Eight months later the Duke died and the Medici family, wishing to protect their family interests, challenged his will, which placed Vittoria to be in charge of his fortune. When Vittoria refused to co-operate, the Medicis arranged for her to be killed. She was stabbed to death in Padua by Ludovico Orsini. Count Lodovico is banished from Rome for debauchery and murder; his friends, Gasparo and Antonelli promise to work for the repeal of his sentence. The Duke of Brachiano has conceived a violent passion for Vittoria Corombona, daughter of a noble but impoverished Venetian family, despite the fact they are both married to other people.
Vittoria's brother Flamineo, employed as a secretary to Brachiano, has been scheming to bring his sister and the Duke together in the hope of advancing his career, much to the dismay of their mother, Cornelia. The plan is foiled by the arrival of Brachiano's wife Isabella, escorted by her brother and Cardinal Monticelso. They are both outraged by the rumours of Brachiano's infidelity and set out to make the affair public; before that happens Brachiano and Flamineo arrange to have Camillo Vittoria's husband and Isabella murdered. Vittoria is put on trial for the murder of her husband and although there is no real evidence against her, she is condemned by the Cardinal to imprisonment in a convent for penitent whores.
Flamineo pretends madness to protect himself from awkward suggestions. The banished Count Lodovico is pardoned and returns to Rome; confessing he had been secretly in love with Isabella, he vows to avenge her death. Isabella's brother Francisco also plots revenge. He pens a love letter to Vittoria, intentionally allowing it to fall into the hands of Brachiano, in order to fuel his jealousy.
Though at first this ploy seems to work, Vittoria manages to convince Brachiano that she is faithful and the two elope. Cardinal Monticelso is elected Pope and as his first act he excommunicates Vittoria and Brachiano, who have fled Rome. Vittoria and Brachiano, now married, hold court in Padua.
Three mysterious strangers have arrived to enter Brachiano's service. These are Francisco, disguised as Mulinassar, a Moor, and Lodovico and Gasparo, disguised as Capuchin monks, all conspiring to avenge Isabella's death. They begin their revenge by poisoning Brachiano. As he is dying, Lodovico and Gasparo reveal themselves to him. Next, Zanche, Vittoria's Moorish maid, who has fallen in love with her supposed countryman Mulinassar, reveals to him the murders of Isabella and Camillo and Flamineo's part in them. Flamineo is banished from court for the murder of his brother Marcello by Brachiano's son Giovanni, the new Duke, and sensing that his crimes are catching up with him he goes to see Vittoria.
He tries to persuade her and Zanche to a triple suicide by shooting him, then themelves. Vittoria and Zanche shoot Flamineo and, thinking him dead, exult in his death and their escape. Much to their surprise, Flamineo rises from the 'dead' and reveals to them the pistols were not loaded. While trying to exact his own revenge on Vittoria, Lodovico and Gasparo then enter the scene and complete their revenge by killing them.
Giovanni and officers come to the scene and the play ends with Giovanni learning of his uncle's participation in the bloody acts and sending Lodovico off to torture. The troupe usually offered simpler and more optimistic plays of the type written by their dramatist, Thomas Heywood. Webster's play failed at its debut. In the prefatory epistle to the quarto, Webster praised the actors, mentioning Richard Perkins ; but complained of the winter weather and above all of the audience, whose intellect he compared to that of donkeys. Armstrong Gibbs and with Eric Maschwitz as Vittoria.
The Society specialised in Elizabethan and Jacobean revivals in uncut texts performed with their original economy and rapidity, and with the female roles played by men.
What a magnificent play! We must confess that to us it was the ritual of an initiation to the mysteries of a play which we always believed to be great, but which we never realized was quite so wonderful". Lucas to edit the complete plays of Webster. The production was not well reviewed, perhaps mainly because of a failure to understand the special requirements of Renaissance dramaturgy. Webster scholar F. In order to avoid it, Quicksands pretends that Millicent has died and that he wants to remarry a black servant, who is actually the young woman in disguise.
After a month, Quicksands invites the gentleman to see a masque at his house, during which Nathaniel sleeps with a black woman whom the usurer supposes to be his wife, so that he immediately demands a divorce from her. Yet, when Nathaniel proposes to the black Moor, the woman turns out to be Phillis disguised as a black servant, a gentlewoman who had been seduced and then abandoned by the young man earlier in the play. All the conflicts are solved with the return of Meanwell and Rashley and the marriage between Arthur and Lucy, Millicent and Theophilus, and Nathaniel and Phillis.
Here, she refers to the theory of humours, which associates colours with four humours related to four main temperaments — yellow for choleric, red for sanguine, white for phlegmatic, and black for melancholic like Arthur:. I may not, brother. This melancholy, mistress? Moreover, Mandeville recalls Sir John Mandeville, whose book of Travels , translated into English in , provides a clear idea of the culturally relativistic vision of Africa in early modern Europe.
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In this scene, Brome not only exploits a popular and successful plot device, but he is also using black as a symbol. Millicent : Bless me! Can jealousy Creep into such a shape? Quicksands : Why, thinkst thou, fearful beauty, Has heaven no part in Egypt? Yet, Quicksands, defending his position, tries to convince Millicent that this device is a kind of sacred rite to prevent sin and which will not affect her beauty permanently. As in the case of Ethiopia, they are presented as a negative inversion of European civilization in terms of geography, physical appearance, social and sexual behaviour, as well as values and laws.
When introducing Millicent, disguised as the black Moor Catalina, to the young gentlemen, he says:. Stay, Catalina. Nay, she may be seen. Therefore, the term ironically acquires a psychological connotation that Nathaniel had not taken into account when describing his numerous female partners. His attraction to the black Moor seems to be irresistible:. Quicksands : Come hither, Catalina. You shall see, sir, What a brave wench she shall be made anon: And when she dances, how you shall admire her! Arthur : Will you have dancing here tonight?
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Quicksands : Yes! I have borrowed other Moors of merchants That trade in Barbary, whence I had mine own here, And you shall see their way and skill in dancing. Nathaniel : [ Aside ] He keeps this rye loaf or his own white tooth With confidence none will cheat him of a bit. This foodstuff image may recall Titus Andronicus , when Demetrius explicitly compares Lavinia to a slice of bread 2.
The objective of the masque organized by Quicksands is taking revenge on the young gallants who had put on stage a masque suggesting his imminent cuckoldry on his wedding night:. The Queen of Ethiop dreamt upon a night Her black womb should bring forth a virgin white. Vincent : The moral is, if Quicksands marry her, Her face shall be white as his conscience. This masque has to explain and justify his fictitious interracial marriage with the black Moor.
Inductor : Marry, sir, a naughty business. This gentleman has committed a deed of darkness with your Moor, sir; we all saw it. Testy : What deed of darkness?
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Speak it plainly. Inductor : Darkness or lightness; call it which you will.
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They have lain together; made this same a bawdy house; how will you have it? Quicksands : Undone, most wretched. O, I am confounded.
I see no art can keep a woman honest. Nathaniel : I love her, and will justify my act. While Nathaniel, showing an unexpected moral preoccupation, is now ready to marry her, the usurer, thinking that the gallant had slept with Millicent, pleads for divorce. Now red and white , those two united houses Whence beauty takes her fair name and descent, Like peaceful sisters under one roof dwelling, For a small time farewell Oh let me kiss ye Before I part with you — now, jewels, up Into your ebon casket.
This may give to the scene a fairy-tale flavour depicting Millicent as a princess imprisoned by the villain Quicksands, a sort of jealous Bluebeard. When Arthur meets Millicent for the first time after she has removed her disguise, he exclaims:. A goodly creature! How came she in? What is she? Or, if not, What makes a thing so glorious in this house, The master being an enemy to beauty?
She modestly makes to me. White is mentioned seventeen times in the whole play, with eleven occurrences in act 4 only. Edmund : Black womb! Inductor : The careful queen, conclusion for to try, Sent her to merry England charily, The fairest nation man yet ever saw, To take a husband. Only her status is white, not her soul or her intentions. The black Moors are washed white and justice is actually done since all the characters get what they deserve, either a prize or a punishment, but it is also the triumph of the white devil Phillis that casts a shadow over the moral and cultural significance of being white as well as on female morality.
As Habib records, merchants were then not only the main agents in bringing black people to Britain, but they also feature significantly in the records of those who had black servants in their households This play seems to reflect the beginning of the gradual integration of black people in the English lower classes since Africa is represented as an inferior country, exploitable economically and sexually and with one distinctive feature — blackness.
The first takes place in a famous eating establishment staged in act 3, scene 2: the tavern of the Devil and St. Dunstan at no. It is named after the legend of the 10 th -century Saint Dunstan: while he was working at his forge, the devil tried to tempt him in the disguise of a beautiful woman.