Comment be antworten. Danke, diesen Fehler habe ich schon immer gemacht. Langsam sollte ich es besser wissen. Comment Sachs: conciliatory remarks from you? I am impressed :- I shall ignore the rule forthwith. That's strange. What have I done!!! No, no, Emil! Comment Emil: Pish tosh. Immerhin hat dir Goldammer stolze neun Ausrufezeichen in 17 gespendet.
Comment henceforth, thenceforth, forthwith - what a collection of lovely words! Da gibts doch diesen umwerfenden Sketch von Loriot mit den vielen th Ich komm nicht drauf; der fiel mir gleich ein bei der Auflistung The question has been answered, I'd say. A rare case of complete consensus ;. Ich hoffe auch, dass ihr alle frohe Ostern hattet.
Comment I assume the snow, I sent to everyone who didn't fight to get it tooth and nail, melted before it reached you, hm ;- So good to see you back! Ich hoffe, es gelingt dir, auch weiter zu schreiben. Kannst du denn wenigstens immer normal lesen? Immer diese Anglizismen! Comment Hi hm--us! Good to see you made it back. You're welcome, Pippa! Did "Workaholic" maybe enter German everyday language after you left the German language area? I don't think it has been around sooo long.
Not when I was a child, I'm sure. Es ist seitdem so Englisch geworden, dass ich immer ganz verwirrt bin, wenn wir zu Besuch kommen. Comment Es ist seitdem so Englisch geworden What has become so English? The language?
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In this case you would have to add "Seitdem ist die Sprache Or did you mean that you have become so English? Comment 45 off-wall lt. Since then every German newspaper, even Wikipedia, calls him "Franziskus" with a z and k which doesn't exist in Latin interpreting it as a cue to "Franz von Assisi". Therefor, I guess, the Pope's name should be "Franz", too.
I think that the name Franz seemed to be too old-fashioned and "Franziskus" sounds more distinguished. To return to the first night: After giving the Latin name they called him "Francesco" and since then every Italian does. Can you acknowlidge the use? And what do you think about the Germen attitude? RenaRd , hier bei Leo gab es neulich eine Diskussion zum Namen des Papstes: related discussion: papal nomenclature Und ja, wir nennen ihn Pope Francis edit: in Australien. Comment Thanks, Pippa , I m far too late!
Somehow I connect your name with "too warm". Just to peg you as AE or BE speaker. Comment Hi Renard, if you click on the nick names you can find - at least for the persons in question - where they are or what version of English they speak. Oh, and btw: As long as your message is the last one in the thread you're able to edit it by clicking on the little white sheet with pencil next to the date.
That's then what the very famous Edith says ;-. Comment Welcome back, hm--us! And happy Easter, everybody! I hope you had a good time. Do you want some? But it really feels that way. So many muffins! Comment 56 Thank you, Sachs, for your indications. I'm not a regular chatter. In fact I just started about a week ago. Comment Ja, RenaRd. American English. Meine Kollegen freuen sich immer auf gratis Essen ;o. Comment That's what I'm trying, Lara, but it seems as if everybody has too much leftover chocolate from Easter :- I guess I'll need to invite a few friends to help eating them ;-.
Comment RenaRd: The experience of old snailhood ;- I know that I, too, was in need for such hints as a newbie. They were delicious! Comment Hello again, you racing snails! RenaRd: Sure I missed you ;- And I'm sorry that I mistook you for being female somebody wrote "Rena" and that was the wrong hint although on the other hand someone else greeted you with "Hello fox" which of course is no hint for being male or female. I daresay that you might like this fantastic neologism.
Comment It wasn't me alone, I swear. I saw at least a little fox strolling around at the time they were on the table, and I'm sure it wasn't a goose he had in his mouth ;- adding a missing "e" to my previous message offering some Mozartkugeln to Lucy for her sweet tooth after work. Comment Hi Sachs, thanks a lot for the Mozartkugeln! They are highly appreciated! But I'll only take one, you know, my hips and so on Hopefully I will be going to visit Vienna this year — if I only had more time for scheduling and other things. Comment Are there several possibilities to pronounce that?
Ara you referring to a discussion somewhere else? Comment step down from the tube: related discussion: almond pronunciation. Comment Amazing thread indeed! Thanks for the link, penguin! Comment I got a new monitor for my workplace! Now I can read you in extra-wide! I hope if I download one, it will be extra wide, too or will it only make my hips extra wide? Comment Is there chocolate in the almond bars? If it is then I would greatly take one. A friend of mine lent me a big flat-screen monitor and I don't want to give it back.
Help x. Comment 69 Do you eat things that you can't even name? Just listen to the pronounciation on Leo's. I learned it the latter way.
Comment Yes, I definitely eat things I can't spell. Have you ever tried to say "Ptasie mleczko"? In German it's called: Vogelmilch I really like to eat it. The soup looked like milk. And when I tried it with suspicion, there was a bird's head on my spoon, looking at me with dead eyes. Since then I ask for the content before ordering.
Comment I never thought that pronouncing "almond" could be such a point of discussion. I think my problem is that my contact with English speaking people these days is mostly taking place in here, and therefore in written form Today I got a most wonderful gift: A friend of Goldammerson's is presently studying in Edinburgh. When I saw her last, I lamented about a few food things which I can't get here - Marmite, for example - and today she came by and brought me a bag full of wonderful things: Two jars of Marmite, two kinds of Scottish oat cakes and "Tetley's Easy Squeeze" tea bags. Amazing things, those!
They have two cotton strings, and after brewing, you lift the tea bag and pull the strings and they squeeze the teabag, so all the goodness and the rich brown colour comes out, and also they don't drip when you take them out. I just had my first cuppa Comment The eyes are the best ; At least one Chinese kid told me that for fish-eyes. I couldn't dare even looking at him when he picked them and ate them Comment O yes fish eyes are delicious - the Russians call it Kaviar!
Maybe I mixed it up with fish eggs?? Comment Well, if I had the choice between Chinese bird soup and Scottish oat cakes, I'd take the oat cakes. Although they probably don't even have eyes :-P I hope your tea and cakes taste as wonderful as they sound, Goldammer! Comment 75 Oh cummon, Goldammer! Don't be so serious! Even shhh hears the sound of taste in your comments regarding cakes and teas I looked it up - Ha!
Comment I wonder where the single malt might be. Das offizielle Bier der Serie "Game of Thrones". Comment Cuppa: I only picked it up from the text on the tea bag box myself, RenaRd , honestly: "Tetleys Easy Squeeze, non-drip, no mess tea bags. Because you want a great tasting cuppa, not a mess. Lara : I'll have a sip of "Iron Throne Ale", thanks!
Btw, have you got an idea when Martin plans to finish the next volume?? Comment Oh — beer? And thank you, Amy-MiMi, for the delicious almond bars — I love them! And thanks for the support — a problem shared is a problem halved, isn't it? Pippa G: You seem not to have activated your PM-messages, do you? This seems to be a pity - at least for me ;-. Comment Lucy, the original QZ is "Quasselzimmer" the one with only a number in the title, which originally came about so that the tab could stay open without arousing suspicion at work.
Comment I move we stick to pistachios from now on, they're much easier to pronounce : Thanks for the shell, by the way, lovely as always. Comment zu 84, re Mal" nicht funktioniert: Wie oft kann man etwas zum 3. Mal machen? Comment What's up with LEO? I keep getting gateway errors :- Am I the only one, or did anyone else have the same problem? Other sites are working fine, so it seems the problem isn't on my end Comment Hi shhh, I had the same problems just this minute I read the "Betrifft Leo" page whether other users had posted the same problem.
Someone wrote that after a few tries everything was fine again. But now it all works again, lucky me! Hope that your problem will be gone soon, too! Comment Well, I'm glad I'm not the only one :- And it seems to work again! Amy, hast du diese Woche nicht endlich schulfrei, und wenn ja, konntest du dich ein bisschen ausruhen?
Comment Good evening! I am doing well. But the inundation of the city was quite serious 51 casualties! Over Easter I was on a birding trip to the Chaco northern Argentina , and just came back on Wednesday after it had happened. The museum was without electricity on Wednesday, the floor of my laboratory was partly inundated due to the decrepit roofing , and yesterday there was no Internet access. Comment I'd like to call your attention to this language lab inquiry of mine: related discussion: " Comment WK: Das klingt gar nicht gut.
Ja, ich hatte diese Woche schulfrei. Wir waren bei meinen Eltern. Das war toll, aber auch ein bisschen traurig, da meine Mutter immer zerbrechlicher wird. Sie unternimmt wenig mit uns, obwohl sie es gern hat, dass wir besuchen. Am Anfang wollte mein Vater nur Fernsehen schauen, Basketball und Baseball, aber dann hat er doch ein paar Sachen mit uns gemacht.
Inzwischen scheint dieses Zimmer eher ein Snack- als ein Schnack-Zimmer. Comment Welcome back, hm -- us! Very nice pun, Amy-MiMi, however, who, then, laid out almond bars in 65? It was "Bounty" with two almond on it. Now I have diabetes. I hope it gets warmer soon because the deer are already during the day in our garden and they eat up all the bushes and the spring flowers. Today I will deer stalk with my camera. I would love to catch one, because: "Das Reh ist ebenso scheu wie schmackhaft". Comment Roast of venison? That would have to hang for a while Driving with friends' we almost catched a deer on the entry to a highway.
I would say "a" as the "h" is more pronounced than in "hour" e. Everybody seems to think about eating and food. My Easter eggs are gone. But one could still get colored eggs hard boiled at many shops. Comment waltherwithh: a highway, weil man das h ausspricht Steve: Und Emil: Okay, ich gebe es zu. Ich habe damit angefangen, aber anscheinend haben die almond bars WK gefallen. Comment Thanks Ami-MiMi, so my feeling was correct Getting ready to fry some shrimps which I will mix with garlic oil into pasta and some side salad, some red wine will complete the meal.
Comment You are racing again! Thank you for the new house, Amy, and I have now two CCs to catch up on. But, with the move done, and a very relaxed job for the time being : , I should be able to read up. Unless my moving goods finally arrive, then I will be busy unpacking. I just love Mozartkugeln. Thank you, Sachs! Welcome back, hm. Maybe you could consider to move to a different browser?
IE tends to block everything by default, so I hardly ever use it. I am astonished Amy was off last week, as here the schools seem to be out this coming week which is a little bit odd. Comment Dixie: Vermutlich kommt es darauf an, wann das Schuljahr zu Ende ist. Das klingt toll. Hast du einen langen Weg hinter dir, oder bist einfach in ein neues Haus mit Seeblick gezogen? Comment Amy-MiMi Sie unternimmt wenig mit uns, obwohl sie es gern hat, dass wir sie besuchen or: zu Besuch kommen.
The "normal" word when elderly people get frail is " ge brechlich - but if you wanted to particularly espress that she might suffer a fracture very easily, you could use "zerbrechlich", too We went to one of our all time favorite places today, on the Danube near Rechtenstein in case somebody wants to google There is a kind of branch of the Danube called "Braunsel" which is very picturesque, and in another little side valley with a creek in it, there's one of the biggest occurences?
Vorkommen of wild spring snowflakes that I know of. There are millions, really! It was absoulutely stunning once again, as every year. Jetzt habe ich ein kleines obschon bedeutendes Problem: mein Auto springt nicht an. Man muss die Kupplung beteiligen, bevor man den Wagen starten kann. Ich kann morgen das Auto zur Reparatur bringen. Hoffentlich werden sie das bis Dienstag wieder in Ordnung bringen.
Diese Woche habe ich Ferien; so ist alles nicht so schlimm, als wenn ich arbeiten musste. Comment Danke, dass du waltherwithh korrigiert hast, Robert. Ich hatte das vor, habe es aber doch vergessen. Ich sitze am Computer und arbeite gaaaaanz langsam und nicht besonders effektiv. Comment Thank you, Amy, for the doorlet : I have nearly another Seeblick, but this time it is a lake, not a Bay. The move was about km, so going forward I can offer plenty of rain-related reports, less sun-related ones though.
But I am enjoying the rain, strange as it may sound. Comment Ja, unsere Dixie ist schnell! Es gibt so viele interessante Ecken in DE, die ich noch nicht kenne. Aber die Blumen sind wahrscheinlich snow drops , oder? Goldammer is most probably right with the name.
Comment Hallo, liebe Schnecken! Kaum schaut man ein paar Tage nicht herein, da veranstaltet ihr hier Gelage - tsk tsk! Ein "r" fehlte. Comment Goldammer, that sounds lovely! Pippa, crumbs, which crumbs? Vacation or no vacation, this must be annoying :- But it's good to hear that your conference was interesting!
Spring seems to be finally arriving, or at least dropping by. Yesterday was wonderfully sunny although still somewhat cold. We had an impromptu Tanztee does this exist in English-speaking countries? What would you call it? It felt really spring-like, and I'm still in a good mood Comment WK is right, his link shows the flowers we saw. Robert: display - interesting!
I had no idea so far of this meaning of "display", but leo has it as "Ausbreitung" Comment Just to add to the confusion, this is what I know as March cups 6g , while the leucojum vernum is known as spring knot flower 6g to me. I can't believe it! Comment What are you folks talking about? Only when compared, the "als" is needed. I think "wonderful" refers to a noun Yesterday and therefor it's an adjective.
Am I wrong? Comment In my opinion "wonderfully" is just a regular adverb; amazingly cheap, frightfully easy or wonderfully sunny, it's all the same to the grammarians. Wikipedia calls this usage "regional", FWIW. Comment Amazing, Carullus. Leo educates every day. Comment Here it is becoming autumn. The leaves of the tree in front of the balcony of my apartment are turning yellow. I believe in schoener-garten. Comment I fully agree, RenaRd , as I said in my original posting, they were spring snowflakes you also find them when you picture google that.
Leo says the same. Perfectly fine for Carullus and the people in his neck of the wood, interesting for me to learn. Maybe even in the CC. Robert - did you get your car fixed? It seems that you are spending quite some time of your life at a repair shop. Or maybe that's because you work on your posts while having your car serviced.
Does anyone here have winter aconites Winterling in their garden? Da mein Auto schon 15 Jahre alt ist, haben sie das Ding einfach vom Auto entfernt. Mit 15 ist der Wagen nicht mehr so begehrt. Langsam wird's Zeit, meinen Wagen zu ersetzen. Ich hatte vor, den Wagen bis zu So, die Konferenz war gut, interessant und hilfreich. Ich hatte vor, heute mich einfach auszuruhen und vielleicht ein bisschen von Las Vegas zu sehen. Ich finde es gut, dass ich nicht schon am Sonntag oder heute wieder nach Hause fahren wollte.
Nun kann heute Abend hier gut schlafen und morgen frisch und munter nach Hause fahren. Ich stimme Carullus zu. Ich denke RenaRd hat das -ly am Ende nicht gesehen oder wahrgenommen, da er von "wonderful" spricht. First, I think, it needed to be "kommt es mir gelegen", but even then I think "etwas kommt mir gelegen" is not very commonly used - what do the others say? I might have said Comment Winterlinge aconites cover my garden in the very early spring. They are already gone. I think they need a special soil as friends of mine could not grow any in their yards.
I gave them seed and bulbs also, no success. VERY slowly it is getting warmer, a nice lukewarm spring rain would be nice in my area, at the moment a drizzle only. Colloquial for Robert --US Yours sounded a bit formal. Osterglocken narcissus pseudonarcissus are in general yellow with a lot of varieties in the meantime.
Amaryllis and Narcissus. In my family and even in my area I have never heard that the first ones would be called "Osterglocken". Now some housekeeping and later a few errands. When I got up this morning, for the first time in many weeks the outside temperature was not below freezing point.
And for the next weekend temperatures around 20 degrees centigrade are expected. So, next week I will have to absquatulate a word I've never seen before, I just checked Leo whether there was an alternativ for "to flee". I have, however, not yet checked temperatures in Salt Lake City. But surely I misunderstood? I'd never say "wie wenn" in any circumstances. Or is that just me? Comment Gibson, I somehow share your discomfort?? The second sentence is a comparison as in Robert's example to a situation where "Es" is inconvenient, but not as inconvenient as it would have been if Robert would have had to work.
The second sentence is just a statement putting "Es" into perspective without comparing it to other situations. The second sentence is obviously wrong, wouldn't you agree? Comment Hi, shhh! I think we covered different aspects of the question, so Gibson must be very very happy now Comment But she's not : I see where you're coming from and I agree, in theory, but I still think the sentence sounds awful with "wie".
Maybe - because I totally see your point in the long version - you simply can't shorten it. I'd rephrase the whole thing and avoid the problem ;. Comment I just cycled into town to the butcher's to get what I need for my cooking - and guess what? I didn't need gloves and the sun was shining!!! Aren't we making progess?? Looking on the rain radar, I can see that the next rain storm is approaching rapidly from south west, but all the same Comment Gibson, that's why I said that I share your discomfort.
I agree with you that the shortened sentence lacks elegance ;-. In the meaning of "als ob", too. By the way: is the comma behind but correct? Goldammer, neck of wood This idiomatic sentence needs an "s" at the end neck of wood s. I agree that "wonderfully" is an adverb - belonging to which verb of this sentence? It was? No adverb, an adjective. Where am I wrong?? Das Gestern, der gestrige Tag". Also Adjectiv! Did I miss the way somewhere?
Goldammer, what about your german sense? Comment RenaRd, an adverb can also relate to an adjective - in the case of my sentence, "sunny". Comment I agree that "wonderfully" is an adverb Excellent Despite the name, adverbs are words that can modify practically anything but nouns and pronouns.
They modify adjectives aha! A word is an adverb if it answers how, when, or where. Comment Shhh If you're right I'm wrong. But I'm old and balky: Ad-verb latin means that the attribute must relate to a verb. Sunna is another attribute. Am I caught in a vicious circle? Edit: Oh, carullus made it even clearer. Comment Carullus, while you were writing this, I was consulting my grammar, planning to post something beginning with "despite the name, adverbs can relate to Only after I had started participating in here regularly, I bought myself a short and the Huge version of the Duden Grammar - and I'm using them quite a lot since then, to back up my feel for my own language with knowledge, so to speak.
Formerly I thought my brain is enough but years might have corroded some dropouts on my harddisk Comment Ich stimme Carullus und Goldammer zu. Hier ist ein anderes Beispiel: It was an absolutely beautiful painting. Nicht Etymologie sondern Gebrauch bestimmt Bedeutung. Machen die Dinger dann den Diebstahl sicher? Es ist im Moment sehr windig; ich hoffe, dass das keine Schwierigkeiten beim Fahren verursacht.
Comment Amy-Mimi , ja meine Drohung hat geholfen. The next day we had one egg and the following days always three. Comment Steve: Das freut mich. Comment Another and maybe even more idiomatic word Robert could have used is "Wegfahrsperre". Comment harambee: Wegfahrsperre scheint logischer, aus der Perspektive einer Nichtmuttersprachlerin gesehen.
Das ist idiomatischer, finde ich. Comment Thank you, I was thinking about bringing this up, and then forgot; I definitely second Wegfahrsperre. Thank you for the grapefruits, Mimi, I'll have one. Re: the anesthetized snails: " Your version is not wrong, but it would be understood to mean "something could go slightly wrong". Don't you just love language? Comment Has anybody seen my manners?
I took two of the pomelos and savoured them.
ISPO press portal
Did I say thank you? No, I didn't :- What can I do now? Should I hope that nobody saw me? I really need advice. Comment harambee ein paar manners reiche! Comment I just had a grapefruit , heaven knows from where, the peal was almost an inch thick and the fruit inside had the size of a small orange. And it was very sour. So I will pick one of Amy's. Comment I'll have a grapefruit first and then one of Lucy's Manners. Comment harambee, your manners were hidden behind this pile of delicious grapefruits.
I'll eat another one, maybe then you can see them better ;- Thanks, Amy! Mmm, I love fresh fruit. And a Mannerschnitte will compliment that nicely, I think, thanks, Lucy Comment Amy MiMi : Thanks for everything even sounds better. Like "savour" - why did I never ever hear it before?
These snails are really inventive, I guess Comment Hi everybody! Please cheer me up! You don't know what happened! Well, it wasn't a disaster, but it wasn't pleasant either. It was by mistake that I happened to upload an upgraded test version of Avast! When this test version expired I returned to the downgraded free version.
Surprise, surprise! When I restarted my computer I didn't have any access to internet. No matter what I tried there was no connexion for a week. Today someone came to get it fixed. At first he didn't believe that this was due to Avast!. It took him 2 and half hours to get it fixed. It looks like Avast! When this man had already gone I realised that my mailbox had gone. It's a conventional novel that reminds me a lot of Iris Murdoch.
I enjoyed it! Now I need a drink before I go to bed. Die Schnecken Steine. Habe selber einen ziemlich unangenehmen Tag gehabt. Now I need a driink before I go to bed. Damit kann ich behilflich sein. Hoffentlich ist "at the weekend" richtig. Das ist ein Witz! Oh, danke. Deine Korrekturen finde ich wirklich toll und echt hilfreich, obwohl Ob ich den Halbsatz je wieder verwenden kann? Comment I was confused by the Mannerschnitten - I somehow expected, what are they called again - Kinderschnitten? Very disappointing.
Comment Thank you, Pippa. I've never seen those before not really amazing, I am not into this type of "Waffeln". Wenn man Direktoren auch narkotisiert, hat man einen noch ruhigeren Tag. Kisan, wenn ich einen schlechten Tag habe, denke ich oft an die Worte eines ehemaligen Pastors.
Leider muss ich das auf Englisch wiedergeben. Comment Now this is what I'd call a perfect pun, Robert! Thanks for sharing it! I'd say "Kassenschlange", btw. Comment Simply cannot resist A very wet day in Hesse, but I have to get out for a doctor's appointment. Opened the inlets for the water collection bins.
Is this CC going to become a crime scene with narcotica and "sweet poison"? Grabbing some fruit and running away! Comment Goldammer , ich glaube Robert meint die Schlange vor den "Check-outs", bei denen man die Ware selbst scannen muss und dann per Karte bezahlt. Jetzt nehme ich noch die letzte Grapefruit mit - danke, Amy! Comment Oh well, I seem to be behind the time there The only shop I know a "Selbstbedienungsschlange" from is Ikea.
I only learned this last year and was quite lost at first Comment IKEA has them here read: in Austria as well, yes, but so far I've not seen any other retailers use that technology. Surely only a matter of time Bei euch in Australien nur mit Kreditkarte? Ich frage mich, was wir alle machen, wenn wir die vielen Dienstleistungsberufe abschaffen. Woran liegt das? Bei Safari? Bei LEO? Zopfig ist pej. Das klingt komisch. Ginge das? Geht das auf Englisch? Comment I somply was afraid to ask what Mannerschnitten" are. I thought all of you knew Thank you Pippa G for giving me back self-confidence.
Apropos manneers: I must have lost mine lately. I'd like to thank everybody carullus, shhh, Robert etc. I just was lost in the latin translation. Carullus , a matter of time : It sure is, I'm afraid. When I visited London two years ago every grocery had this "Check-Outs" is this the word for that self-service-thing?
But I guess it might be helpful for those who bought only one item of whatever. I tried it a few times when I really had only a handful of items, but the computer had wrong prices, did not accept my bills and coins etc. It took me longer to get out from the shop than waiting in the longest queue I am afraid it is the "progress" and "future", in reality they just save expenses for staff - or at least try it. Comment Amy , man kann sagen "running behind time", wie "running late", jedenfalls hier in Australien.
Comment Diese Selbstbediengungskassen gefallen mir nicht. Comment "Wer wird denn gleich in die Luft gehen?! Am I allowed to offer some what was the expression? Or did you think of it in a satiric way? Than "machine" sounds perfect to me. And the sentence therefore ends with " helfen musste ". You're very emotional when situations like this appear in your mind's eye, aren't you?
Manual Das hätt ich vorher wissen müssen: Roman (German Edition)
Ja, ich kann mich manchmal ziemlich aufregen. Ich schiebe heute die Schuld auf meine Post-Buch-Depression. Tell me more! About the book, not he depression. Other peoples depressions are depressing me Comment Ich habe ein Buch gelesen und bin jetzt deprimiert, weil es so gut war und jetzt zu Ende ist. Das Buch war der erste Band einer geplannten Buch Reihe. Irgendwann letzte Woche erreichte einen Punkt, wo ich nur noch dieses Buch lesen wollte. Das erste Buch war wirklich nur "the tip of the iceberg".
We'll settle for the title and the author for the time being Comment Hello everyone! Thank you, Pippa G, for the amazing picture of the "Mannerschnitten"! In the meantime you can buy them in some supermarkets here, and the quality is as good as those from Austria. I like the word "Selbstbedienungskassen" not to mention "Selbstbedienungsschlangen"! In the real markt you can even pay with cash, but I find it very complicated and always need some help from the staff therefore I try to avoid to use them.
Ja, genau das meinte ich. Ich benutze die Selbstbedienungskassen, nur wenn ich unbedingt muss - z. Guten Morgen, rechts! Sorry Lucy, but I disagree about Fantasyroman. Imo, it's definitely Fantasy and Fantasyroman. Does anybody else know the word? What am I, then? I'd settle for "hinter dem Mond". Comment I have never heard "zopfig" either, so now I am curious if anyone here knows the word. But I don't think Goldammer is behind the time, she knows how to use Google : after all.
RE: check-outs - Tesco has had those for quite a while years or more , and I like them. They are much faster than the ones with a cashier and a great place to get rid of a lot of change Tesco's has a better machine for this than the check-outs in the US, you just "throw" all your cash into a container and it counts the money. I agree with Lara that there should be rules who can use them :. Comment If you introduce rules for something, you need people who control the compliance with those rules - check-out-police?
What happens when somebody who isn't entitled to a self service checkout is caught there?? Comment They will be fined - heavily. Plus, for once approving this wonderful American tradition, they will be named in the local paper. Comment What happens when somebody who isn't entitled to a self service checkout is caught there? Vigilante justice, of course I'm not making this up. Comment Same here: I've never heard about "zopfig" in that context.
Carullus, I know what you mean. But you have to understand the people: How could they know when they were expected to pay or to show their reward card? Comment , Lara Chu In fact I started reading this genre in the late 50's! SciFi is nearly dead nowadays, perhaps everything is said and done.
So there's Fantasy to open your mind to unknown worlds beyond the next curve. What about Terry Pratchett - to change the matter? But : I've never heard of any male or female buying a book because of size!? Comment Oh, where is the popcorn seller? Comment SciFi is nearly dead nowadays That's true for the "hardcore" for want of a better word SciFi, perhaps but even there, the Hugo Awards seem to be doing nicely, e. He's got a new book out, but apart from that, what about him?
I've never heard of any male or female buying a book because of size!? You're right, size doesn't matter I read ebooks mostly Comment Harambee, wartest du auf eine Schlammschlacht? But LEO only offers "plastic", "bank card", "credit card" and so on. Finally I found it on dictcc: Treuekarte. That's the ting I always refuse because of privacy protection But Mrs RenaRd got some. Around here it is called "Kundenkarte". Hi Carullus, nice to meet you again. You'll find me surprised again - never heard of "Dystopian ChicLit". To be honest: the addressee of all my questions was Lara Chu!
And you know what I meant asking "What about.. I think it's disgusting, terrifying und depressing! And racist, in this case. I grew up with SF showing a bright future well, most of the novels of Asimov, Heinlein a. At least: Nancy Kress was awarded, so there is hope I sort of made it up on the spot, but apparently it's a real thing Funny Fantasy, hm I've read most of Pratchett, all from Douglas Adams, a lot from Robert Rankin, and just recently all from Jasper Fforde eagerly awaiting whatever book comes out next , so you can probably say I like the genre I looked it up and found this What exactly did you expect?
I was more thinking along the lines of "The Hunger Games" or something like that. Comment I have to go out in a minute, so just briefly: RenaRd , it seems that you will have to give up even more stereotypes - not only about dialect speakers but also about women! Leo educates, doesn't it then? SCNR ;- I love reading good fantasy! And I do appreciate it when a book has many pages so it guarantees many hours of enjoyment.
Of course I don't buy it because of its size, but if a good book has pages - the better for it! Comment SciFi is nearly dead nowadays Not at all. These days, sci-fi often deals with what will become of humanity in times of AI, clones, networks watching and knowing everything and topics like that. I agree, though, that three quarters of the shelf space tends to be taken up by Vampire Romance and teenage books now.
It's harder to find good SF books, but they're there. I agree with Goldammer that it's F antasy in German, too. I don't buy books or not because of their size, but I don't like thin books very much. As soon as you're really into it, it's finished. Not good :. Comment Ich habe noch kein Terry Pratchett Buch gelesen. There are two ways to describe someone. With a noun-based nationality word or an adjective-based nationality word. But note that in German the noun-based form is used more often.
Now we are all familiar with the word " alt' ", which means old. And in English, to find out somebody's age we ask " How old are you? In German it is exactly the same. The " alt " kind of belongs to the interrogative adverb, so in both German and English it may be in front of the verb:. To ask this important question in the 2nd person.
First, we will learn the biggest question here, " How old are you? You should all ready get the pattern for this, but we are going to keep on doing this list, if you aren't sure of something or you are confused. So for the 3rd person Now with some people you might be able to guess their age, and you could ask them directly about it. This is usually pretty of rude, but it illustrates nicely how the phrase has to be changed if you ask a yes-no-question, so let's get started, anyway!
Note the inversed order between "Wie alt bist du? Note : 'Euer' is irregular. When 'euer' has to have a different ending the e before r is dropped, so it turns into 'eur-'. Don't let the weird order of the words disturb you, even if the phrase seems totally incomprehensible at first. I'll try to construct this bit by bit:. Note that the "to" is already included in the German word "rechnen". This is one of the main reasons why complicated conjugations can survive, they contain information that doesn't have to be expressed otherwise then To be a little more polite or at least seem like it, since our teacher probably wouldn't take a no for an answer.
This is another example for brevity by conjugation. Don't be discouraged, many Germans don't realize this, and many don't use the Konjunktiv correctly, if ever. This is a direct object, "Aufgabe" is in the accusative case. Because this is a feminine noun, this is not so obvious, but the structure is the same as in:. Now, we also have an adverbial expression of the place. This is an expression that defines the verb, thus ad-verbial. Note that the order expressions is widely interchangeable.
You can emphasize something by putting it closer to the end of the question. Note that after "zu" follows the dative case, so "der" is not the masculine but the feminine article.
It is often used when writing legibly on a large, visible surface such as blackboard or a flipchart. So, as you might have guessed, plus and minus are the same as in English - they are just pronounced German. The verbs "addieren" and "subtrahieren" are probably not difficult either This is also used in every day phrases, such as "mal habe ich dir gesagt Between single classes, there is usually a break of five minutes to allow teachers and students to go from one classroom to another.
In most schools, classes such as German, English, History, Philosophy are taught in the classroom. Classes that use special equipment, such as all sciences, music and arts and of course computers and sport are being taught in a specialized lab classes. Roughly every second break is 15 minutes long, and if there are lessons in the afternoon, there's often a break of 45 to 60 minutes for lunch. This sentence sounds strange. This is, because in everyday German, sometimes the verb gehen can be left out, if it is clear what is meant. But since Torsten will not think Silke is going to fly there, there will be no misunderstanding.
Additionally, the word "class", or "course" is missing, which is the usual way of students to talk about their subjects. Note: In English, the phrase might be "We have to go to the music room" instead of must. The German translation "Wir haben in den Musikraum zu gehen" would be understood, but is quite formal. Additionally, there is a connotation that the speaker distances himself from the order he is being given.
Let's start at the beginning. It has nothing to do with the German equivalent of "ouch! It is reflexive such as in "I help myself", because the subject and the object are the same. Some phrases simply are constructed like this, even if there seems to be no real reason to this, and many languages know this phenomenon. The "sich" here is technically the accusative of "he, she, it" and is being changed depending on the person:. This is kind of self-explanatory. But "sich auf etwas freuen", literally "to be happy on something " means "to look forward to".
This is a common phrase that uses the on in the same wide sense as in " on drugs", or "living on something" - there is no spatial relation here In "darauf" you recognize the "auf". The "da" is a demonstrative prounoun such as in " that place". The "darauf" is referencing the word "Musik" from Silke's sentence. So "Au ja, darauf freue ich mich schon" or "to-this look-forward I myself already" just means "Great, I'm already looking forward to that". Maybe it comforts you a little that the English phrase in a word-by-word translation to German would be just as unintelligible Note that adding a "glaube ich" is another common phrase, exacly as "I think" or "I believe" can be added to an English phrase.
Never mind the word order, this is because Alcohol is the object, so the verb is at the second position in the text. Better not think about "under" and "right" here, which you might have correctly recognized as the word's components "richten" literally means "to correct". As in English, "Komm" can be used to motivate others. There is yet another contraction here "ins" is derived from "in das", meaning "in the". This lesson deals with the Christmas time in the German language countries, where you learn some traditions and vocabularies about Christmas.
You'll also learn about "there is" and "there are" in German and about the dative case. Read and listen to the following dialogue between mother and daughter: Roswitha and Anja. Both of them want to decorate for Christmas. In Germany the advent season begins on Sunday four weeks before Christmas. It's the day where many families decorate their houses or flats, begin to bake some biscuits and start to sing some Christmas carols. One typical decoration is the advent wreath, which has four candles - one candle is lit in the first week, two candles in the second week, etc. Another tradition, especially for children, is the advent calendar that you hang on the wall.
They've often got 24 doors and you're only allowed to open one a day. Most Christmas markets start in the first week of Advent. There you can buy some little Christmas presents, decorations, ride some carnival rides, and often drink some hot spiced wine - the children drink punch for children, listen to carolers and enjoy a warm, snowy atmosphere. On the 6th of December, German children celebrate St. Nicholas Day. The children put a boot in front of the door and wait until St. Nicholas brings little presents that are often sweets, walnuts, apples, tangerines and oranges.
Bad children get birching by Knecht Ruprecht which is now forbidden in Germany. Pupils do a secret Santa with other pupils on the last school days before the Christmas holidays, which are often two or three weeks long. Nicholas looks similar to Santa Claus who brings big presents on the evening of the 24th of December; in Southern Germany Christkind brings the presents. Most families decorate their Christmas trees on this day with Christmas baubles and tinsel and candles and so forth. After the Christmas dinner, the whole family sits next to the Christmas tree and exchanges gifts.
In Switzerland they call it Guetsli. The others, of course, would be useful to know for the weather forecast or when someone talks with you about weather. But you aren't forced to know Schniesel. Because many people don't know this word. We have learnt about different materials. The accusative case is that of the object of a verb. Only transitive verbs take direct objects. The pronoun and noun in two cases object in each of these sentences is underlined in the German and the English:.
Note the order of the pronouns in this last sentence. If the direct object here: ihn is a personal pronoun, it precedes the dative dir ; if it were a noun, the dative would precede it, as in these sentences:. Other uses of the accusative case in German will be explored in future lessons. Tables of the personal pronouns in all cases are summarized in Pronoun Tables. The dative case is that of the indirect object of a verb.
The pronoun indirect object of these sentences is underlined in the German and the English:. Whether singular or plural must be established by context. This next sentence translates with ihnen as 'them':. Another use of the dative case in German is after these prepositions: aus, bei, mit, nach, seit, von, zu. You will be introduced to the meanings of these prepositions over many future lessons rather than all at once, because some have many meanings in English. Indeed, because each language associates specific prepositions with many common sayings and these often do not correspond in German and English , these "little" words can be troublesome for students.
Nonetheless, you should memorize now the list of prepositions above to always remember their association with the dative case. Tables of the pronouns in all cases are summarized in Appendix 2. Word order in a German sentence with an indirect object depends upon whether that direct object is a pronoun or a noun. If the direct object is a noun, the dative precedes the accusative ; if the direct object is a personal pronoun, the accusative precedes the dative :.
Er spricht mit einer fremden Frau:. Der Name St. Die Altstadt befindet sich dort, wo vom 2. Das Marktrecht erhielt St. Bis stand St. Adjectives are words that describe nouns. Most adjectives are stand-alone words; however, present and past participles can also be used as adjectives.
Numbers are also adjectives, though they do not decline. Attributive adjectives precede the noun that they are describing, and are always declined. Learning the adjective endings is a central part to the study of German. The adjective endings are frequently one of the hardest topics for new students to learn. It is best to commit the declension tables to memory, while attempting to speak independently. Proper use of adjective endings, especially in speaking, will come with repeated use. They are described in the next part of this chapter. This section will make use of the mnemonic Oklahoma , which denotes the fields of nominative masculine; nominative neuter; accusative neuter; nominative feminine; and accusative feminine, which resemble the state of Oklahoma in the tables used below.
The endings of attributive adjectives can be divided into two groups: strong endings and weak endings. The strong adjective endings are nearly the same as the der-word endings, with the exceptions of masculine and neuter adjectives in the genitive case marked in bold. Make note of the region, Oklahoma , in the nominative and accusitive cases, for weak endings. The principle guiding adjective endings is that a noun, when possible, should have a primary case ending.
Definite articles and der-words always provide a primary case ending. Indefinite articles and ein-words provide primary case endings outside of Oklahoma. Sometimes nouns have no article, in which case adjectives provide the primary case ending. This terminology - strong and weak endings - is confusing for many students. As the student develops, he or she will develop an ear for case endings, and will recognize when a noun has and has not received a case ending.
Nonetheless, it is worth providing the three declension tables that result from this principle. Adjectives following a definite article or der-word always have a weak ending. Within Oklahoma, that is "-e", and outside of Oklahoma, that is "-en". Also dies.. Note how, within Oklahoma, adjectives take strong endings, and outside Oklahoma, they take weak endings. This is because indefinite articles provide primary endings only outside of Oklahoma. Also mein.. Forms of nouns without articles are rare compared to those with definite and indefinite articles; however, one must still know the strong declension.
Note that the strong adjective declension is almost the same as the der-word endings, with the exceptions of masculine and neuter in the genitive case in bold. Adverbs based on adjectives are one of the simplest parts of German grammar. Any adjective can be used as an adverb simply by placing its uninflected form within the sentence, usually towards the end. Some adverbs are formed by adding -weise to adjectives and nouns in the plural form, and mean "regarding", "with respect to", or "-wise" in English. Construction of new adverbs of this sort is usually frowned upon. Much of the material in this section will be explained in greater detail in the chapter on prepositions.
German has a complex system of adverbs based on prepositions, which are used to indicate direction of motion, location, time, and other concepts. English also possesses such a system, though it is used less. Consider the following sentences in English:. In both English and German, prepositions and particles derived from prepositions are treated as adverbs.
In many cases, these prepositional adverbs are associated with specific verbs. In the first two examples, the italicized prepositions are used as adverbs of motion; in the first example, the word "out" indicates the direction "out of the apartment"; in the second case, "over" not only means means the direction "towards", but also implies visitation of a residence. The third and fourth examples correspond to separable-prefix verbs in German.
The word "up" is integral to the verb, which would have a different meaning without the adverb. In the fourth example, it is not even possible to "look someone", whereas it is possible to "look someone up," or "look a candidate's resume over". English even has inseparable prepositional prefix verbs; compare "to look s. The adverbs in the fifth example correspond to da-, wo-, hin- and her- compounds in German. Such compounds are often used in legal texts in English. In such compounds, the object of the preposition is replaced with the words "there" or "here", compounded with the preposition.
The German system of adverbs based on prepositions is considerably more rigorous, and forms the basis of a large part of the language's morphology. A remnant of this in English can be found when describing a child's upbringing. As in English, prepositional adverbs in German to varying degrees alter the meaning of their associated verb. Separable-prefix verbs.
This topic is better explored in the chapter on verbs. Separable prefixes are themselves adverbs. As in English, many of them are integral to the meaning of the verb. Fangen means "to catch," whereas anfangen means "to begin". Most prepositional adverbs are treated as part of the root word in the infinitive, and are used as such in the construction of participles. However, not all possible separable-prefix verbs are lexical; "vorbeikommen" to come over , "vorbeibringen" to bring over , and so on, may not all be listed in a dictionary.
It is better to learn "vorbei" as an adverb implying visitation. The German prefix in is of note. It has two adverbial forms. As in it describes location; when describing movement, it becomes ein. Thus, for example, darin means "in there", whereas darein means "in to there". Another example is the word, einleiten , to introduce. Hin- and her-. Prepositional adverbs of motion are usually based on hin- , implying motion or direction away from the speaker, and her- , implying motion or direction towards the speaker.
Hin and her are themselves stand-alone adverbs meaning the same thing, and describe less-specific motion or direction. One example in which hin is an integral separable prefix is the verb hinrichten , which means "to execute. Not all verbs formed from hin- and her- compounds are lexical. Some examples of hin- and her- compounds are:. Da- compounds are also adverbs, corresponding to "there-" compounds in English. They replace specific prepositional objects. Although are used principally in legal texts and therefore sound formal in English, they are often employed in written and spoken German and are convenient replacements for long and complicated prepositional phrases.
Their comprehension and active use are essential in German. Da- compounds are formed by adding da- before the preposition, with an "r" inserted before prepositions starting with a vowel. There are exceptions to this, and da- compounds are given a fuller treatment in the chapter on prepositions. Hier- and dort- compounds also exist in German, though they are used less frequently.
As in English, they are considered formal, and are used primarily in academic and legal texts. They are best memorized as vocabulary. A noun is a word that can be used to refer to a person, place, thing, quality, or idea, that is, a part of speech. It can serve as the subject or object of a verb. For example, a table ein Tisch , eine Tafel or a computer ein Computer. What makes nouns in German special is that they must start with a capital letter in the written language. German, unlike English, has more than one way to make nouns plural, and plural form, like gender, must be memorized with every noun.
There are twelve different ways to form plurals in German. They are formed by affixes at the end of the word, and the umlaut of the vowel of the stem. When German nouns are used in the plural, their gender becomes irrelevant. The plural can almost be thought of as a gender on its own. In the plural, the definite article is always "die" when using the nominative and accusative cases. When using the dative case, "den" is the definite article of all plurals.
All plurals not ending in -n or -s affix an -n. I saw the old men as they played chess. I played chess with the old men. The old men's chess game was not very exciting. Although gender and plural form are often arbitrary, there exist certain suffixes whose gender and plural form are regular. They are mainly feminine. Many masculine nouns are formed by verbal stems without a suffix. Many of these receive an umlaut in their plural form. German, like many other languages, gives each noun a gender: Masculine, Feminine, and Neuter.
Plural nouns also act differently not only with the verb of the sentence, but the article preceding it. However, not all German Nouns are randomly allocated a gender. The following notes will apply to most nouns but not all. This is derived from the diminutive form of Maid old, rarely used - Maidchen.
There are far more masculine nouns than of either of the other genders. The masculine nominative definite article is der. The feminine Gender article is die. It is used in the nominative and accusative singular case. It is also used to indicate nominative and accusative plural for nouns of any gender. The definite article of neuter countries is only used when there is an adjective, e.
The definite article of masculine and feminine countries is always used, e. As most German articles can not be attributed to certain rule, it is best to always learn the article when learning the noun. You may think of the article as necessary information belonging to every noun. You avoid a lot of looking-up-time that way. Most dictionaries do not give the article. Instead, you find different sets of abbreviations which tell you to which class the noun in question belongs.
Note: The possessive is not a case of the personal pronoun; rather, it's a pronoun itself. This table shows the possessive pronoun's stem, which is declined as an ein- word that is, like the indefinite article "ein". The genitive case indicates possession or association, and is equivalent to, and replaces, the English word "of". Strict replacement of the genitive case with the word "of" maintains the word-order of the German nominal phrase: possessed - possessor in genitive.
The genitive case also replaces "'s" in English, though reversing the word order possessed then possessor, vs. English: possessor then possessed. German itself also uses an "s" though without the apostrophe to indicate possession, in the same word order as English. It is used mainly with proper nouns, such as "Goethes Heimat", as well as for compounding words.
Standard genitive constructions are used with nouns and modifiers of nouns such as articles and adjectives, and the inflection they receive implies possession. The first noun may be in any case and may occur in any part of the sentence; the second noun, which possesses the first noun, immediately follows the first noun, and is in the genitive case.
The noun in the genitive case need not have any modifiers - e. Proper treatment of the genitive case, including all of the declensions, is found in another part of this book. German pronouns have genitive forms, but they are used only rarely nowadays, mostly in archaic or formal German. In many cases, a preposition can be added to allow a different case to be used. The possessive pronouns mein-, dein-, unser-, etc. Alternatively, one could think of possessive pronouns, for example, "mein-", as replacing the phrase, "of me".
Directly translated, "mein-" means "my" in English. The car belongs to the friend, and the friend belongs to "him". For illustrative purposes, one could conceivably rewrite the prepositional phrase as "without the car accusative case of the friend of him". German's rendering is far less awkward. Despite the difficulty many people have in learning German declensions, case endings in German correspond to each other to a considerable degree. Specifically, the pronouns bear an obvious resemblance to their parent direct articles.
Learning the corresponding third-person declensions side by side allows some people to comprehend the declension pattern more easily. As discussed above, possessive pronouns replace the genitive case for pronouns. In this table, they will be placed where the genitive case is, so that their similarities to other parts of speech that actually are in the genitive case can become clear. German is very rigorous in its use of gender, and will use the pronoun corresponding to the gender of the referential noun, regardless of whether the noun being referenced is a person unlike English, which uses "it" for everything not a person or other entities animals, ships in certain contexts.
Many English speakers have trouble with this, especially in spoken language. Mastery is nonetheless possible with a proper understanding of German declension, use of a few rules of thumb for example, nouns ending in "-chen" are usually neuter , and a considerable amount of practice. Like the s's added to masculine and neuter nouns in the genitive, this is a remnant from when German inflected all of its nouns.
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Other languages based on declension, such as Russian and Latin, retain that characteristic. Sometimes one will notice an "-e" after masculine and neuter nouns in the dative case, such as the dedication on the Reichstag building - "Dem deutschen Volke", "for the German People". Here is the ultimate syntax guide for a main clause. German allows a considerable amount of syntactical freedom as parts of speech are indicated through case, rather than syntax.
Nonetheless, there are conventions to follow, especially ones that reduce the ambiguity of pronouns. This is the officially-sanctioned syntax of a main clause. However, German syntax is not written in stone. One has considerable latitude in the way one constructs one's sentence. Before fleshing out the topic, here are some rules, conventions, and words of advice:. Put it in its correct position. For example, you must not split something like, "mit einem Buch", for that is a prepositional phrase, i. Many other sentence elements are, however, only one word.
You get a lot better at this as time goes on. Number one: pronouns before nouns. It doesn't happen very often, though. Put the important stuff at the end. Then you get to your verb, which gives all of the words in the sentence meaning, resulting in a crescendo of emotion and understanding. Or not. But you see how that might work. It will seem perfectly natural that the verb is in the second position, and that the other verbs are at the end. Getting used to subordinate clauses takes more time, but eventually your words go to the right place.
Don't worry about making mistakes, but also try not to forget which verb you have waiting in your head until the sentence ends. Get used to explaining things in terms of "nominative", "accusative", "dative", and "genitive". Same goes for "linking-" and "helping-verbs". Start talking about modal verbs, and modal-like verbs. Syntax is easier. Second position does not equal second word , as you can see above. However, there is only one group of words allowed before the conjugated verb.
Such groups of words are called "phrases". While you can put very long phrases in front of the conjugated verb you mustn't use two. This is a big difference between English and German syntax. Sometimes you have to use more than one verb part in a clause. This is true for Perfekt forms, separable verbs, modals etc. Only one of these verbs is conjugated.
The conjugated verb stays in second position, the other part goes to the end. Sometimes there are even three verbs in a sentence. These usually involve modals and perfect tenses. The conjugated verb is in the second position. The remaining two verbs are at the end of the clause, building inwards that is to mean, what would be the second verb in English is placed at the end, and what would be the third verb is placed before the second verb. In English, you need the position of phrases to determine whether a noun phrase is a subject or an object. In German the cases tell you which role is assigned to a certain noun phrase.
Therefore, the word order is less strict. However, you can put everything there you want to stress. This is very common with phrases about time or place Examples 2, 3, 7. English speakers need to remember that the first position is restricted to exactly one phrase. You can even put objects in first position Example 8. You do it mostly, if you want to emphasize the object or if you have to repeat the sentence because your partner has not understood this particular part of it.
If the subject is not in first position, it goes directly after the conjugated verb Examples 2, 3, 7, 8 , unless preceded by a reflexive pronoun or an accusative or dative pronoun. However, when looking at wild German sentences you will find structures that do not follow these principles but are nonetheless correct. This is very frequent in spoken language. Mostly the deviation from the neutral structure is caused by a special focus.
While they are not wrong, it would be inappropriate to use them all the time. Therefore it is best to learn the principles described here. If you have mastered them and can use them without thinking about it, you can try some of the deviations. Time seems to be a very important concept for German speaking people. It is mostly mentioned very early in the sentence, either at the very beginning in the first position which means that the subject goes directly after the conjugated verb i.
The sentence "Ich war im Kino gestern" is not exactly wrong, but it would sound weird in most situations. It could be used though in a casual conversation when putting special emphasis on "im Kino", but it's not the regular sentence pattern. The order of objects is different for nouns and pronouns. Pronouns always come before nouns, and reflexive pronouns come before everything except nominative pronouns.
ADDA , mentioned above, is a good way to remember the prescribed order of cases for pronouns and then nouns. As sentences can contain only two objects, here are the three possible combinations deriving from ADDA:. This includes adverbs and prepositional phrases describing how, why, and by what methods the event of the sentence has taken place. In German grammar the term Nachfeld is used to describe parts of the sentence that come after the second part of the verb.
The Nachfeld is neglected in most learner's grammars. It is mostly used in spoken language, when people add something to a sentence as an afterthought or with special emphasis. In written language it is important for comparisons. You put them almost exclusively in the nachfeld. Now try to convert the sentence to the perfect. If you follow the normal sentence structure rules you would have to write: Peter hat mehr Geld als Paul verdient , but this is almost never done. The sentence best accepted by a majority of German speakers is: Peter hat mehr Geld verdient als Paul.
The comparison is put after the past participle. Note that the two items being compared must be in the same case. Du verdienst mehr Geld als ich. This is also correct grammar in English, though it is now almost obsolete among native English speakers. Interrogatives questions change word order in the first two fields or so. There are two kinds. In a question based on a verb, the conjugated verb comes first. Following that is the same string of pronouns first and nouns thereafter and other sentence elements and finally the remaining verbs that was detailed above. The main difference between questions and statements is that the freedom of the first position is eliminated; the item you wanted to emphasize must now find a different position in the sentence.
The ascending-order-of-importance convention still holds. The second kind of question involves a question word or wo-compound, which always comes at the beginning, and is immediately followed by the conjugated verb. They are then followed by the remaining parts of the sentence in the order outlined above. Be mindful of the case of the question word, and make sure never to use a wo-compound when referring to a person. Imperatives commands also slightly alter the aforementioned main-clause sentence structure.
Imperatives are formed in several ways:. This sequence - verb in imperative form, perhaps followed by the person to whom it is directed in the nominative case depending on the kind of imperative used, however - is then followed by all of the other elements of the sentence, in the aforementioned order. German-speakers, like English-speakers and the speakers of many other languages, consider the use of the imperative mood to be rude, and, as in English, use a conditional or subjunctive construction to convey requests.
This will be dealt with in a different section of this book. Before moving on to subordinate and relative clauses, we must address coordinating conjunctions and parallel clauses. A coordinating conjunction is a conjunction that connects two clauses that are able to stand alone, i. As coordinating conjunctions connect two independent clauses, they do not affect word-order in the two clauses. The first clause is often separated from the second with a comma - especially if it is a long or complicated clause - after which follows the coordinating conjunction and the second clause.
Note how "entweder" functions as an adverb. English speakers should take note of the difference between aber and sondern , both of which can be translated directly as "but". Aber means "however". Sondern means "rather". Many other languages make this distinction. Coordinating conjunctions are rather straightforward, and the number of coordinating conjunctions is few. Subordinate and relative clauses introduce information regarding the main clause that needs to be expressed as a separate clause.
They are collectively called "dependent clauses" because they are unable to stand by themselves as independent clauses. Usually, subordinate and relative clauses occupy a part of the main clause that was not fully explained; subordinate clauses tend to fulfill more abstract missing sentence elements than relative clauses do. Here are a few examples in English:. This last example has two subordinate clauses: because we knew and that you were having a rough time. Subordinate clauses are usually set off by a subordinating conjunction , such as that , because , when , if , and so on.
In English, it is sometimes possible to omit the subordinating conjunction, specifically that , resulting in sentences such as, "I know you are unhappy," which is perfectly acceptable in English. Such an option does not exist in German. Relative clauses relate one element of a clause to another clause by way of a relative pronoun. The system of relative pronouns in German is considerably more extensive than that of English.
In German, both subordinate clauses and relative clauses affect syntax, in most cases by moving the conjugated verb to the end of the clause.
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Both subordinate clauses and relative clauses are set off by a comma in German, which can frequently be omitted in English. We should now examine the two types of clauses in greater detail, and then return to their syntax. Subordinate clauses are always set off by a comma, and begin with a subordinating conjunction. Here is a list of all subordinating conjunctions in German. Note how all of them answer a question presumably introduced in the main clause:. Furthermore, all interrogative question words, such as wie , wann , wer , and wo , and wo-compounds, may be used as subordinating conjunctions.
Subordinate clauses provide information missing in the main clause. Consider the previous two examples. In both cases, the subordinate clause answered the question, "what? Other subordinate clauses provide information that would otherwise have been provided by one of the several parts of speech. In this example, the subordinate clause, set off by the conjunction, "als", answers the question, "when?
The syntax regarding subordinate clauses will be discussed later. At this point, a property of subordinate clauses that is not altogether shared with relative clauses should be pointed out. Subordinate clauses are themselves parts of speech for the main clause, and to a limited extent can be treated as such. Consider the following two sentences, which are equivalent:.
Note how, in the second sentence, the subordinate clause occupied the first position , immediately followed by the conjugated verb. In reality, the use of subordinate clauses as parts of speech integrated into the main clause is limited; they are, for aesthetic reasons, restricted to the first position and to following the main clause.
At both times they are set off from the main clause by a comma. This subordinating conjunction accomplishes the same functions as the English construction, "by [do]ing something By requiring a subject in the clause, the German construction is less susceptible to ambiguity than English is; consider the sentence, "by leaving the door open, the robbers were able to enter the house," which is lacking an agent for the door being left open, even though such a construction is common in spoken English.
This section must make note of the differences between the words, als , wenn , and wann , all of which can mean "when" in English. Als refers to a single event or condition in the past, usually expressed using the preterite tense. Wann is the interrogative word for "when". It's use as a subordinating conjunction is limited to indirect questions and immediate temporal events.
Wenn is the most versatile of the three, and has several other meanings beyond its temporal meaning. In the temporal space wenn describes, events are less recognized, or focuses on a condition, rather than an event. Finally, "wenn" has one other principal function. It also means, "if", and is used in conditional and subjunctive statements. In many ways, a relative clause is a lengthy description of an item in the main clause. Minimally, a relative clause takes a part of speech from the main clause, known as the antecedent and uses it in the dependent clause.
What connects the two is a relative pronoun. As should already be published in this book, the following declension table is provided:. Relative pronouns are similar to the definite article, with the exceptions of the dative plural and the genitive case being marked in bold.
Note that the distinctions between "that" and "which"; and "that" and "who" in English do not exist in German, where everything is described with a standard set of relative pronouns with no regard to how integral the qualities described in the relative clause are to the antecedent. As relative clauses take one item from the main clause and use it in some way in a dependent clause, it is important to consider how relative pronouns work to avoid confusion. All words in German possess gender, number singular or plural , and case.
The main clause , as it relates to the antecedent , determines the gender and number of the relative pronoun; the relative clause determines its case. In order to use relative clauses successfully, it is critical that this point be understood. Gender and number are "inherent" to the antecedent; no grammatical agent could conceivably change those properties. The relative pronoun's case is determined by its role in the relative clause, i. Consider the following examples, all based on "the man", who is masculine and singular, and apparently not well-liked.
In each of these examples, the gender and number of the relative pronoun were determined by the antecedent, while the case of the relative pronoun was determined by its role in the relative clause. Note particularly the genitive example, wherein the relative pronoun, meaning whose , modified a feminine noun, without his gender being affected. Whenever you construct a relative clause, be mindful of this rule. Don't confuse yourself with its complexity, especially regarding the genitive case. As discussed in the chapter on personal pronouns, the word "whose", as well as other possessive pronouns such as "my", "your", and so forth, is a pronoun and not an adjective.
The pronoun always expresses the characteristics of its antecedent, viz. However, if the antecedent is not a person, and the relative pronoun falls within a prepositional phrase, a wo-compound is frequently substituted:. Relative clauses almost invariably follow the item that they are modifying or the main clause as a whole with the gender and number of the relative pronoun indicating - to some extent - which potential antecedent it is referring to.
Very rarely do they precede the main clause. Exceptions to this come in the form of aphorisms and proverbs:. One final property of relative clauses should be discussed. Relative clauses in some way describe their antecedent. The rules governing attributes in German are considerably more flexible than in English, because the German case system reduces ambiguity. This allows the German speaker to turn a relative clause into an extended attribute, which is essentially a long adjective. Compare the following two sentences, which are equivalent:. Such a construction is ludicrous in English, but not-uncommon in German.
The experienced reader of German will, with practice, be able to read through such an item without difficulty. It would be best to review what we have learned about subordinate and relative pronouns before discussing their syntax. Dependent clauses - both subordinating and relative clauses - modify or in some other way describe the antecedent clause upon which they are based.
Subordinating clauses provide a variety of ways in which new information can relate to the main clause, many of which are adverbial in nature e. Relative clauses modify and describe entities already mentioned in the main clause. Generally speaking, only subordinate clauses have the ability to occupy the first position in a main clause. Subordinate and relative clauses have similar syntax. Indeed, neglecting the verbs, they have a syntax similar to main clauses.
Recall the syntax described at the beginning of this chapter. That syntax will form the basis of the Mittelfeld in dependent clauses. Once again, no dependent clause will contain each of these elements. But understanding the position of pronouns is critical. The same conventions listed under the main clause schema apply. The way the verbs are arranged depends on the number of verbs in the verb-phrase, and the presence of a modal verb.
This is the simplest case. Such a clause has one verb, conjugated based on the person and number of the subject of the sentence. This conjugated verb is placed at the end of the clause. A clause with two verbs has one conjugated verb and one verb in the infinitive. In a main clause, the conjugated verb will be in the second position, and the infinitive verb will be at the end of the clause.
In a dependent clause, both verbs will be at the end of the clause, with the conjugated verb last. This supports the principle of "building inwards". Sentences with three verbs typically involve a modal verb, whose presence complicates matters terribly. Let us think of some examples in English. And so on. The problem is, after you've learned how to put your verb at the end of the sentence in a main clause, and after you've learned how to "build inwards" in dependent clauses, and after you've pulled your hair out, night after night, sitting in a cafe in Seattle declining relative pronouns, German grammar throws yet another rule at you, this one so pointless and downright counter-productive, and it seems like German grammar is simply making fun of you at this point, that you leap out of your seat, scream "woo hoo!
The modal verb or the modal-like verb has to be at the end of the verb phrase, regardless of whether it has been conjugated. In cases where it has not, the conjugated verb moves to the beginning of the verb phrase. Let's look at our examples above. This one is straightforward, because the modal verb is the conjugated verb, allowing the clause to follow the "build inwards" principle.
The modal verb must come last. No semantic or logical reason for this. Note here that the modal verb does not form a past participle when it has main verb to modify. Note the somewhat sensible placement of "nicht". Another verb that can take another verb without forming an infinitive clause is bleiben e. These verbs never form infinitive clauses, and the verbs that are used with them go at the end of the sentence.
Infinitive clauses are another kind of clause found in German, and are equivalent to infinitive clauses in English. Consider the following examples in English:. Infinitive clauses are formed after verbs that do not regularly take other verbs. They indicate purpose, intent, and meaning of the action in the main clause. As such, infinitive clauses have no subject , or no nouns in the nominative case. Here are the above examples in German:.
Infinitive clauses are usually found after a main clause, though it is possible for them to occupy the first position of a main clause. They are always set off by a comma. Of particular interest is the construction, " um Um is placed at the beginning of the clause, after which follows a standard infinitive clause. Whereas "in order" is frequently omitted from English infinitive clauses of this sort, " um " is always included such clauses in German. The Mittelfeld follows the standard syntax of main clauses, though without nominative nouns and pronouns.
At any rate, infinitive tend to be rather short. Verbs in the infinitive form always come at the end, immediately preceded by the word zu. In the case of separable-prefix verbs, such a verb is written as one word, with the word zu between the prefix and the main verb; e.
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German verbs can be classified as weak or as strong. Weak verbs are very regular in their forms, whereas strong verbs change the stem vowel. These verbs are examples of Separable Prefix Verbs. When you see these kinds of verbs, it will have a preposition prefix followed by a verb. These verbs separate when they are the main verb of a sentence.
Reflexive Verbs are verbs involving the reflexive pronoun "sich" and its conjugations that reflect, or refer back, to the performer of the action. There are only accusative and dative reflexive pronouns. Accusative reflexive pronouns are used when there is no direct object. Dative reflexive pronouns are used when a direct object is present.
However, when using a direct object, the possessive is not used. Notice that all reflexives are the same as the Akkusativ and Dativ Pronoun Declensions — except for 3rd Person and 2nd sg. In the present tense, it is used transitively with people or food. Modal verbs can be used as full verbs indicating motion.
In these cases, the infinitive verb is only implied. The person to say this would be driving during the time they say this and they would continue to drive after stating this for some time. You nominalize the verb "fahren" driving becomes "das Fahren" and add a "am". You can also do this with forms of the past. Als er kam war ich gerade am Abwaschen.
When he arrived i was at "the dishwashing" I was washing the dishes when he arrived. Here the progressive meaning is also emphasized with the word "gerade" meaning something like: I was JUST ABOUT to wash the dishes not the same though because it means he is already doing it and not about to start. The Perfect Tense or das Perfekt of verbs is used to talk about things in the past which have already happened. It is sometimes referred to as "Present Perfect Tense". This can cause confusion. While the formation is similar, the meaning and usage differs.
As in English, the perfect tense consists of two parts. An auxiliary Hilfsverb and a past participle Partizip Perfekt. Compare the examples given below with their English translations. Verbs with unseparable prefixes be-, ent-, er-, empf-, ge-, ver-, miss-, zer- Examples:. Another group is formed by verbs with separable prefixes With separable verbs, the prefix ge is placed between the prefix and the rest of the verb. Irregular verbs always end in -en.