Lektüreschlüssel. Thomas Mann: Mario und der Zauberer: Reclam Lektüreschlüssel (German Edition)

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About this Item: Editions Stock, Paris, Published by Stock About this Item: Stock, Page edges tanned. Amaka urinated so that the reindeer would begin to lick the urine. When they began to eat moss with the urine , people were able to catch them. Some of the reindeer ran away and became wild. If you kill them there will be trouble—I shall cast you down to the lower world. Let this be the stag and this the doe. Another fact worth observing is that the act of creation, in our sense of the word, i.

It is not something that really matters as far as everyday life is concerned. We hope the significance of this evaluation will become clearer after we have dealt with the difficult problem of the masters of the game and the protectors or patrons of reindeer breeding. The concept of movement in history of religions 35 The Master of Animals It is a well known phenomenon of the religion of archaic hunters and pastoralists that the high-god or gods, while always present, do not usually play an active role in the common ideology of the people.

This latter figure, as we shall see, usually lives on earth in the forest or tundra or in one of the lower levels of the heavenly realm. Sometimes this role is filled by an underworldly mother figure or a water spirit. We might note that at one time P. We shall have to rest content with the rather vague designation that this personage, whether confined to a small locality or covering a whole tribal territory or geographical area, e.

The complexity of ideas concerning the concept of masters is readily seen in the case of the Yukaghir. Subodinate to each of these 20 Cf. Schmidt, Vienne, , pp. Ivar Paulson, Schutzgeister u. Gottheiten des Wildes der Jagdtiere u. Fische in Nordasien, Uppsala, , pp. The domesticated reindeer also has its keeper. When on the tundra some Yukaghir beats a driving- reindeer, the older men intercede saying that the keeper of the domesticated reindeer will be angry.

Naturally, the animal too has some say in the matter, and his goodwill is also necessary.

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It is recounted that the Yukaghir on the Omolon river used to slaughter reindeer by the hundreds at the river crossings plavi , however not in excess. All the plavi have disappeared because of the following transgression. Constantly on the look-out, he neither withholds his herds greedily nor abandons them to the caprice of men. In cases of cruelty or needless slaughter he is quick to move his herds elsewhere away from danger, while at the same time punishing the guilty with ill-luck in the hunt.

Of a similar nature is the master of wild reindeer and all land animals 24 Ibid. From there he sends reindeer to the hunters; but when he is angered he withholds the supply. He is escpecially strict in demanding the performance of all ancient customs and sacrifices connected with the hunt, and resents every slight neglect of them. The following tale of the Lamut man who was turned to stone describes the master of reindeer breeding as reaching to the sky. As we shall see, the moralistic aspects of the master are not always confined to the treatment of reindeer.

The story concerns an all-tempered reindeer owner who was in the habit of thrashing his assistants for mere trifles. One time his herd went away from their usual pasture. One of the assistants set off to look for it. He came to the pasture, which was covered with the tracks of reindeer hoofs, but farther off there was not a single track. He walked and walked and grew tired. Where can it be? I will go look for it myself.


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He grew quite tired. There was on the border of the pasture a boulder. He climbed it and sat down to rest He sprang to his feet and looked up. High on the rock there stood an old man, large and white, high as the sky. Now you must look for reindeer yourself Look upward!

There are your reindeer. He looked but did not stir. Malandra The man, unable to free himself, slowly sinks into the boulder Until by the next spring he is turned completely to stone. The journey of the shaman to the abode of the master is an essential preliminary at the beginning of the hunt, for it is only in virtue of the benevolence of the master that the game can be brought down at all.

Much, too, depends upon the personal relationship that exists between master and shaman; if an enmity should develop between the two the hunters are deprived of their substance. Among the Yukaghir, the shaman, after inquiring of the bones or skulls of dead shamans how he should best conduct his yourney, sets out with his helping spirits for the abode of the Owner of the Earth. Having returned to the yurt i.

He ties it to the head-band of the hunter giving him instructions where to go to find the actual animal to whom the soul belongs. On the next morning when the hunter arrives at the designated place the reindeer will come down to meet him, allowing itself to be shot and killed. If it was a doe that the shaman was given then the hunter will shoot a doe; this means that the hunt will go well for the whole season. In the case that it was a bull the hunter will shoot just the bull, and that will be the extent of his luck. Since it is not possible for us to go into all the intri- casies of the conceptions and representations of this general class of spirits, we shall merely reproduce the wonderful description of a 30 W.

XX, pt. I, , pp. The purpose of the trip is, naturally, the acquisition of game. In accordance with the clan structure of Evenk society the mistress governs the clan land and her abode is usually thought to be located under the sacred cosmic tree of the clan where her husband and other herdsmen tend vast numbers of animals of all kinds. The shaman, with the active support exclamations of the audience, tries to dissuade the obstinate mistress of the land, and she finally agrees to release into the taiga a certain number of animals.

She most often assumes the form of an elk cow or wild reindeer doe. Once more he must plead his case until the great mother agrees to entreaties by promising a certain number of animals. The animals captured by the shaman instantly turn into woolen threads, shnigken, which the shaman hides in the drum. With these shingken, the source of the future catch of the hunters, the shaman starts his return journey When he reaches the dwelling of the dunne mushun the shaman shows her the catch, and the clan guardian of the entrance into the other world permits him to return to the taiga, to the people.

Malandra immediately turn back into animals who fill the countryside. The shaman carries out the request of his kinsmen and once more appears in the dwelling of the dunne mushunin. Here begins for him the most difficult and complicated moment of shamanism, the theft from the dunne mushunin of the quantity of woolen threads necessary. The old woman, mistress of the land, agrees. While taking off the garment, she reveals the sacred little bag, in her armpit, in which the woolen threads of all the animals in the taiga are kept, and the shaman without being noticed, takes the necessary number.

When he returns to the middle world, to the people, the shaman shakes them into the taiga and instantly they are transformed into real animals. At present we must take a brief look at the ideas about the guardians of the herds of the reindeer breeders. Peculiar to these spirits is their limited domain over single herds. They are not so much concerned with the source of reindeer, which is the business of the great masters, as with the protection and well-being of the herd.

Among the Chukchee and the Koryak there is a close solidarity between the family hearth and the herd, as represented by the sacred fire-board that is at once the guardian of the hearth and the guardian of the herd. The sacred orientation of the herd is thus around the hearth. The farther the herd is from the hearth and the sacred fire- board the greater is its danger from the demonic powers of the universe. This is well shown by one of festivals see below where the return of the reindeer from summer pasture to the hearth is celebrated with thanksgiving. The role of the fire-board as guardian of the herd is 34 Ibid.

The concept of movement in history of religions 41 illustrated by an account that Jochelson gives. When it was dry a few days later the consacration took place. Thereupon, the mother of the two brothers pronounced an incantation over it, consisting of an appeal to Big-Raven to set up a new sacred fire-board as a guardian of the herd. Then fire was for the first time obtained from the sacred fire-board by means of drilling; the wooden god, or rather guardian, black from hearth smoke, and shining from the fat that had been smeared on it, became guardian of the herd and of the hearth.

Shirokogoroff 37 informs us that among the Tungus the dedicated or consacrated animals are domesticated draft reindeer and horses. The reindeer Tungus of Transbaikalia distinguish two types of consacrated reindeer, ongun and jasil. The jasil, or itik as it is known among other Tungus groups, is a special white reindeer which cannot be slaughtered or ridden. It is treated with the utmost respect and its life made as pleasant as possible. If it is beaten or saddled 35 Op. Zelenine, Le culte des idoles en Siberie, Paris, Malandra the guilty party will fall ill.

Similar practices are reported by Karjalainen of the Yugra peoples. Nach einer russischen Quelle dienen als Zugtiere gleich- farbige, gewohnlich weisse, Renntiere, die sonst nicht zum Fahren benutzt und, sobald sie untauglich geworden sind, dem von ihnen gezogenen Geiste geopfert werden. Prokofyeva has shown that the sacred sleds of the Entsy and Nenty are in fact themselves constructed in such a way as to be reindeer. They covered such sleds with the skin of a reindeer together with the hoofs and skull. They are most often if not exclusively, considered to be bearers of powers benevolent toward man and animal.

Thus they are dedicated to any number of protective spirits or gods, in many cases to the high-god himself. For 39 Op. Zelenine, chap. Diese werden dann vom Hauswirt entweder iiberhaupt nicht mehr fur einige Zwecke benutzt oder doch nur in Ausnahmefalien. Solche Rentiere leben 15 bis 20 Jahre lang Shirokogoroff claimed 40!

Das Rentier steht iiberhaupt in enger Beziehung zum Hochsten Wesen. Wenn der Mensch das Rentier gut behandelt, so wird seine Seele, die nach dem Tode, wie die aller niitzlichen Tiere, zu Mayin, dem Hochsten Wesen in den Himmel hinaufgehen, dort zum Fiirsprecher des Menschen, und Mayin belohnt dem Menschen mit Zuwachs zu seiner Rentierherde. Because of the length of the example we have chosen, we shall give just it. The essence of narratives is always in their telling.

Bei der Verfolgung des Eisbaren mit Rentieren geriet er auf Treibeis, das weit nach dem Meere zu schwamm. Rychkov, qouted from P. Schmidt, Der Ur sprung der Gottes- idee, Vol. X, Munster i. Malandra Er trieb 40 Jahre, schliesslich auf einen Treibholz, und ganz erschopft gelingt es ihm schliesslich, langs des gelben Eises ans Land zu kriechen. Er findet zwei Weiber, die ihn als kleines Vogelmannehen bezeichnen und ihn im Handschuh nach Hause tragen.

Der Hausherr, der Lebensmittelspender- Geist, traf zu Hause ein mit einem Schlitten, dem zwei Renntiere von dem Umfang zweier grosser Berge vorgespannt waren Der Lebensmittel- verleiher-Geist erzahlt Vylkka, dass das gelbe Eis seine eiserne Briicke gewesen sei, langs der er uber das Meer wandelt Vylkka schickte er aus, um die Renntiere zusammenzutreiben, wobei er auf die Erhebung gegeniiber der Zelt steigen und dreimal rufen musste.

Vylkka tat so, und aus alien Richtungen stromten Renntiere herbei. Die laufen den ganzen Tag an ihn voruber, und immer noch sah er kein Ende. Fiir den Alten wurden Zugtiere gefangen und das Gespann angeschirrt. Als das Gespann aus dem Gesichtskreis verschwand, folgten ihm einige Zehntausand Renntiere. Sowie diese das Gespann erreichten, setzten sich die alten Kiihe in scharfen Galopp.

Der Alte war auch mitgezogen, Vylkka war mit den Tochtern allein daheim geblieben und schlief Tag und Nac. Lass dich von nichts verlocken, oder du bekommst dein eigenes Heim nie mehr sehen. Zaume die beiden Ochsen an, die der Alte im Sommer halt, die wissen selbst, wohin sie zu gehen haben und wo sie im Sommer gewesen sind. Sie wissen den Weg zur heiligen Erhebung, wo der Alte anhalt, bleiben dort stehen und erwarten ihn Er be- trachtet die Fusse der Zugtiere, die bewegen kaum ihre Fiisse, er betrachtet den Wald—der Wald bleibt schnell hinter ihm.

Die Renntiere hielten an der heiligen Erhebung an. Dort sieht er einige sjaadais wooden idols stehen. Als er genauer hinblickte, bemerkt er, wie sie ihren Mund bewegen und die Augen bewegen, genau wie lebende. Vylkka zog den Dolch aus der Scheide und schlitzte seine Brust auf, nahm seine Lunge, gab jedem ein Stuckchen, und sie assen davon.

Gleichzeitig traf der Alte ein, und es geschach, wie die Madchen gesagt hatten. Sie kamen zum Zelt, und der Alte zeigt Vylkka seine Renntiere, ehe dieser in sein eigenes Land aufbricht. Sie sind zahllos wie das Gras, nach sieben- tagiger Fahrt gelangten sie an den Rand einer Herde, und noch weiter, soweit das Auge reichte sind fiinftausendkopfige Herden Mit dem Alten fuhr er sieben Tage inmitten der Renntierherden, am achten Tage erst wurden die Renntiere sparlicher Karawanen mit beladenen Schlitten warteten draussen—von langer Vorbereitung war nichts zu bemerken gewesen—man brauchte sich nur hineinzusetzen und loszufahren.

Siehst du auf dem Wege ein Haus, so kehre nicht darin ein noch schirre die Ochsen aus— es ist nicht weit davon, dass Gott mit ungnadigem Auge dreinschaut. Der Alte kiisste beide auf die Nase und The concept of movement in history of religions 45 band an den letzten Weiberschlitten drei alte Kiihe. Sie brachen auf, die Kiihe schleppten hinterher, und das Fell rieb sich auf dem Boden auf.

Als Vylkka hinter sich blickt, sieht er, wie sich von der Herde 10, Renntiere losgelost haben und dem Gespann folgen. So fahren sie den ganzen Winter. Einmal erscheint der Fahrweg so breit, dass das Auge ihn kaum ermessen kann. Dort waren wenig Renntier-, aber viel Menschenspuren. Vylkka kehrt in einigen Zelten ein. Dort haben alle, junge und alte, Knochenspaten wie Horner am Kopfe Er sieht, wie die Menschen etwas unter dem Schnee hervorgraben und essen, und folgert daraus, dass er zu einem Renntiermoos essenden Volke gekommen ist Seine Schwester war in- zwischen alt geworden, runzlig, grauhaarig.

Wahrend Vylkkas Abwesenheit war die Zahl seiner Renntiere auf 10, gestiegen. Aus Vylkka wurde dann der Zauberer seines Stammes. Especially in the case of the sacrifice of reindeer, the extent and the diversity of the phenomenon make it impossible for us to deal with the subject in a comprehensive or systematic way. Nonetheless, we shall try to indicate some of the broad lines that appear throughout. The seasonal ceremonials have a few overall common traits. In the first place, they have to do with the welfare of the herd and the economic advantages that man gains thereform.

It should not be thought that such practical matters exhaust the religious content or meaning of the ceremonials, yet they play a indispensible role. The same holds true for most forms of sacrifice. This point may seem obvious; however, it should be made to avoid either the excesses of an overly spiritualistic interpretation on the one hand or hand overly materialistic one on the other. Another function of the ceremonials is that they figure in the nomadic existence of the people. Hence, they celebrate the safe return of the herds in the fall or wish a success- 47 T.

Malandra ful spring migration. Also, they orientate man to the cycles of nature whether the falling of the first snows, the first appearance in winter of the sun, the return of grass to the tundra or the birth of fawns in the spring. It will be remembered that we discussed the importance of the sacred fire-board among the Chukchee and especially the Koryak as the guardian of both the hearth and the herd.

When in the fall the weather begins to turn cold once more the men return with the herds to the summer camp. At the first approach of the herds the fires in the houses are extinguished and new sacred fires are lighted outside containing a spark from the sacred fire-board. Among the Koryaks the people run out to meet the herd hurling burning brands upon it.

According to the second version, the One-On-High took the first reindeer out of the fire. The fawn-skins are then used for the new winter clothing. The two Chukchee ceremonials differ from each- other mainly in that the second is less elaborate than the first. They 48 Op. After the welcome Twilight-Man and Creator each slaughtered some of their reindeer. See Jochelson, p. The concept of movement in history of religions 47 begin in the same way as the Koryak, the arriving herd being greeted with shouts, the firing off of guns, the brandishing of spears and the shooting of charred sticks into the herd by the children, together with the igniting of sacred fires.

The men walk through the herd choosing the fawns and grown bucks to be slaughtered. These are dispatched with knives and spears respectively. For each buck a female is killed and laid by the buck as a wife. Next, two rows of sledges are drawn up parallel to each other, in the midst of which is the special sled carrying the sacred fire-board and family charms.

Within the rows of sledges the women light fires and begin to butcher and skin the reindeer. The long-bones are broken for the marrow, which is both eaten and spread on the family charms. Blood is also collected for the painting ritual whereby each family has its own style that is painted in blood on people and sledges. After a meal is eaten, the drums are gotten out and a great shamanistic performance begins that lasts the whole day and in which all take part, even the children, everyone having a turn at the drum. Wealthy reindeer owners invite many guests on whom lavish gifts are bestowed, and the festive atmosphere is further enhanced by foot races and wrestling matches.

New fires are started by means of the sacred fire-board, and reindeer are slaughtered to the One-On-High as a sacrifice. The antlers of the slaughtered reindeer, which have been preserved beforehand, are heaped in a pile. Malandra Mother earth is also sacrificed to in spring. The three center poles are moved to the new site situated on high ground, and are placed down flat so that the points meet and the ends radiate out to form a circle. A reindeer is slaughtered over the center and a circle drawn around it in blood. Afterwards, many reindeer are slaughtered for the summer and the herd departs.

The sacrifice is held near the herd. They sprinkle the blood of the sacrificed animal on the snow, as if watering grass, considering this as insuring its growth for the summer. During the fall migration to the south, they carry out a sacrifice with the request that the people be healthy and after a year be able to return to the place of the summer stop-over. Es wurde mit einem Nackenstich getotet, der Kopf wurde abgeschnitten, und den Rumpf Hess man liegen. Der Oberhirte nahm den Kopf, die anderen gingen voraus, ohne sich umzuhesen. Als sie in die Nahe der Kote zuriickgekehrt waren, versteckten sie den Kopf.

Die Hauswirtin nahm drei Holz- scheite, von denen sie jeden der drei Hirten eins zuwarf, ohne ein Wort zu sagen. Dann gingen sie in den Wald nach der Opferstatte. Geist des 52 Idem. The concept of movement in history of religions 49 Oedlandes um Renntiergluck bittend. Dann legte er den Rentierkopf in das Feuer Man glaubte, der Geist der Einode werden ein neues Renntier daraus schaffen.

In spring a sacrifice was held to insure the wellbeing of the reindeer calves, 57 and another at the release of the reindeer. The division of the year, indicated by the ceremonials, follows the migratory pattern of the reindeer, which provides a much different temporal orientation than does the agriculturalist calendar. Sacrificial and ritual practices among peoples of northern Eurasia having to do with bones and skulls have already amply been attested to by a number of investigators so as to make documentation here superfluous. In friiherer Zeit war die Benutzung des Renntieres zu diesem Zwecke uberall verbreitet, sodass z.

Itkonen, Heidnische Religion und spdterer Aberglaube bei den finn- ischen Lappen, Helsinki, , p. Memoires de la Societe Finno- Ougrienne Linguistik 5, ; op. Numen XIV, 1 4 50 W. Malandra well be a general statement covering each group.

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For, throughout the whole area travelers and scientists have attested to the existence of countless sacred places that are characterized most often by great piles of bones, antlers and even whole carcasses of sacrificed reindeer. Of course, sacrifice is, as we have seen, never only limited to the sacred places of the forest and tundra, but can take place almost anywhere according to need and circumstance, even inside the dwelling itself.

Owing to the fact that the sacred places are pretty uniform in appearance we shall give only a couple of descriptions. In a caricature of nineteenth century ethnographic writing A. They vary but slightly in character, and are uniformly rude heaps of sticks, antlers and bones. They are erected on some slight natural eminence, and this is often emphasized by a rough layer or platform of stones and driftwood.

On this eminence there usually are placed, without any attempt at arrangement, the bones of bear and deer; particulary the skulls and marrow-bones. The skulls of the deer have their antlers attached, and so many of these are usually found that the bones form a close bristling circular palisade.

Among this mass of bones, many odds and ends occur From the midst of all this there rise a number of sticks and poles—some being less than a foot and others as long as six feet. They are stuck firmly in the ground, and at or near their summits are roughly cut to resemble the features of the human face. A goodly portion will hold aloft the skulls of bear and deer At these piles the Samoyed was wont, and Mr. Jackson believes is still occasionally addicted to sacrificing deer; and on these occasions the blood of the sacrifice is smeared on the slits which represent the mouths of the gods.

It may also be noted that the carcasses of the sacrificed reindeer are never eaten, but left to decompose or be consumed by birds and beasts of prey on the site of the sacrifice. Memoires de la Societe Finno-Ougrienne The concept of movement in history of religions 51 Gottern am besten im Herbst und im Friihjahr. Im Herbst opferte man zum Dank fur den vergangenen Sommer und wegen des kiinftigen Gedeihens der Herde, im Friihjahre wiederum in der Hoff- nung auf ein gliickliches Kelben und einen guten Sommer.

Around under the trees are wooden or stone idols of various spirits, and in the trees hang great numbers of reindeer skins and antlers. All around one finds the remains of reindeer sacrifice. On the other hand, for the peoples of the northern forests and tundra such places have much greater meaning attached to them. Of course, the feeling of sanctity does not arise out of the blue, so to speak, but because for whatever peculiar reasons the place in question manifests the sacred or possesses uncanny powers.

Most sacred places are the sanctuaries of a god or spirit, so it is there that sacrifice is most frequently carried out. As we have already seen in several cases the goal of the sacrifice is the goodwill of the deity so as to insure plentiful game, the increase of the herd, or the general wellbeing of the people. Malandra deity whether the High-God or the dispenser of hunting or reindeer luck. Das Fell wird am gewohnlichsten durch Aufhangen dargebracht; es wird an heiliger Statte an einem Baum- zweige befestigt, besonders bei Opfern auf den Renntiergebieten, oder wird fiber eine Stange gelegt, die an heiliger Statte waagerecht auf Baumasten oder gabelformig auslaufenden festgerammten Stiitz- pfahlen ruht.

Some prayers are quite simple. Lass unsere Tochter auf Boden ohne Gruben ein- herschreiten, unsere Sohne auf Boden ohne Gruben einherschreiten, erwirke es von deinem heiligen Torem-Vater mit den sieben Rauchfangen! Nimm das Opfertier auf in die von deinem Vater geschaffene hundert- ochsige Renntierochsenherde! Wir bitten, um weiter hin zu leben um Sonnenlicht, wir bitten um weiterhin zu leben um Mondlicht.

However, when it is a question of offering sacrifice 66 Op. Ill, Helsinki, , p. FF Communications Ill, p. At the shore was also discovered a stake and reindeer skull that had apparently once stood erect in the same way as those of modern Siberian peoples do today. Although we have no idea what the meaning of the ancient rite might have been, we do know that in our own times it has to do most often with fishing luck. Lass mich nicht im Wasser umkommen! Hence, they are given reindeer in sacrifice when the fishing goes poorly.

Quite naturally the superhuman power is to receive the sacrificed animal; and this is seldom thought of in allegorical ways. If you should want to offer a reindeer to the water-Spirit then the best thing to do is send it off to where the Spirit is; the same holds true for the celestial deities—the reconstruction of the animal and the hanging up of the antlers, skull and skin accomplishes in spacial terms 71 Cf. Linguistik, 9, Rust summarized in J. Malandra the elevation of the sacrifice to a supramundane level. It is a further necessity that the shaman must frequently journey with the soul of the reindeer and thus insure its safe arrival at the place of the deity.

The literal spacial orientation of the direction in which the sacrifice is to go is also seen in the practice of the Voguls to bury the reindeer sacrificed to the prince of the underworld under the dwelling. However, lest we think that this is all that is here involved, or that the ritual procedure is always carried out in rather perfunctory manner, we shall reproduce a description of a northern Vogul sacrificial ceremony at one of the sacred places, told in an especially delightful way by Nosilov and quoted by Karjalainen: Zum Opfer begab man sicli am Vormittag, im Renntiergespann.

Wahrend Sopra und der Autor dem Geisterbilde neue Kleider anlegten, machten die anderen die Opferstatte zurecht, eine kleine Oeffnung im Walde Dort bot sich der Anblick eines echten Wildenlagers: Lager- feuer brannten, Menschen sprangen hin und her, Feuergeknasten und Stimmengeschwirr summten durcheinander. Rauch erhob sich wie bei einem Feuerbrand gegen den sich schon langsam verdunkelnden Himmel, und die Flammen von ca io machtigen Feuern beleuchteten die Waldlandschaft, die Menschen und die scheu gewordenen Renntiere, die an den Semrastammen angebunden waren Es waren dies nicht dieselben Renntiere, mit denen wir gekommen waren, alle waren jung, dem Tode geweiht, eins weiss wie Schnee Auf den Feuern waren Kessel bereit, in denen Schnee schmoltz.

Alle waren in fieberhafter Tatigkeit. Der alte Sopra gab die letzten Anwei- sungen, die Wogulen stiirzten auf die bedauernswerten Tiere zu und zerrten sie an den Seilen an die Lagerfeuer. Die Tiere strabten sich, entsetzt startten sie ins Feuer, sie rochelten unter dem Druck des festgezogenen Sedes am Halse, gingen aber doch vorwarts, da sie von hinten gestossen wurden. Eins versuchte einen verzweifelten Sprung in die Hohe, aber es wurde mit dem Seil so kraftig zuruckgerissen, dass es auf den Riicken fiel, die Beine nach oben.

Mehrere Manner eilten herbei, hoben es auf und begannen es abermals nach dem Feuer zu zu zerren, wo schon ein machtiger 77 Op. Ill, pp. The concept of movement in history of religions 55 Eisentopf brausend siedete, und in dem auch bald das Fleisch dieses Renn- tiers sieden sollte.

Die Renntiere wurden vor den Lagerfeuern aufgestellt und um den Hals wurde eine Schlinge gelegt, an deren beiden Enden je ein Wogule anpackte. Dabei heulte Sopra plotzlich mit rauher Stimme auf. Die Wogulen liessen einen entsetzlichen Schrei horen, und ehe ich einen Gedanken fassen konnte, was jetzt geschah, schlugen die Renntiere auf einmal heftig um sich, wandten sich, sprangen, fielen ins Knie und tobten. Ein grausiges Schau- spiel begann. Die Renntiere wurden erdrosselt, Pfeile wurden abgeschossen, die lautlos die Luft durchschnitten und in den Korper der Tiere drangen.

Das schreien der Wilden dauerte an und wurde immer kraftiger. Blut sprizte auf, Rocheln ertonte und eines nach dem anderen fielen die Tiere vor dem Feuer auf die Knie nieder Die Wogulen schrieen immer lauter. Der Wald schallte von wiitenden Stimmen wieder. Ich wollte mich schon in die Flucht stiirzen, in die Flucht vor einem solchen grausigen, entsetzlichen Schauspiel Endlich verstummte alles. Die Renntiere lagen tot bei den Feuern und liber sie gebeugt standen die Wilden da, eine Weile gleichsam vom Entsetzen fur einen Augenblick gelahmt vom Anblick des Todes, und Sopra, der Alte, hob seine Hande gen Himmel wie ein opfernder Apostel Shamanism Eliade has shown that the essential feature of shamanism is the ability of the shaman to go into a state of ecstasy in which it becomes possible for his soul to leave his body and to journey, provided that he have sufficient powers, to all the various levels of the cosmos.

The reasons for undertaking such journeys which are fraught with many dangers, the life of the shaman often being at stake, are many. We have already seen a few examples. As it would lead us far afield to enumerate all the many purposes for shamanistic journeys, we shall only point to the fact that the activity of the shaman qua shaman is always this ecstatic trip to regions of the cosmos where normal people cannot venture, or if they would could not return alive.

Malandra ing. This philosophical translation of the meaning of ecstasy is not to be found among the reindeer peoples of the North. Thus, the movement of the shaman within the cosmos, in its broadest sense, is a matter of crucial significance for our present study. The journey of the shaman is hardly ever a simple matter of going into ecstasy.

Much more is required for the superhuman and dangerous trip. Often the shaman must be transformed into a special animal that gives him greater powers than his merely human ones. He must also have a steed or some other means of reaching the far-off places he is requied by his mission to visit. Finally, he must have his helping spirits who will come to his aid in times of crises or show him the way through difficult passages.

For many shamans the reindeer plays a leading role in some or all of these things. It is the role of the reindeer in shamanism that we shall now investigate. According to Shirokogoroff 78 the reindeer Tungus of Transbaikalia know two general classes of shaman costumes, the duck and the reindeer. As the names indicate, the form the shaman assumes depends upon his type of costume. The duck costume is for the flight to heaven or the upper worlds, while the reindeer type is for the descent into the underworld.

Apart from the differences between the costumes according to the animals portrayed, a matter of primary importance is the difference in function of the two costumes. The duck costume is designed for the flight of the shaman and is thus rather light in weight, having a minimum of metal objects attached to it. Accordingly, it does not take much skill to master this costume. Flights to the upper worlds are not considered especially perilous so that it is usually the inexperienced novice who has the duck costume.

The reindeer costume, on the other hand, is usually excedingly heavy, weighing perhaps 40 kilos, and thus makes flying for shamans of this category at best difficult. Yet, the ability of the reindeer shaman to fly is of little importance, for he must risk the dangers of the descent into the underworld where only full equipment and skill can hope to win the day. Unlike the shaman of 78 Op.

In its symbolism the reindeer costume is a reproduction of the important anatomical features of the animal. The skin used in the making is that of a reindeer or elk and on it must be portrayed the bones of the skeleton. The coat contains the bones of the trunk. The trousers and knee-protectors are equipped with leg-bones of iron, coloured chamois or white reindeer fur. The moccasins also have iron bones. On his head the shaman wears a cap consisting of an iron head-band with four cross-strips of iron, on top of which is a set of iron antlers.

In addition to his clothing, the shaman also makes use of wooden staves that are the reindeer he rides to the other world on. Beyond the reindeer symbolism is a host of other imagery, including boats, heavenly bodies, weapons, cosmic trees, pieces of iron, snakes, and figures of helping spirits. The same sort of symbolism is found among the nomadic Tungus of the far North. According to Jochelson, the cap of the Tungus shaman is equipped with iron antlers 79 and his drum is actually his reindeer.

Although the costumes usually represent birds, there appear on the backs of the coats iron figures of reindeer. These belong only to the shamans of the highest category and are forged of iron. The lower end usually was fashioned like a deer hoof. The staff was used by the shamans 79 Op. In construction they are both replicas of the cosmos and usually are live creatures. Mard usw. Stel- Gigue wurde. Im Laufe des Alkuin s. Allegro der Sonate bzw. Die heutige wie auch bei Brahms u.

Allen - Alt 17 Lit. Mohr, Die A. Basel , Hug Antwerpen; seit Prof. Anders, Unters. Musik, schrieb zwei Sinfonien, mehrere Dez. Dichtungen, eine Oper Shylock ganist. Klavierstcke, Solfeggien. AlphOrn, ein wahrscheinlich uraltes, Musiklebens. Berufsinteressen der Tonknst- ja bei den sdamerik. Indianern anzu- ler; 3. Tonknstler und ihrer Hinterbliebenen. Klies lerfeste veranstaltet die ersten im "Bergsteiger" ; A. I vokal: war zunchst in den furt a. Vorsitzende und ab ahn' Ruh. Der Knabenstimmen ersetzbar, sondern nur Verein begann die Liszt-Ges.

Moser, Renaissance H. Beispiele die Schallplat- reform, mit einem Aufruf gegen ten des Kantoreichors unter P. Kalt den Musikabbau in Staat und Stadt A. Paukerkunst" I79S, Faks. Satz VII u. XV , Kitzig s. Endlich, I, wurde er Diakon Choralb.

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Wie eines der befreundeten Mich. Oxyrhynchos 3. Leuckart haben vor allem seine Vor allem drfte die altehr. Moser, Gesch. Musik II, 38, seitdem 3 Neudr. Bedenkt man, da in auf Adv. Weihnachten v. Meinecke , M. Ausstrahlungen gehen III Neuruppin, stud. Partei Eherverlag u. Gallen und Reichenau. Sammlung "Ein junges Volk steht auf" Lit. Kir- chenmusik beide in Bckens Hdb. I in der Mensural-Nota- ; P. Quasten, Musik u.

Ge- geltung der zweiten von zwei kleinen sang in den Kulten der heidn. Antike u. Frhzeit Mnster Juni stellen oder von Taktganzen umrahmt in Weienfels, t Mai I80! Ambitus Musik dgl. Franks verschrfung eintritt, also z. Fhrer durch die V. Hoch"- und.. Tief"- lung.. Hausmusik der Gegenwart" Alterationen; diese knnen bis zur Wolfenb. Elektra" von R. Strau v. Wagners "Mein Leben", von O. Wagners Briefen u. Webers Schriften. Alto ital. Ferner Schlssel besser, wird sich aber nicht L. Skrbensky, Leitton u.

Alteration mehr einbrgern lassen. Prag ; G. Wilcke, Tonalitt u. Modu- Alypios, griechischer Musiktheore- tiker des 4. Ein- lation im StrQu Mendelssohns und fhrung in die Musik" hg. Jan Schumanns Diss. Rostock Alteration 2 zur Erkenntnis der antiken Notenschrift Alternativ, das, lat. Amabile ital. Greifs- ging, bertrug sein Knnen auf die wald, berbibl.

Shne Antonio A. Deutsche Musiksammlung" aus Schen- nach , die gemeinsam ar- kungen der deutschen Musikverleger beiteten, des letzteren Sohn Nicola A. Die Amati-Geigen sind wertvolle Opernstatistiken in der Allg. Mozartgeigen" gegenber Schriften u. Wagners Briefe Regesten, von Stradivari und Gius. Guarneri deI ; Kammermusikliteratur 5. Gesu, s. KlTriospieler degli A. KlQu-Spieler , Ambitus lat. Umfang" einer Me- f. Viola d'amore mit Wl. Mailand Ambrosianischer Lobgesang heit der im Kern wohl aus der morgenld. Juni r in Wien, wurde Jurist Staatsanw. Nicetas v. Auf Verf. Wissig, Vertonun- Grund seiner seit erscheinenden gen sind hufig, s.

Hndel, Berlioz, Musikgeschichte wurde er o. Bruckner usw. Luthers Verdeutschung an der Univ. Prag u. Musiklehrer des Kronprinzen Rudolf u. Das Lied.. Groer Gott, wir loben dich" Prof. Auch hat er stammt dagegen textlich erst von Ignaz beachtenswert komponiert. Seine 4 bdg.

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Musik" unvollendet bei resianischen Ges. Kolonistensohn in Trier, eine groe Leistung durch die Frische der Anschauungskraft und eigene Quel- t 4 April in Mailand, schlug in lenkenntnis; der 3. Alte Nieder- Rom die staatsmnnische Laufbahn ein. Kade noch ner und Katholiken berraschend zum heute in manchem nicht berholt. Bischof gewhlt wurde. Siehe jedoch "Ambr. Lob- ges. Vorbildlich wurde deren volks- Schriften aus dem Nachla Adler j. Auch die Ein- Ambrosianischer Gesang ist der m. Wirz, Der hlg. Zeit selbstndige Bezeichnungen wie Ingressa Tri er ; Cl. Lieder Juli vermerken.

London zu Hamburg, studierte bei Hans Pfitz- Brit. VI, Solesmes am Kons. Reichssender Leipzig, Kriegs- Li!. Hauptwerke: 8 Sinfonien, 3 Kla- Benediktinerorden ; G. Turin ; Violoncell-, Flten-, Fagott-Konzert. Konzertino f.

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Trautonium, Kammer- Mel. Ameln - Amerikanische Musik 21 Orch. Eroberer Spa- sern , Sonaten und Sonatinen, Kla- nier u. Portugiesen, Hollnder, Franzo- vier-Etden; Orchester- u. Kammerlie- sen, Englnder,Deutsche hinbertrugen, der. Chorwerke: "Faust" sinf. Der Weihnachts- schs. Kolonisten u. Hopkin- motette" gern. Hawkins ein hheres Musik Passionsmusik" f.

Rundfunk Sprecher, wesen. Tuckey bereits Hndels "Singet dem Herrn" 6stg. Der Wolf u. Solo, Ch. Die fr Volksinstr. Blas- siker hob das Konzertwesen im Nord- orch. Ameln, Konrad, 6. Zerrahn, Th. Damrosch jd. Ziehn belegen. Innsbruck, ich mu dich lassen", un- deutsche MCh. Arion gedr. Die Singge- in N.

Vor allem zog das Boston- kensteiner Bunde s. Jugendbewegung , Sinfony-Orch. Bewegung ttig. Gericke, A. Volksbchereien, bibliogr. Berichte , Der Brgerkrieg lockte eigne Volks- wurde Lektor f. Kirchenmusik lieder der Yankees hervor, ihr an der Univ. Mnster, Dozent an Haupttonsetzer wurde St. Foster der pdag. Elbing, ging in , der sogar den Schwarzen gleicher Eigenschaft nach Dortmund, gangbare Melodien in den Mund legte.

Boden reich entwickelt. Er bearb. Dietz die Luther- Der in Dtschld. Wlbing-Verlag , des stilistisch von Leipzig u. Mnchen aus Bapstschen GesB. Hugenotten- u. Thomas und C. Riegel, als.. Heinrich riSI abge- K. Hymnen der roten wert als Tonsetzer war der Musikprof. Rasse vgl. Stars oft "Stucken, P. Lutkin u. Stanley, jahrelang von Europa ab. Zu den whrend E.

Kelley mehr Orch. Niggerweisen be- versitten. Musikleben Forschern s. Die amerikan. Gilbert daraus Namen v. Einflsse um den Ge- Vorstehendes vor allem nach C. Treff- dem Yale-Prof. Smith der bei licher berblick bei Carl F. Press , S. Einschlge kennt bis Pagan Poem, Sinf. Hora Lit. Notdamerika: a anglo- -mystica. Eine mehr deutsch gerichtete amerikanische M. Con- genheit: J. Howard, Ou,' verse, R. Goldmark j. Hadley, A. A merican music years of it, Oldberg, H.

Brockway, D. Mason, New Y. Odell, L. Coerne, L. Saar, M. Wilson, Annals 01 the New Y. Stage bisher 4 Bde. Greely, Ethelbert Nevin; mehr zum bis , New Y. Lahee, franz. Impressionismus neigen E. Strube u. Car- ; G. Griffes the A. Theatre , 4bdg, New Y. Deerns ; L. Elson, The history 01 A. Music seit mehrf. Wegelin, Eine betont amerikanistische Schule M. Hawkins ; O. Sonneck, sttzt sich auf Indianisches, Negerhaftes Fr. Hopkinson and ].

Hackett, The , C. Grnberg j. Leuchs, C. Howe, Music- G. Ornstein, der Boston ; a non. Salzedo u. Bennett, Hist. Fr den Operetten- E. Krohn, A Century of Missouri u. Marschstil der Union zeugte s. Music St. Louis ; F. Sousa; vgl. Reiche Stif- Am. Psalmody Katalog d. Am,erikanische Musik 23 Philad. Howard, sonian I nst. Foster NY.

Washington ; Pawneemusic dgl. Hipsher , Ameriean opera and his com- BuH. Indian music Journ. Stringfield, Acad. Mason, Hidatsa Music Wash. Reis, Music dgl. Howard, Studies of eontemp. Papago music Wash. Rosen- Intervalls do Indians sing? Indians 01 A. Boston ; W. Upton, and their music NY. S ho e- Art-song in A. Olden, ; E. Russell, The A. Grehestra Shoshone Folklore Milw. Thomas NY. Hu- Burton, Am. Composers Boston ; ; J. Mattfeld, TheFolkMusieol F. Metcalf, Am. Rein- C. Roggeri, Musi- Indian Story and song from N. Indian Games and Dances ; I. Des- Beitr. Arehaeology and and hist.

Thompson, Ethn. I , Hopi songs ibid. V ; Am. Must'c in Internat. Cyclopedia 01 Fr. IX, ; Volksmusik: E. Gagnon, Chan- Abraham u. Indianermelodien aus Br. Thuren, La E. Fergusson, Dancing gods 01 New M. Larldn, Singing cowboy NY. German , Cowboy. Allen, Cowboy , The Indians book Sharp, Engl. Musik : Oxf. Botsford, Col- W. Emerson, Stories and spirituals leciion 01 lolk-songs I: tram A. Allen, Slave the USA. Boston ; A. Scarborough, ln the Trail 01 Negro Palmer, Am.

Folk-songs Cambridge, Mass. MurseIl u. Clewn, The H. Odum, u. Johnson, Psychnlol! Dykema, Music workaday Songs ; W. Blades, for public schani administrators NY. Negro Poems, Melodies Coleman, A Children A. Fisher, SC'l. Columbia Univ. London Mittel- U. Sdamerika: a spa- b Indianische Musik: M. Holmes, Austin, The Am. Amerindian songs Boston ; F. Garcy, Trad. Talamon, Die zeitgen. Cabrebra, 2 lebensgesetzlich: durch Aufwei- Chansons populaires Argent. Paris I. Houston- nur eine dieser Betrachtungsweisen Peret, Chants papul. Rde SaussineinRev.

Fischer, spricht; er kann aber auch die Aufgabe Patagonische M. Gesnge allen drei Mglichkeiten fr gelst u. Musikbogen dgl. Beclard ansel1en, wobei deren gegenseitiges d'Harc ourt, M elod. Werkes Besonders die survivances ; Leandro Al vin a, rhythmisch-metrische A. XlII, durch H.

IX Diesem Stand- Thomasorganist. Beachtenswert die Analysen Lit. Caeci- formen durchstoen mssen. Doch ist lianus H u igens; ders. Tonpsychologie und Aufs. Karthaus, Die mus. Musikdik- Aug. Anapst - Andreae 25 Becking, Hren u. Mrz in I Offenbach, wo er auch am Juni Anapst s. Als Satz- Serail [2 Jahre vor Mozart! Goethe usw. Wolff v. Musiklehrer in Barmen, Heidelberg, Lif. Pretzsch, J. Stel- Berlin, in Mnchen, in Kln, lung in der Berl. Liederschule Diss. Musiktheorie an der Univ. Stauder, J. Sing- Bonn, seit wieder in Berlin, dort spiel AfMf.

Film-Intendant Musik- u. Theaterrefe- Andre, J. An ton, " 6. April ebenda, drit- rent der RMK I'achsch. Er ter Sohn des vorigen. Er bernahm den schrieb zahlreiche Klavier-, Orchester-, Handschriftennachla Mozarts Katalog Kammer- und Kinderlieder die neu esten gedr. Chre, Duette, rung des Steindrucks sehr stieg. Er Werke fr Str.



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