sure, beginnings can be traced back well beyond Montesquieu , for example, to Condorcet , not to speak of Saint-Simon , Comte's immediate predecessor. But Comte's clear recognition of sociology as a particular science, with a character of its own, justified Durkheim in regarding him as the father or founder of this science, in spite of the fact that Durkheim did not accept the idea of the three states and criticized Comte's approach to sociology.
Both Auguste Comte and Karl Marx set out to develop scientifically justified systems in the wake of European industrialization and secularization , informed by various key movements in the philosophies of history and science. Marx rejected Comtean positivism but in attempting to develop a science of society came to be recognized as a founder of sociology as the word gained wider meaning. For Isaiah Berlin , Marx may be regarded as the "true father" of modern sociology, "in so far as anyone can claim the title.
Empiricism In philosophy, empiricism is a theory that states that knowledge comes only or from sensory experience. It is one of several views of epistemology , the study of human knowledge, along with rationalism and skepticism.
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Empiricism emphasises the role of empirical evidence in the formation of ideas, rather than innate ideas or traditions. However, empiricists may argue. Empiricism in the philosophy of science emphasises evidence as discovered in experiments, it is a fundamental part of the scientific method that all hypotheses and theories must be tested against observations of the natural world rather than resting on a priori reasoning, intuition , or revelation.
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Empiricism used by natural scientists, says that "knowledge is based on experience" and that "knowledge is tentative and probabilistic, subject to continued revision and falsification". A central concept in science and the scientific method is that it must be empirically based on the evidence of the senses.
Both natural and social sciences use working hypotheses that are testable by observation and experiment; the term semi-empirical is sometimes used to describe theoretical methods that make use of basic axioms, established scientific laws, previous experimental results in order to engage in reasoned model building and theoretical inquiry. Philosophical empiricists hold no knowledge to be properly inferred or deduced unless it is derived from one's sense-based experience; this view is contrasted with rationalism, which states that knowledge may be derived from reason independently of the senses.
For example, John Locke held that some knowledge could be arrived at through intuition and reasoning alone. Robert Boyle , a prominent advocate of the experimental method, held that we have innate ideas; the main continental rationalists were advocates of the empirical "scientific method".
Vaisheshika darsana , founded by the ancient Indian philosopher Kanada , accepted perception and inference as the only two reliable sources of knowledge. The Empiric school was allied with Pyrrhonist school of philosophy, which made the philosophical case for their proto-empiricism; the notion of tabula rasa connotes a view of mind as an blank or empty recorder on which experience leaves marks. This denies; the image dates back to Aristotle : What the mind thinks must be in it in the same sense as letters are on a tablet which bears no actual writing.
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Aristotle's explanation of how this was possible was not empiricist in a modern sense, but rather based on his theory of potentiality and actuality, experience of sense perceptions still requires the help of the active nous. These notions contrasted with Platonic notions of the human mind as an entity that pre-existed somewhere in the heavens, before being sent down to join a body on Earth.
Aristotle was considered to give a more important position to sense perception than Plato , commentators in the Middle Ages summarized one of his positions as "nihil in intellectu nisi prius fuerit in sensu"; this idea was developed in ancient philosophy by the Stoic school. Stoic epistemology emphasized that the mind starts blank, but acquires knowledge as the outside world is impressed upon it; the doxographer Aetius summarizes this view as "When a man is born, the Stoics say, he has the commanding part of his soul like a sheet of paper ready for writing upon.
For Avicenna, for example, the tabula rasa is a pure potentiality, actualized through education, knowledge is attained through "empirical familiarity with objects in this world from which one abstracts universal concepts" developed through a " syllogistic method of reasoning in which observations lead to propositional statements which when compounded lead to further abstract concepts".
The intellect itself develops from a material intellect, a potentiality "that can acquire knowledge to the active intellect, the state of the human intellect in conjunction with the perfect source of knowledge". So the immaterial "active intellect", separate from any individual person, is still essential for understanding to occur. In the 12th century CE the Andalusian Muslim philosopher and novelist Abu Bakr Ibn Tufail included the theory of tabula rasa as a thought experiment in his Arabic philosophical novel , Hayy ibn Yaqdhan in which he depicted the development of the mind of a feral child "from a tabula rasa to that o.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Wilhelm Dilthey. Wiesbaden-Biebrich , German Confederation. Seis am Schlern , Austria-Hungary now Italy. Slaney eds. Bruno eds. Zalta ed. Makkreel, Dilthey: philosopher of the human studies , p. Collingwood and the Hermeneutic Tradition" , Eerdmans, , p. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.
Retrieved Ramon J. Betanoz, 'Appendix: Supplementary Material from the Manuscripts', , pp. Dilthey, Einleitung in die Geisteswissenschaften , , p. Continental philosophy. Theodor W. Category Index. Antihumanism Empiricism Rationalism Scientism. Non-Euclidean geometry s Uncertainty principle Behavioralism Post-behavioralism Critical rationalism Criticism of science Epistemology anarchism idealism nihilism pluralism realism Holism Instrumentalism Modernism Naturalism in literature Nomothetic—idiographic distinction Objectivity in science Operationalism Phenomenalism Philosophy of science Deductive-nomological model Ramsey sentence Sense-data theory Qualitative research Relationship between religion and science Sociology Social science Philosophy Structural functionalism Structuralism Structuration theory.
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Leonardo da Vinci , the quintessential Renaissance man , in a self-portrait, c. He then moved to the University of Berlin and was taught by, amongst others, Friedrich Adolf Trendelenburg and August Boeckh , both former pupils of Friedrich Schleiermacher. In January ,  he received his doctorate from Berlin with a thesis in Latin on the Schleiermacher's ethics, and in June of the same year  he also earned his habilitation with a thesis on moral consciousness.
He became a Privatdozent at Berlin in In , he edited Schleiermacher's letters and soon after he was also commissioned to write a biography—the first volume of which was eventually published in In he took up a professorship at the University of Basel , but later—in —he returned to Berlin where he held the prestigious chair in philosophy at the University.
He died in Dilthey took some of his inspiration from the works of Friedrich Schleiermacher on hermeneutics , which he helped revive. Both figures are linked to German Romanticism. Dilthey, in his turn, as the author of a vast monograph on Schleiermacher, responds to the questions raised by Droysen and Ranke about the philosophical legitimation of the human sciences. To provide such a theory is the aim of the philosophy of the humanities —a field of study to which Dilthey dedicated his entire academic career.
The school of Romantic hermeneutics stressed that historically embedded interpreters—a "living" rather than a Cartesian dualism or "theoretical" subject—use 'understanding' and 'interpretation' Verstehen , which combine individual-psychological and social-historical description and analysis, to gain a greater knowledge of texts and authors in their contexts. The process of interpretive inquiry established by Schleiermacher involved what Dilthey called the hermeneutic circle —the recurring movement between the implicit and the explicit, the particular and the whole.
Schleiermacher saw the approaches to interpreting sacred scriptures for example, the Pauline epistles and Classical texts e. Plato 's philosophy as more specific forms of what he proposed as "general hermeneutics" allgemeine Hermeneutik. Dilthey saw understanding as the key for the human sciences Geisteswissenschaften in contrast with the natural sciences.
The natural sciences observe and explain nature, but the humanities understand human expressions of life. Dilthey's philosophy also influenced the religious philosopher Martin Buber. Dilthey's works informed the early Martin Heidegger 's approach to hermeneutics in his early lecture courses, in which he developed a "hermeneutics of factical life," and in Being and Time But Heidegger grew increasingly critical of Dilthey, arguing for a more radical "temporalization" of the possibilities of interpretation and human existence.
In Wahrheit und Methode Truth and Method , , Hans-Georg Gadamer , influenced by Heidegger, criticised Dilthey's approach to hermeneutics as both overly aesthetic and subjective as well as method-oriented and "positivistic. Dilthey was interested in psychology. In his later work Der Aufbau der geschichtlichen Welt in den Geisteswissenschaften , , he used the alternative term structural psychology Strukturpsychologie for descriptive psychology.
Dilthey was also interested in what some would call sociology in the 21st century, although he strongly objected to being labelled as such, as the sociology of his time was mainly that of Auguste Comte and Herbert Spencer. Comte's idea of positivism was, according to Dilthey, one-sided and misleading. Dilthey did, however, have good things to say about the neo-Kantian sociology of Georg Simmel , with whom he was a colleague at the University of Berlin.
Hans Bakker has argued that Dilthey should be considered one of the classical sociological theorists due to his own influence in the foundation of nonpositivist verstehende sociology and the Verstehen method. A lifelong concern was to establish a proper theoretical and methodological foundation for the "human sciences" e.
Dilthey strongly rejected using a model formed exclusively from the natural sciences Naturwissenschaften , and instead proposed developing a separate model for the human sciences Geisteswissenschaften. His argument centered around the idea that in the natural sciences we seek to explain phenomena in terms of cause and effect, or the general and the particular; in contrast, in the human sciences, we seek to understand in terms of the relations of the part and the whole. In the social sciences we may also combine the two approaches, a point stressed by German sociologist Max Weber.
His principles, a general theory of understanding or comprehension Verstehen could, he asserted, be applied to all manner of interpretation ranging from ancient texts to art work, religious works, and even law. His interpretation of different theories of aesthetics in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries was preliminary to his speculations concerning the form aesthetic theory would take in the twentieth century.
Both the natural and human sciences originate in the context or "nexus of life" Lebenszusammenhang , a concept which influenced the phenomenological account of the lifeworld Lebenswelt , but are differentiated in how they relate to their life-context. Whereas the natural sciences abstract away from it, it becomes the primary object of inquiry in the human sciences. Dilthey defended his use of the term Geisteswissenschaft literally, "science of the mind" or "spiritual knowledge" by pointing out that other terms such as "social science" and "cultural sciences" are equally one-sided and that the human mind or spirit is the central phenomenon from which all others are derived and analyzable.
It is not an abstract intellectual principle or disembodied behavioral experience but refers to the individual's life in its concrete cultural-historical context. In , Dilthey developed a typology of the three basic Weltanschauungen , or World-Views, which he considered to be "typical" comparable to Max Weber's notion of "ideal types" and conflicting ways of conceiving of humanity's relation to Nature. Dilthey's ideas should be examined in terms of his similarities and differences with Wilhelm Windelband and Heinrich Rickert , members of the Baden School of Neo-Kantianism.
Dilthey was not a Neo-Kantian, but had a profound knowledge of Immanuel Kant's philosophy, which deeply influenced his thinking. An important debate between Dilthey and the Neo-Kantians concerned the "human" as opposed to "cultural" sciences, with the Neo-Kantians arguing for the exclusion of psychology from the cultural sciences and Dilthey for its inclusion as a human science.
In , Dilthey was asked to complete the editing of Schleiermacher's letters.