Fraternity [with Biographical Introduction]

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Kaepernick expressed no interest. Columnists criticized him. More and more in front of cameras and reporters, he was all sulking expressions and terse answers. In a running half-joke, reporters began to count the words in his responses. They were often comically short. People who knew Kaepernick in Reno were surprised, and veterans of the N.

But as long as the team was winning, few fans cared about his off-field demeanor. The 49ers were under Jim Tomsula in when Kaepernick lost his starting job, then was placed on the season-ending injury list. In , Tomsula was replaced by Chip Kelly, who named Blaine Gabbert the starting quarterback for the first three preseason games. It was safe to wonder if most people had heard the last of Colin Kaepernick. There were a few football-related messages early in , including a congratulatory note to Harbaugh, coaching collegiately at Michigan, for a bowl victory.

Kaepernick posted a photo and quote of Malcolm X on the February anniversary of his murder. In June, he posted a video of Tupac Shakur, the rapper killed in Rick Kaepernick is on the board of directors. By then, Colin Kaepernick was auditing a summer course on black representation in popular culture taught by Ameer Hasan Loggins at the University of California, Berkeley.

He drove an hour each way to each class, took notes, did the readings and engaged in class discussions, Loggins wrote in a recent essay. Diab previously dated Aldon Smith, another 49ers player, leading to a reported scrap between the two during training camp in Aside from her work on MTV, she is the host of a nationally syndicated show on Hot 97, an influential hip-hop station in New York, and supported the Black Lives Matter movement from that platform.

She has been more active and overtly opinionated than Kaepernick on social media. Loggins and Diab were classmates in Berkeley years ago, and she asked Loggins to recommend books for Kaepernick. It was not the first time Kaepernick sought reading material. As a rookie with the 49ers, he asked Edwards, the sociologist and civil rights activist who served as a consultant for the 49ers, for a reading list, Edwards said.

His decision was made on his own — from the heart. He came to me intellectually curious. The questions he asked me regarding my research, the lectures he attended, he was a sponge. When will they be held accountable? Or did he fear for his life as he executed this man?

Less than 24 hrs later another body in the street! He went to training camp to compete with Gabbert for the starting job. A sore throwing shoulder prevented him from playing in the first two preseason games. He was out of uniform, which is probably why no one in the media noticed that he sat on the bench during the national anthem. It was not until the third game, at home on Aug. A reporter took a photograph of the San Francisco bench, unrelated to Kaepernick, and later spotted him sitting alone near the coolers.

Word of the protest did not spread. Steve Wyche of nfl.

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There are bodies in the street and people getting paid leave and getting away with murder. He added that he had not sought permission from the team or sponsors. I have to stand up for people that are oppressed. If they take football away, my endorsements from me, I know that I stood up for what is right. Some said it was anti-military, a slap to those who served and died.

Some thought it was disingenuous for a millionaire, especially one raised comfortably by a white family, to take a stance on black oppression. Some football fans saw Kaepernick as a second-string has-been looking for attention. Whether you agree with his tactics or not is one type of conversation. The larger conversation is what he is protesting about. For the fourth preseason game, which Kaepernick started, he changed from sitting on the bench to taking a knee on the sideline. Safety Eric Reid joined him. The same night, Jeremy Lane of the Seattle Seahawks sat for the anthem, too.

Then soccer player Megan Rapinoe did it before a professional game days later. On Sept.

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The controversy slowly lowered to an uneasy simmer through the fall. Presidential politics took control of the national debate. Kaepernick kept kneeling before games but said little. The 49ers were awful, and Kaepernick retook the starting job. He went as the starter for a team that finished He threw 16 touchdowns and 4 interceptions, completed His passer rating of Knowing that was unlikely, he opted out as a free agent on March 1, and he has been out of a job since.

His unemployment is a fuse on another debate, this one over whether Kaepernick is being willfully kept out of the league because of his politics, or if he is no longer good enough to play in it. Maybe they have two or three quarterbacks they think are better. While Kaepernick waits to play, he has hardly been idle.

The beneficiaries are usually small, relatively unknown and surprised. Having him reach out to us is like a lifeline to continue the work that we do that is oftentimes not highlighted, but very much essential to the life and death of youth every day. The range of charities Kaepernick supports is broad.

There were seminars and sessions on black history, including segregation and Jim Crow laws. There were lessons on healthy eating and household finances. There was advice on speaking and dressing for respect, and for how to calmly handle interactions with the police. Near the end, Kaepernick shared his personal story to campers in Chicago. But when I looked in the mirror, I knew I was different. Learning what it meant to be an African man in America, not a black man but an African man, was critical for me. Through this knowledge, I was able to identify myself and my community differently.

He explained that he was giving the campers a kit to test their own DNA, to better understand their background, The Nation reported.

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But what I was able to do was trace my ancestry and DNA lineage back to Ghana, Nigeria, the Ivory Coast, and saw my existence was more than just being a slave. It was as an African man. We had our own civilizations, and I want you to know how high the ceiling is for our people. I want you to know that our existence now is not normal. For me, identifying with Africa gave me a higher sense of who I was, knowing that we have a proud history and are all in this together. Kaepernick traveled to Ghana this summer. Bush , George H. Three Prime Ministers of Canada have been members of fraternities.

Currently, about 25 percent of members of the U. House of Representatives and 40 percent of members of the U. Senate are members of Greek-letter organizations. Other notable sorority women include Mariska Hargitay , who is an actress and founder of the Joyful Heart Foundation.

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Studies have found that university graduation rates are 20 percent higher among members of Greek-letter organizations than among non-members, and students who are members of fraternities and sororities typically have higher-than-average grade point averages. One reason for this is many chapters require their members to maintain a certain academic standard. There is a high representation of former Greek life members among certain elites in the United States. Greek members "are more likely to be thriving in their well-being and engaged at work than college graduates who did not go Greek," according to a study done by Gallup and Purdue University.

A Gallup survey of 30, university alumni found that persons who said they had been members of Greek-letter organizations while undergraduates reported having a greater sense of purpose, as well as better social and physical well-being, than those who had not. Greek letter organizations have often been characterized as elitist or exclusionary associations, organized for the benefit of a largely white, upper-class membership base. Members of fraternities and sororities disproportionately come from certain socio-economic demographics, which perpetuates an unhealthy divisiveness within the student body based on ethnicity and income and a perpetuation of patterns of exclusivity and privilege.

New York Times columnist Frank Bruni questioned the existence of exclusive clubs on campuses that are meant to facilitate independence, writing: "[Colleges] should be cultivating the kind of sensibility that makes you a better citizen of a diverse and distressingly fractious society.

How is that served by retreating into an exclusionary clique of people just like you? Some colleges and universities have banned Greek letter organizations on the grounds that they are, by their very nature and structure, elitist and exclusionary. The oldest ban was at Princeton Leitch , though Princeton has now had fraternities since the s. One Harvard University study found that "4 out of 5 fraternity and sorority members are binge drinkers.

In comparison, other research suggests 2 out of 5 college students overall are regular binge drinkers. Fraternities, and to a much lesser extent sororities, have been criticized for hazing , sometimes committed by active undergraduate members against their chapter's pledges.

Hazing during the pledge period can sometimes culminate in an event commonly known as "Hell Week" in which a week-long series of physical and mental torments are inflicted on pledges. Common hazing practices include sleep deprivation, sensory deprivation, paddling and other types of spanking, use of stress positions , forced runs, busy work , forced drinking and mind games. Rarer incidents involving branding , enemas , urination on pledges and the forced consumption of spoiled food have been reported. Hazing, in many cases, has been reported and has led to the permanent disposal of particular chapters of fraternities and sororities across the country.

Supporters of fraternities note that hazing is almost universally prohibited by national fraternity organizations, and the occurrence of hazing in undergraduate fraternity chapters goes against official policy. Supporters of fraternities also note that hazing is not unique to Greek-letter organizations and is often reported in other student organizations, such as athletic teams. In , an anti-hazing hotline was set up to report incidents of hazing on college campuses. Currently, 46 national fraternity and sorority organizations support the toll-free number, which generates automatic email messages regarding hazing and sends them to the national headquarters directly from the National Anti-Hazing Hotline.

From hazingprevention. Critics of Greek-letter organizations assert that they create a culture of nepotism in later life, while supporters have applauded them for creating networking opportunities for members after graduation. A report by Bloomberg found that fraternity connections are influential in obtaining lucrative employment positions at top Wall Street brokerages.


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According to the report, recent graduates have been known to exchange the secret handshakes of their fraternities with executives whom they know are also members to obtain access to competitive appointments. Studies show that fraternity men are three times more likely to commit rape than other men on college campuses. Seabrook, Ward and Giaccardi conducted research to try and understand why fraternity membership is associated with greater perpetration and acceptance of sexual violence.

They tend to not confront or report sexual assault when it happens. This article also mentions that once reported, the perpetrator receives little to no consequences for their actions. Many times the biggest consequence for the perpetrator of sexual violence is to get kicked out of school; however, it is easy for them to get accepted into another University. Jozkowski and Martinez mention the lack of resources on college campuses for victims of rape.

Colleges and Universities vary with the type of resources they provide their students; it is argued that larger campuses may have more reported rapes due to providing more resources. In this article, Jozkowski and Martinez also suggest that colleges and universities provide more resources to students. One recommendation is to have a course and teach students sexual violence prevention and intervention, especially those students who are active in sports and Greek life organizations. Nicholas Syrett, a professor of history at the University of Northern Colorado , has been a vocal critic of the evolution of fraternities in the 20th century.

THE TRUTH ABOUT COLLEGE: Fraternity Parties, Hook Ups, Bad Roomates - Natalie Barbu

Syrett has stated that "fraternal masculinity has, for at least 80 years, valorized athletics, alcohol abuse and sex with women. In her column, Bennett recounts that, while she was an undergraduate student at the University of Southern California , doormen at fraternity parties "often ranked women on a scale of 1 to 10, with only 'sixes' and up granted entry to a party".

Researchers, such as Matthew W. Hughey, have linked racism in Greek life to persons experiencing microaggressions , fewer opportunities to use the networking system built into Greek life and the use of harmful stereotypes. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the student fraternities and sororities in North America. For other uses, see Fraternity disambiguation. For the Canadian rap group, see The Sorority rap group. Main articles: Christian fraternity , Christian sorority , and List of Jewish fraternities and sororities.

See also: Sorority recruitment. See also: Hazing in Greek letter organizations. Further information: Racism and racist incidents in greek life. New Directions for Student Services. Handbook of Secret Organizations. Milwaukee: Bruce Publishing Company. Retrieved 14 March The chapter has since moved to larger quarters. Retrieved 21 August Together, these sororities are known as the "Macon Magnolias". Several other unrelated "Philomathean Societies" emerged during the 19th Century, most notably a literary society at UPenn and another, unrelated, at NYU.

Bairds Manual Foundation. National Panhellenic Conference. Retrieved October 12, Retrieved The Encyclopedia of Canada, Vol. University Associates of Canada. University Press of Kentucky. Encyclopedia of Social Networks. Multicultural Greek Council. Retrieved 12 October National Multicultural Greek Council.

Business Insider. Retrieved 6 April The Economist. University of Pennsylvania. Retrieved 4 September First Consulting. The Fraternity Advisor. Retrieved 2 September George Mason University Interfraternity Council. Retrieved 28 December Fraternity Abolishes Pledging for New Members".

Bloomberg 7 March Folklore Matters. University of Tennessee Press. April 25, Excerpts from Julian Hawthorne 's Memoirs. The Chronicle Review. The Chronicle of Higher Education. This was, of course, all very collegiate for that long-ago time, and—with the exception of the "red-hot iron" and "boiling oil" references, if taken too literally—quite typical.

Journal Times. Retrieved October 24, — via Cairn. Princeton University Reports. Retrieved 25 July Total Frat Move. Retrieved 27 March North American Interfraternity Conference. Pi Gamma Mu.

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Beta Theta Pi. The Montrealer. Retrieved October 21, Huffington Post. Retrieved 9 December Human Rights Campaign. Joyful Heart Foundation. New York Times. Retrieved 23 July November 28, Section 1 Page Retrieved May 31, Oberlin College.


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Provisions with regard to the hours of 'athletic exercises and sport' were added in In the same revision there appeared for the first time the 'peculiar' Oberlin rule against secret societies. Secret Societies: "No secret society is allowed at Oberlin, and no other societies or self-perpetuating organizations are allowed among students, except by permission of the faculty. This is to be understood to include social and rooming-house clubs.

Brandeis University. Addiction Center. It's Power". Retrieved 30 December Journal of Interpersonal Violence. Sexual assault on campus: The problem and the solution. New York: Lexington Books. Oct



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