Internet Dating: A Web of Deceit

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There are dozens of dating apps available; some operate globally, while others only work in some countries that have greater acceptance of them. But without a doubt, two of the most popular applications among the extensive great offerings that exist are Tinder and Happn , which claim more than 50 million users each. Although they come in different flavors, in most cases the criminals committing romance scams study the profiles of their victims and collect personal information, such as their work activity, their level of income, and their lifestyle, because the mismanagement of our personal information in the digital age allows a criminal to build a fairly detailed profile of a future victim.

One of the most common methods is the scammer who emotionally manipulates the victim to send them money, gifts or personal information. Another type of common deception is sextortion, which usually begins as a normal relationship between two people who begin to know each other until the scammer tries to take the conversation off the dating platform, such as, for example, to WhatsApp.

Last month, for example, in the United States a man who was the victim of this type of scam — he related an attack strategy similar to that in a case reported in Chile in — after having met the person through an online dating site and gained his trust, the scammer requested the sending of intimate photos. The victim was informed that it was a hoax after he had contacted the police.

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A case in Spain occupied the headlines of several media outlets when a man nicknamed the King of Tinder, was arrested in Sites such as Match. Regardless of the exact matching process, the sites typically require members to construct a profile by providing textual and photographic indicators that convey personal information e. The profile serves as an important first impression for daters who are hoping to catch the attention of potential partners Heino et al.

As a result, most online dating research has focused on understanding issues of self-presentation and misrepresentation during the creation and interpretation of profiles Ellison et al. The hyperpersonal perspective Walther, is frequently employed to examine self-presentation and impression formation in mediated communication contexts. The perspective suggests that online communicators are able to utilize the asynchronous and anonymonous nature of mediated communication to craft messages that represent selective, and often overly positive, self-presentation Walther, As a result, communicators are prone to developing hyperpersonal relationships that reflect increased intimacy relative to FtF communicators.

Although not developed with this context in mind, the perspective provides potentially important clues regarding the role of self-presentation and self-disclosure in online dating. Online daters often utilize profile names or first names only, which provides a sense of disconnection and security from their offline identity. This sense of anonymity might provoke users to share more information than they would if interacting in the offline world.

That said, online dating sites enable even greater levels of perceptual ambiguity because individuals must utilize text and photo-based communication to describe aspects of their identity that would be readily apparent in the offline world Ellison et al. As a result, daters often indicate their identities are somewhat malleable; they can pick and choose which aspects of their past, present, or ideal future selves to display on their profile.

Participants in Ellison et al. Indeed, the authors concluded that the profiles serve as a promise, meaning that daters operate under good faith that FtF encounters will not reveal significant differences from a person's profile. Daters in Gibb et al. In fact, the authors concluded that honesty is negatively correlated with online dating self-presentation such that disclosing honest yet negative information can hinder daters' ability to attract potential partners.

According to Heino et al. Despite the potential for dishonesty and strategic misrepresentation, most online daters possess the goal of establishing a meaningful offline romantic relationship. Those who engage in blatant misrepresentation were said to hurt their chances at forming an offline romantic relationship. In sum, it appears that online daters might engage in strategic misrepresentation to cultivate positive yet realistic impressions that will not provoke distrust if they were to meet a partner in person Ellison et al.

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Despite this growing body of research, considerably little work has attempted to understand the dynamics of online dating once partners shift toward offline interaction. Whereas initial online communication helps daters verify basic information and coordinate an offline encounter, the first FtF meeting provides important cues that enable them to establish the veracity and attractiveness of each other's physical world identity.

Questions remain, however, regarding which factors affect dater's experience of relational communication upon meeting FtF. One of the most unique affordances of online dating is the ability to determine compatibility levels with potential partners through online interaction before deciding whether to meet them FtF Finkel et al. One must consider, then, how this type of meeting might alter the outcomes of online dating relationships.

One applicable approach for examining the online dating process is through the occurrence of MS. Ramirez and Zhang investigated whether the timing of a switch influences relational outcomes such as intimacy, task-social orientation, and social attraction. Drawing upon the hyperpersonal perspective Walther, and online partners' tendency to engage in selective self-presentation, the authors speculated that switches would be most beneficial when they occur before partners have had time to form idealized impressions.

Overall, the findings showed that FtF meetings between previously online-only partners can either enhance or dampen relational outcomes depending upon the timing of the switch. Switching from mediated to FtF early after 3 weeks in an association appeared to provide cues that enhanced relational outcomes. Conversely, switching from mediated to FtF late after 6 weeks provided cues that contradicted existing impressions and dampened relational outcomes.

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MS has also been examined using an expectancy violations theory Burgoon, framework to investigate how social information gleaned i. Ramirez and Wang revealed that modality switches can provide information that violates a person's expectations regarding their partner and their potential relationship; however, this effect was also contingent upon the timing of the modality switch. Specifically, individuals in short-term associations evaluated violations as positive and uncertainty reducing.

However, participants in long-term associations reported violations as negative and uncertainty provoking. Although these results pertain to dyads with the goal of task completion rather than romantic involvement, similar trends might emerge for online daters who switch to a FtF modality.

Online dating sites can encourage relationship development and intimacy, but users must carefully navigate the online to offline transition. The authors speculated that daters would experience the most positive outcomes when they move toward FtF relatively quickly.

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Indeed, meeting FtF might provide daters with impression-enhancing information that develops the relationship in a positive manner. However, a tipping point likely exists to the extent that daters who wait too long before meeting FtF may risk developing idealized impressions that will be violated upon meeting FtF. The potential for this is particularly likely in the online dating context, given that daters are prone toward making small and strategic self-enhancements on their profiles e. Such claims are consistent with the experimental MS research discussed above.

One primary difference between the current study and previous tests of the modality switching perspective is that prior research e. In the present study, it is unfeasible to ask partners to meet FtF at a designated point in time not of their choosing. In order to analyze real-world online dating relationships, the present study will treat the length of association as a continuous variable.

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The inclusion of multiple dimensions allows for a broader assessment of relational message interpretations and comparison with previous research. H1: The amount of time spent communicating online prior to meeting FtF will be curvilinearly associated with perceptions of relational communication: a intimacy, b dominance, c composure, d formality, and e task-social orientation. When online daters meet in person after a period of online interaction, one of their goals is to determine the viability of the potential relationship Whitty, Those who do not anticipate future partner contact, on the other hand, are unlikely to exert effort to develop the relationship further.

Such an explanation is also consistent with social information processing theory and the hyperpersonal perspective Walther, , which identify the anticipation of future interaction as a necessary condition for developing relationships and exaggerated expectations. These results appear to translate well into an online dating context, as the environment affords users many opportunities to reduce uncertainty and seek information through online communication and observation. Indeed, Gibbs and colleagues report that anticipated FtF interaction is positively associated with self-disclosure in online dating.

More specifically, daters begin the information acquisition process by perusing the photographs and narratives that potential partners share on their profile. They might establish contact to assess potential compatibility, and ultimately set up a FtF meeting to determine the viability of an offline relationship for a review, see Finkel et al.

Daters who choose to meet FtF likely see the potential for a positive POV, however, the first FtF meeting provides an immense amount of information that might enhance or diminish their outcome forecast about their partner. When attempting to determine a POV forecast during initial FtF interactions, online daters will likely compare social and visual information gained about each other online to that experienced in person Gibbs et al, Information about perceived inconsistencies between attributes claimed online and those inferred in person would be sought.

Partners who meet FtF with very little online interaction likely lack the basic background information that would provide fodder for developing the relationship. Due to this limited amount of message exchange, such partners likely possess underdeveloped partner expectations, engaged in little idealization, and should be able to incorporate the new social and visual information into their perceptions thus maintaining a positive POV. Moreover, Sunnafrank argues that POV is a product and reflection of the communication that occurs between partners and thus, should mimic the pattern predicted of the relational dimensions in the present study.

Hence, consistent with Ramirez and Zhang the present study examined two outcomes drawn from POV theory Sunnafrank, relevant to online dating: information seeking and POV forecasts. Evaluation of the attractiveness of a potential partner is determined primarily through communication and information acquisition, resulting in a POV forecast Sunnafrank, Ramirez and Zhang reported that partners who engaged in an early switch to FtF interaction report a more positive POV forecast, a reduction in uncertainty, and an increase in information seeking.

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Yet, individuals experiencing a late switch reported a lowered POV forecast, an increase in uncertainty, but a continued increase in information seeking. These combined results suggest a curvilinear association between the continuous indicator of time spent communicating online prior to meeting FtF, and daters' POV upon switching to FtF. Ramirez and Zhang's results also showed that information seeking displayed a linear pattern irrespective of length of association. This latter finding was inconsistent with what would be predicted from a modality switching perspective, thus only a research question is posed for information seeking.

H2: The amount of time spent communicating online prior to meeting FtF will be curvilinearly associated with perceptions of outcome value predictions POV. RQ1: What is the association between the amount of time spent communicating online prior to meeting FtF and information seeking? Participants were recruited by a market research firm that maintains panels of Internet users. Respondents recruited for the present study had participated in an online dating site during the previous 3 months and met at least one partner from the site FtF during that period.

The final sample of respondents men, women reported an average age of Additionally, respondents had Following initial recruitment via e-mail by the market research firm announcing the nature and availability of the study as well as the participation criteria described above, potential participants were directed to a webpage containing a human subjects consent form and two prescreening questions. The first question asked respondents to confirm that they had participated in an online dating site during the preceding 3 months, and the second asked them to confirm that they had indeed met with a partner in person during that time period.

Respondents who failed to respond affirmatively to both questions were redirected to a webpage indicating they were ineligible for the study, and eligible respondents were connected to the study's website. Irrespective of whether they qualified for the study, all respondents were provided a nominal reward from the market research firm for their participation. They were told to keep this person in mind for the remainder of the survey, and were then presented with a series of demographic questions about themselves as well this partner.

Next, they were presented with items regarding their relationship, including who initiated contact on the site, estimates of the number of photographs each individual posted on their profile, and the use of additional communication channels prior to the FtF meeting. Based on a review of the relevant literature for pertinent reviews, see Gibbs, et al.

Participants also reported the current status of their relationship i. The complete RCS includes 65 Likert-type items, with each subscale ranging from 3 to 9 items. The present study used five of the subscales: intimacy, dominance, formality, composure, and social orientation. Participants were asked to evaluate the extent to which their partner's communication behavior, attitudes, and overall impression met or exceeded their expectations based on their initial FtF meeting. Information seeking was assessed through items from Ramirez and Zhang's measure of information seeking. The scale yielded an alpha coefficient of.

Based on the results of a small-scale pilot study of 42 online dating site users, the primary predictor variable of amount of time prior to meeting FtF AMT was operationalized via an index of two self-reported items: the number of e-mails exchanged as well as the length of time communicating with their partner on the dating site prior to their initial FtF meeting.

As a result, the two items were averaged to create the AMT index. The results also indicated the need to include three control variables due to their significant correlations with several of the outcomes. Responses were summed and utilized in the analyses. Summary statistics for each variable of interest in reported in Table 1.

All of the variables measured at the interval level were standardized prior to conducting the analyses. A set of preliminary analyses were undertaken prior to conducting tests of the hypotheses and research question. First, Pearson correlations among the variables of interest were examined for evidence of multicollinearity. Table 1 reports the correlations and indicates moderate associations, with only one correlation exceeding the.

Moreover, most involving the linear AMT term were not statistically significant, suggesting a lack of linear association between AMT and the other variables. Second, analyses were conducted to confirm whether the set of control variables required inclusion in the primary analyses.

Hierarchical multiple regression analysis conducted on each outcome confirmed that the three control variables consistently emerged as significant predictors. As a consequence, the block was included in the analyses reported below. Hierarchical multiple regression tests were conducted in the following manner to examine the hypotheses and research question.

In the first step, the three control variables were entered as a block. In the final step, the quadratic AMT term was added and examined for statistical significance. Table 2 reports the results. The first hypothesis predicted a curvilinear, inverted u-shaped relationship between AMT and perceptions of a intimacy, b dominance, c composure, d formality, and e task-social orientation.

Overall, the prediction was supported on 4 of the 5 dimensions. Although respondents reported initial increases in intimacy, said levels showed a long-term decrease. Table 2 shows the three control variables also emerged as significant predictors. Initiating contact, having more photos on one's profile, and using a greater diversity of communication channels with the partner were significantly predicted perceptions of intimacy. However, hypothesis 1b was not confirmed. Dominance was coded such that higher scores represent increased perceptions of dominance.

Hypothesis 1c received support. As communication between daters increased over time, composure initially showed an increase but then declined reflecting the expected curvilinear pattern. In addition, the three control variables also emerged as significant predictors.

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Table 2 shows that initiating contact, having a greater number of photos displayed on one's profile, and using more communication channels with the partner were predictive of perceptions of greater composure. Hypothesis 1d, which focused on perceptions of formality, was also supported. Formality was coded such that higher scores indicate greater informality. Once more, initial reported increases in informality were tempered by a decline over time as communication increased.

Only one control variable, the number of photographs posted significantly and positively predicted perceptions of informality. Consistent with the predicted pattern, participants reported an initial increase in social orientation in the short-term but a decrease in the long-term. In addition, two of the control variables surfaced as significant predictors.

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The greater the number of photographs posted to one's profile and the greater the number of communication channels used with one's partner, the more participants perceived their interaction to be socially oriented in nature see Table 2. Hypothesis 2 was confirmed. Initial outcome level forecasts displayed an increase but then declined over time resulting in a curvilinear pattern.

The three control variables also significantly predicted POV. Initiating contact, having a greater number of photographs posted on one's profile, and using a greater number of communication channels with the partner were significantly associated with more positive forecasts of the relationship's future. The query asked the nature of the association between AMT and information seeking. The three control variables also emerged as significant predictors. Receiving contact, having fewer photographs posted, and using more channels with one's partner were significantly associated with greater information seeking behavior.

The phenomenal growth in the popularity of online dating sites as viable spaces for initiating romantic relationships has been coupled with increased attention from academic scholars Finkel et al.