Horsehead

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Runtime: 89 min. Color: Color. Positions and sizes, together with peak and integrated flux densities quoted to three significant figures , of the two submillimetre sources BSMM1 and 2. The integrated flux densities were measured within the apertures quoted. The major and minor axes of the ellipse are quoted, together with the position angle of the major axis, measured north through east.

SMM1 appears to run roughly along the full length of the ridge of the PDR that has been extensively studied recently e. To check how well the extent of the submillimetre emission along the ridge matches the mid-infrared emission from this source, as seen by the Infrared Space Observatory ISO using the ISOCAM mid-infrared camera, we compared the two data sets in more detail. The region shown is the same as that in Fig. Contour levels are as in Fig. The submillimetre emission from the source SMM1 can now be seen to be offset from the infrared emission, with the latter lying closer to the H- ii region and appearing almost to wrap around the submillimetre source.

The source SMM2 in the horse's throat can be seen to be associated with a dip in the mid-infrared emission cf. The warmer dust on the side of the cloud nearest to the heating source emits more strongly in the mid-infrared, while the cooler dust further into the cloud emits at longer wavelengths.


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In fact the mid-infrared emission appears to wrap right round the outside of the cloud, exactly as expected for such an outside-in temperature gradient cf. We see SMM1 as simply an undulating ridge, as we do not see evidence for strongly peaked sources within the ridge. This is perhaps a matter of interpretation, although we have found in the past that automated routines sometimes tend to extract multiple sources in the presence of a ridge of emission Nutter SMM2 was seen in the 1.

We see a broad match between the IRAM data and the SCUBA data, which are consistent given the different angular resolutions and noise levels of the different data sets.

The Horsehead, Eugene

This offset is explained by Hily-Blant et al. Johnstone et al. None the less, we find slightly different extended flux densities in both cases even allowing for their two sources in SMM1. Then they added back a constant offset to zero the areas of no emission, and they used an automated routine to choose their aperture sizes. We repeated their technique, and could only reproduce their measured extended flux densities by using an aperture that included what we believe to be flux from the extended cloud as well as from the cores. Based on our examination of the data, we believe our apertures to be a good fit to the source in each case.

SMM2 has not previously been observed in any shorter wavelength observations. We believe this could be due to absorption of this background emission by the dense core of SMM2. This dip was also noted by Hily-Blant et al. The cut was made along an axis orthogonal to the long axis of SMM2. There is clearly structure associated with the cloud as a whole. There is possibly a gradient from north-west to south-east that can be seen at the extremes of the cut.

The horizontal dashed line is an estimate of the cloud emission away from SMM2, where it appears roughly constant. We return to this in Section 3. One-dimensional cut of the 6. The x -axis is marked in arcsec offset from SMM2, with the north-westerly direction marked as positive. A clear absorption trough can be seen at the position of SMM2. The horizontal dashed line is a fit to the extended emission of the cloud away from SMM2. We can use the parameters we have measured for SMM1 and 2, together with those measured in previous work, to derive the physical conditions within the two sources.

Adopting the canonical distance of pc for the Horsehead nebula see e. These are listed in Table 2. We now treat each source in turn. Masses and densities derived for BSMM1 and 2. The distance adopted is pc.

Horsehead Nebula: Well-known Object is Hard to Find | Space

The justifications for the adopted distance and dust temperatures T are given in the text. Given the assumptions in the mass calculations, the uncertainties on masses and densities could be a factor of the order of a few see text for discussion. Therefore, the masses and densities are only quoted to one significant figure. The mean column densities H 2 and volume densities H 2 throughout the whole source are quoted, calculated from the integrated flux densities.

The peak column densities N H 2 peak and volume densities n H 2 peak are also quoted, as calculated from the peak flux densities. We interpreted this above as a temperature gradient across the cloud, with the warmer infrared-emitting dust seen along the edge which may be due to small grains or PAHs , while the cooler dust extends deeper into the cloud.

Our submillimetre dust emission appears to match the CO emission of Abergel et al. A similar temperature gradient effect is seen by Habart et al.


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This is because submillimetre continuum emission is usually optically thin, and hence it is a direct tracer of the mass content of molecular cloud cores cf. For SMM1 we have a range of temperatures which we could adopt, as discussed above, given that there is probably a temperature gradient across the source. As stated above, Habart et al. At these temperatures, the masses derived from submillimetre continuum data are very sensitive to temperature, due to the exponential nature of the Planck function. We can check for internal consistency by calculating a mean density for SMM1 based on each of these masses in turn.

To do this, we need to assume the line-of-sight dimension of SMM1. Hence, we take the average of the two and assume that the line-of-sight thickness of SMM1 is the mean of its other two dimensions. Hence, we see that a temperature of Thus, this assumption does not yield a self-consistent result. This is also consistent with the mean volume density derived by Abergel et al. Thus, the whole derivation is self-consistent and consistent with previous work, so these are the values we adopt for SMM1, and we list them in Table 2.

We note that Johnstone et al. We also note that the uncertainties on these numbers could therefore be a factor of the order a few, so we only quote masses and densities to one significant figure. However, these latter authors noted that their derived column density was clearly a lower limit, and only valid for the cloud edge, since they acknowledged that their CO data were almost certainly optically thick in the cloud core.

The peak column density we derive is a factor of 10 higher than the mean column density, and corresponds to the densest part of SMM1. None the less, this is comparable to the densities seen in pre-stellar cores Kirk et al. Hence SMM1 may be pre-stellar in nature, and we discuss this possibility in Section 5 below.

The source that we refer to as BSMM2 has been detected before at a wavelength of 1. However, most authors have not paid it much attention. It can also be seen as a minor peak in the CO 3—2 data Habart et al. In this regard, it is similar to a pre-stellar core Ward-Thompson et al. However, the lack of any known outflow emission from this region appears to rule out the latter scenario. However, once again a large source of uncertainty is the dust temperature T within the source. We note that in projection it is significantly further from the H- ii region than SMM1 and is most probably shielded by the bulk of the B33 molecular cloud, including SMM1.

Therefore SMM2 must be cooler than SMM1, although no previous temperature has been derived for it, since all molecular line tracers so far observed either do not detect it, or are depleted or optically thick in this sightline.

A fresh take on the Horsehead Nebula

We noted above the similarity of SMM2 to pre-stellar cores in its extent and appearance Kirk et al. Pre-stellar cores have typical temperatures around K Ward-Thompson et al. However, we note that none of the cores in this latter study were in the Orion region. We note that if the temperature were K the derived mass and densities would decrease by a factor of 2, and if the temperature were K the mass and densities would increase by a factor of 1.

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