Serenades, strings, K. Trios, piano, clarinet, viola, K. Te Deum, K. Vocal score. Rondos, violin, orchestra, K. Adagio and allegro, mechanical organ, K. In te spero, o sposo amato aria , K. Divertimenti, string orchestra, K. Minuets, orchestra, K. Three Salzburg symphonies without wind instruments , K. Divertimenti, string quartet, K. Zaide opera , K. Cosi dunque tradisci Aspri rimorsi atroci recitative and aria , K.
Graduale ad festum b. Vieni, vieni, o mia Ninetta : aria for bass. La finta semplice :. Ihr machtigen, seht ungeruhrt : aria for bass. Sei quartetti capricciosi ; edited by Kurt Heinemann. Quartets, strings, no. Minuets with trios, piano, K. Fantasia in F minor for a mechanical organ, K. Organ piece for a clock, K.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart - Classical Archives
Concerto no. Two piano score. Minuets, wind, continuo, K. Concertos, pianos 2 , orchestra, K. Fantasia in F minor for a mechanical organ ; arranged for 2 pianos by Robin Miller. Trois cadences pour le Concerto en sol pour flute de Mozart. Concertos, flute, orchestra, no.
Nozze di Figaro opera , K. Concertone, K. Fugues, piano or piano, 4 hands , K. Duets, horns, K. Concerto in D for the violoncello with piano accompaniment : K. Concertos, cello, orchestra, K. Concerto in D for the violoncello with piano accompaniment :. Concerto in A major for the piano, K. Allegretto from quartet no. Quartets, piano, strings, no. Allegretto ; arr. Papageno : an operetta or cantata for schools and musical societies.
Rondo for piano and orchestra, K. My lady is so charming Baci amorosi e cari : song. Baci amorosi e cari canzonetta , K. My lady is so charming Baci amorosi e cari :. Concertos for the piano. Fantasia in F minor originally composed for a clockwork instrument ; arranged for piano solo by Aubyn Raymar. Exsultate, jubilate motet , K. Concerto in E flat major for the piano, k.
Kadenzen zu W. Mozarts klavierkonzert nr. C dur, K.
Fume Les Cygnes 8. Mai Offrande Si Mes vers 9. Otchevo Why? Ah, spietato Amadigi 9. Let the bright Seraphim Grada Disperses 2. Bel Piacere Agrippina Let me wander LAllegro 3. Cara Sposa Rinaldo Chi sprezzando Passion Come and trip it LAllegro Or let the merry Bells 7. Recit: Deeper and deeper. Va godendo Serse 1. Schlummerlied Stille Sicherheit 8. Lascia chio pianga Whereer you walk Semele 2. Vglein, wohin so schnell Abschied Rinaldo 3. In meinem Garten die Nelken Widmung 4.
Sonneununtergang: schwarze Care selve Atalanta 8. O Sleep Semele 5. Frhling und Liebe Im Frhling 2. Mirth admit me LAllegro 9. Rendi il serno Sosarme 6. Ach, wenn ich doch ein Nachtlied 3. Non lo dir Tolomeo Sommi Dei Radamisto Immchen wr Sterne mit den goldnen 4. Recit: O didst thou; Sweet Bird Il Pensieroso 7. Liebliche Maid Fsschen Aria: As when the dove Sound an Alarm!
Judas M. Durch suselnde Bume There the brisk sparkling 9. Aus meinen grossen Schmerzen Die Harrende 5. Recit: Frondi tenere; Necktor Choice of Recit: O worse than Death; Verdi Prati Alcina Ich hab in Deinem Auge sitzend Unterm weissen Baume Aria: Angels ever bright So shall the Lute and Harp Gute Nacht Es hat die Rose sich beklagt Theodora Judas Maccabeus Stiller Abend Wenn der Frhling auf die 7.
O had I Jubals Lyre Joshua Ja, du bist elend Berge steigt Bitte Fr Musik Herziges Schtzle du 1. Alma mia Floridante 9. Quai farfaletta Parpenope Ein Gruss von Ihr 2. Affanni del pensier Ottone Quando spieghi Orlando 3. Amor commanda Floridante Dank sei dir, Herr Endless Pleasure Semele Halleluja Esther Mio caro bene Rodelinda Pianger la sorte mia Cesare spirituale in stile recitativo.
Ah, spietato Amadigi Come and trip it LAllegro Scipone 5. Recit: I rage, I melt. Aria Contents: 6. Ombra cara Radamisto O ruddier than the cherry 1. Va godendo Serse See the raging flames 3. Whereer you walk Semele Jephta 4. Father of Heaven Macabeus Stille amare Tolomeo 5. Care Selve Atalanta 9. Arm, arm ye brave 8. Non lo diro Tolomeo Judas Maccabeus 9.
Recit: Frondi tenere. Aria: Ah, tu non sai Ottone Finch lo strale Floridante O Sleep Semele How willing Samson Rendi il sereno Sosarme Revenge, Timotheus cries PERI Nel puro ardor 6. Sommi Dei Radamisto Alexanders Feast Verdi prati Alcina Si tra i ceppi Berenice Cangio dAspetto Admeto Affanni del pensier Ottone Rodelinda 3. Honor and Arms Samson Contents: 4. Pianger la sorte mia Nasce al Bosco Ezio Pena tiranna Amadigi Tutta raccolta ancor Scipione Return, O God of Hosts Bacchus ever Fair Alexanders Alexanders Feast Sorge infausta Orlando Col rauco mormorio Rodelinda Thy glorious Deeds Samson Del minacciar del vento Ottone I for High Voice F.
I for Low Voice F. II for High Voice G. II for Low Voice G. Angiolin dal biondo crin I. Pace non trovo I. Benedetto sia'l giorno I. I vidi in terra angelici costumi I. La Perla I. Il m'aimait tant F. La tombe et la rose F. Gastilbelza F. Comment, disaient-ils F. Enfant, si j'tais rois F. S'il est un charmant gazon F. Die Loreley 1. Es muss ein Wunderbares sein 2. Freudvoll und leidvoll 3. Der Fischerknabe 1 3. Der Fischerknabe 2 4. German 5. Freudvoll und leidvoll 5. O lieb so lang du lieben kannst 3rd version 7. Kling leise, mein lied 6.
Hohe Liebe 8. Im Rhein,im schnen Strome 1,2 7. Im Rhein,im schnen Strome 3 8. Hohe Liebe 9. Mignons Lied Ein Fichtenbaum Mignons Lied 1. Pupille amate Lucio Silla 2. Recit: Giunse alfin il momento. Un marito, donne care La finta semplice E amore un ladroncello Cos fan tutte Volume IV 2. Saltro che lagrime La clemenza di Tito Contents: 5. Un moto di gioia Le nozze di Figaro 1. Frhlingsmorgen 1. Zu Strassburg auf der Schanz 7.
Trostlos schluchzet Philomele Zaide 2. Erinnerung 2. Ablsung im Sommer 8. Senti lEco La finta semplice 3. Hans und Grethe 3. Scheiden und Meiden 9. Ombra di rami tuoi Ascanio in Alba 4. Serenade 4. Nicht Wiedersehen! Geme la Tortorelia La finta giardiniera 5. Phantasie 5. Selbstgefhl 6. Wer hat dies Liedlein erdacht? Recit: E Susanna non vien! Aria: Dove sono i bei momenti 1. Um schlimme kinder 1. Ich atmet einen linden Duft Le nozze di Figaro 2. Ich ging mit Lust 2. Liebst du um Schnheit 3. Porgi amor Le nozze di Figaro 3.
Blicke mir nicht 4. Parto: nel gran cimento Mitridate 4. Starke Einbildungskraft 4. Ich bin der Welt 5. Come scoglio immoto resta Cos fan tutte 5. Wo die schnen Trompeten 5.
Um Mitternacht 6. Per piet, ben mio Cos fan tutte blasen 6. Der Tamboursgsell 7. Tutte nel cor vi sento Idomeneo 6. Das Irdische Leben 8. Deh se piacer mi vuoi La clemenza di Tito 9. Deh, per questo istante La clemenza di Tito Songs published separately: Crudeli, fermate La finta giardiniera Ich atmet einen linden Duft G. Ah, fuggi il traditor! Don Giovanni 1. Wer ein Liebchen Die Entfhrung 2. Recit: Don Ottavio, son morta. Aria: Or sai chi lonore 2. Solche hergelauf ne laffen Die Entfhrung 3.
Recit: In quali eccessi, o Numi. Aria: Mi tradi quel alma 3. O, wie will ich triumphieren Die Entfhrung 4. Recit: Crudele? Ah no, mio bene! Aria: Non mi dir 4. La vendetta Le nozze di Figaro 5. Non pi di fiori La clemenza di Tito 5. Madamina, il catalogo Don Giovanni 6.
Idol mio, se ritroso altro Idomeneo 6. Tardi savvede La clemenza di Tito 7. DOreste, dAjace Idomeneo 7. O Isis und Osiris Die Zauberflte 8. Fr i pensier pi funesti Lucio Silla 8. In diesen heilgen Hallen Die Zauberflte 9. Wer hungrig bei der Tafel sitzt Zaide Tu sai per chi maccese Mitridate Ach, ich liebe Die Entfhrung 1.
Mentre ti lascio, o figlia 5. Cos dunque tradisci 2. Durch Zrtlichkeit Die Entfhrung 2.
Alcandro, lo confesso 6. Per questa bella mano 3. Welcher Wechsel Die Entfhrung 3. Un bacio di mano 7. Io ti lascio LAddio 4. Martern aller Arten Die Entfhrung 4. Rivolgete a lui lo sguardo 5. Der Hlle Rache Die Zauberflte 6. Parto, maffretto Lucio Silla Un bacio di mano, K. Da schlgt Impresario Per questa bella mano, K. E amore un ladroncello Cosi fan tutti I. Non so pi Le Nozze di Figaro 4. Va lerror Mitridate G. Venga pur Mitridate G. Parto inerme Betulia K. Motet, K. Concert Aria I. Herr und Freund! Wetze nur die Klauen, from Zaide G.
Del pi sublime soglio La clemenza di Tito K. Guerrier, che dun acciaro Lucio Silla 9. Volume I A Cycle of Seven Songs. Deh vieni alla finestra Don Giovanni 3. A Cycle of Four Dramatic 4. Donne mie Cosi fan tutte Songs. Original version. Russian with English adaptation by 5. A Cycle of Six Songs. Volume II Non pi andrai Le nozze di Figaro 1.
Within four walls 4. Ennui 2. Se vuol ballare Le nozze di Figaro 2. In the crowd 5. Elegy 3. Vedr mentrio Le nozze di Figaro 3. An end at last 6. On The River 4. Aprite un po quegl occhi Le nozze di Figaro 5. Troppa briga La finta semplice Contents: 8. Con certe persone La finta semplice 1. La mi sola, Laureola 5. Con amores, la mi madre Ubriaco non son io La finta semplice 2.
Al Amor 6. Del cabello ms sutil Con un vezzo all Italiana La finta giardiniera 3. Corazn, porqu pasis Chiquitila la novia 4. El majo celoso. Anacreons Defeat 4. Ye Twice Ten Hundred Deities 5. Next, Winter Comes Slowly Contents: 3. Wondrous Machine 6. Hence, with your Trifling Deity 1. Llueve, llueve Rain, Rain 5.
Spanish S. Italian I. Yiddish Hebrew I. A Cycle of Three Songs F. Du meines Herzens Krnelein 9. Hans und Grete Forty Songs. Complete in One Volume. Waldeinsamkeit Wenn die Linde blht Am Brnnele Warte nur! Die Mutter spricht Contents: 6. Der verliebte Jger Vorbeimarsch 1. We Sing to Him I'll Sail upon the Dog Star 7. Mein Schtzelein Mari Wiegenlied 2.
Music for a While Silvia, now your Scorn 8. Maiennacht 3. How pleasant 'tis love Thrice happy Lovers Sweeter than Roses What can we poor Females do Strike the Viol G. Fairest Isle If Music be the Food of Love Sound the Trumpet Op. If Music Be the Food of Love I saw that you were grown so high Not all my torments Die Schne Mllerin. A Cycle of 20 Songs, Op. Man is for the Woman made O, lead me to some peaceful G.
KAGEN Ah, Belinda, I am prest Sweet, be no longer sad Thy Hand, Belinda! When What shall I do An Evening Hymn Die Winterreise. A Cycle of 24 Songs, Op. Your Awful Voice Since from my Dear The Blessed Virgin's The Fatal Hour The Knotting Song. German with literal English translations and notes by G. Abendlied Abendstern Alinde Der Alpenjger Am Fenster Heiss mich nichtreden 6. Am Grabe Anselmos Memnon Volume III. An die Geliebte An Mignon An den Mond Thus nearly all the last part of their correspondence is lost to us. As usual, the Archbishop of Salzburg did not delay to fulminate his quos ego, threatening at the same time to stop his worthy conductor's saleiry should he ex- tend the limit of his holiday.
It was necessary regret- fully to buckle the luggage straps and say good-bye. But on this occasion the old man was returning with a satisfied mind and a happy heart. His dearest hopes, his cherished dreams had been realised ; he knew that his name would not be lost to posterity and that his son's genius would give him immortality and renown.
Like Simeon holding in his arms the Saviour seen in his heavenly visions, he could exclaim : Et nunc, Domine, dimitte servum tuum. It was the last interview; Wolfgang and his father were destined never to meet again. In the meantime, a little disturbance had taken place behind the wings of the Viennese theatre, the results of 26o Mozart: The Man and the Artist. As the Italian opera was decidedly successful, Joseph H.
He could already rely upon Salieri and Sarti; it never occurred to him to think of Mozart. In his opinion he was an excel- lent composer of instrumental music, but of not much account for opera, " non era gran cosa! He caused his "Barbiere di Siviglia" to be mounted at once and ordered a new work from him, the subject of which he suggested him- self; it was "II Re Teodoro.
His happiness was complete, for "II Re Teodoro " proved to be a splendid success. Mozart's relations with Paisiello were not cordial. He held the Neapolitan master in great esteem and he has left us a just appreciation of his music : " Those," he said, " who expect agreeable impressions and a slightly volup- tuous pleasure in music will find what they want in Pais- iello's charming compositions. For later, Sarti had the bad taste to write an injudicious pamphlet with the view of discrediting his old comrade; in it he criticised in an ex- Mozart: The Man and the Artist, tremely pedantic manner the superb quartets dedicated to Haydn, scornfully dismisses Mozart back to school, and is astonished " that barbarians devoid of taste or ear should have the audacity to tamper with the divine art which only Italians are capable of understanding or putting into practice.
He had deserted the arena without waiting for his rival's assault and had gone to Paris, where, under the patronage of Gluck, he had produced his opera, the "Danaides," with considerable brilliancy. He did not venture to return to Vienna until Paisiello's renown was on the wane and then he brought forward the work which had been reposing in his portfolio.
But all his precau- tions were needless; in spite of his prudent calculations, in spite of his Parisian triumphs, the " Ricco d'un Giorno " fell flat, killed by the jests of the Viennese. Was it Salieri's fault or Lorenzo da Ponte's? On this occasion the ball was flung from composer to librettist with an elasticity of wrist altogether remarkable. The gallery reserved judgment unto itself and decided in favour of both parties. Be that as it may, Salieri solemnly swore "that he would sooner cut off his hand than write any more music to a single line of that wretched da Ponte.
The only way of saving the situation was to find, as soon as possible, a composer who could be compared without disadvantage to his former collaborator. He bethought himself of Vincent Martin, "La Spagnuolo," then of Righini; but a little reflection soon convinced him that neither of these composers were a match for Salieri. Then he remem- bered the promise he had made to our hero.
The thought came to him at the moment like an inspiration. He hurried off to find Mozart and placed himself at his disposal. The poet was so pleased with the musician's idea that he began the work without any delay, resolved to treat it in a manner which would preclude the imperial censor from finding a single page wherein to exercise his blue pencil. And, in reality, it was perfectly easy to trim Beaumarchais' prose and even to throw a little water on to the fuse of his witty fireworks, fot there was always enough and to spare of them.
A second edition, in 3 vols, was published in the same city some time iu or Still, notwithstanding his pacific intentions, it is pro- bable that the censorious strain in the comedy had a par- ticular fascination for da Ponte; for the Abbe's character was extremely independent and he had been expelled from the States of Venice for his Socialistic opinions and agressive discourses.
And one knows full well that if vengeance is a pastime for the gods it is also one for poets : genus irritabile vatum. The reasons which had determined Mozart's choice were first and foremost the interest and animation of Beaumarchais' piece and also the striking success obtained by Paisiello with his " Barbiere di Siviglia. This even gained him a real advantage over "La Folle Journee," written and invented for the Comedie Frangaise.
But for diversity of types and contrast of characters — I am speaking always from the musical point of view — the two pieces were on very different planes. Though the personages are the same their natures are perfectly dis- similar. First of all, in the " Mariage de Figaro " the Count is no longer the brilliant cavalier, the captivating Lindor, the tender sprightly being, alma viva who falls so desperately in love with the little maiden that he resolves to win her Mozart: The Man and.
He is transformed into a rather vulgar adventurer, a prey to whims and fancies, in whom jealousy is only awakened by wounded vanity. Figaro, the smart and frisky barber, the factotum della citia, whose physiognomy has been so marvellously por- trayed by Rossini's lively wit, Figaro is dulled by age and bent under the weight of vulgar cares. He may have some wit left, but it is lent to him by Beaumarchais and no longer extracted by Figaro from that mine of merriment which he had deemed inexhaustible.
His sallies are less spontaneous and more pointed and directly the heart of' this singular philosopher is at stake he be- comes as ridiculous as his dupes. He no longer hastens "to laugh at everything to save himself from weeping"; he is angry, he loses his temper and in a paroxysm of emotion he forgets himself and bursts into tears.
His intrigues are merely undertaken on his own account, for the vengeance of deluded guardians hangs over him and soon in the aria, "Aprite un po quegl' occhi," mournful diatribe on woman's inconstancy, Mozart will cause the prophetic corni to resound in his ears. In a word Figaro no longer attacks for he is on the defensive. We will pass by Youth and the Awakened, both so beautifully sketched in Paisiello's score.
Their loss is counter- balanced by the gain of Antonio and de Brid'oison trans- formed into Don Curzio in da Ponte's version ; but where is Bartholo, the crafty guardian, who is so ludicrously caught in his own trap and who sings his ditty with such Mozart: The Man and the Artist. To sum up : the " Mariage de Figaro" has not preserved, in their integrity, any of the male characters of the " Barbiere di Siviglia. The character of Rosina has not deviated a hair's breadth; it has, on the contrary,, developed on logical lines and the Countess Almaviva has retained all the best points of Dr.
Bartolo's pupil. But her love is stronger, more earnest, and the Count's coldness has thrown a shadow of melancholy over it and thus rendered its musi- cal expressiveness more tender and touching. If you would ascertain to what extent the Rosina of the " Mariage de Figaro" is consistent with the Rosina of the "Bar- biere" you must take the trouble of comparing them to- gether. But be it understood that I do not send you back to Rossini's heroine, a superficial creation which does not give the likeness of its model and where you will find a mischievous and refractory child instead of the woman you are seeking, but to Paisiello's Rosina, who is infinitely better understood and delineated.
Contrast the old Neapolitan master's Rosina with that of Mozart and you will find the resemblance a striking one; listen to the fiae cavatioa, " Porgi amor," with which the second act of Mozart: The Man and the Artist. Then there is Marcelina, an accessory char- acter in both pieces, whose outline remains unfinished owing to the inadequacy of the artists who essayed the past and aftei: her we will enumerate three charming ac- quisitions to the "Mariage de Figaro. Certainly these are all valuable accessories, but it must be remarked that such a large allotment of female parts necessarily tones down the striking comic element of the work and softens it with a veil of sentimen- tal chiaro-oscuro and it was thus that Mozart apprehended the subject.
Rossini's point of view is altogether a different one. In his " Barbiere " he makes a special point of Figaro's wit ; the rest no doubt was not a matter of indifference to him but it is kept in subordination. Almaviva is more the gallant than the lover, Rosina is less happy giving herself to Lindor than when making sport of Bartholo. In this respect the famous composer is perhaps more true to Beaumarchais' version ; at any rate he is more French than Mozart.
But we have just demonstrated why the com- Mozart: The Man and the Artist. And we make a grave mistake whenever we would criti- cise Mozart's score with echoes of Rossini's brilliant cava- tinas in our ears. Thus it is altogether waste of time to try and find a counterpart in the "Nozze" to Figaro's triumphant entry, or such a delightful duetto as " all' idea di quel metallo "; but on the other hand where, in Rossini's score, will one come across a parallel for the Countess' two cavatinas, or for those of Cherubino, or for an aria of Suzanna's?
I read somewhere that Rossini said his " Barbiere " was like the works of his famous predecessors, an opera buffa, whilst Mozart had taken the drama giocoso for the model of his " Nozze. In order to keep his mornings free he has been obliged to fill up his after- noons with lessons. After the second night he was taken suddenly ill and was obliged to suspend his work. There were only a few pages more to orchestrate.
We can enumerate the following works composed between the date of the above-mentioned letter and the first performance of the " Nozze " : a quartet and a trio for " La Villanella rapita," an aria and a duet for a private representation of his "Idomeneo," a sonata for piano and violin, a rondo and three piano con- certos, finally the little score of the one act opera: the " Impresario. Relying upon the resources of his subtle mind the crafty poet experienced no difficulty in demonstrating that in his hands Beaumarchais' violent satire had been transformed into a most harmless, inoffensive opera.
The next stumbling block was the name of the com- poser against whom Joseph II. And here again with delicate diplomatic skill da Ponte informed him that the score was entirely completed and as His Majesty was such an excellent musi- cian and equal to criticising a Mozart his opinion was greatly needed as to the merits of the work. To all appearance there seemed no further obstacles to be. Salieri and all his following are moving heaven and earth to damn the piece.
This disloyal strife and unscrupulous animosity will always redound to the discredit of the composer of the "Danaides" for Salieri could not plead ignorance as an excuse for his conduct. He was well aware of the genius of the man he was persecuting and could fully estimate his true worth. It is sufficient to recall his own words on hearing of the death of his illustrious rival : " had this man lived we should soon have found it difficult to get the price of a loaf of bread for our works.
In the first instance he had succeeded in influencing Mozart's interpreters by persuading them that the music was vocally impossible and unworthy of their renown. But the melodies of the "Nozze" pleaded their own cause and that of their composer with too much eloquence for such falsehoods to continue. Salieri numbered fewer ad- Mozart: The Man and the Artist. Finding his cause weakened on all sides the treacherous Italian sought the help of the theatre director, Count Rosenberg. And in this quarter his efforts were crowned with success.
Count Rosenberg set to work to harass and worry da Ponte and Mozart up to the very last minute. It was found necessary to obtain the emperor's personal intervention to put a stop to this constant bickering. In the concluding scenes of the third act the peasants assisting at Figaro's marriage execute a little dance to the music of a fandango. While this is proceeding the Count receives Suzanne's letter and pricks his finger with the pin which fastens it.
The director, having taken upon himself to interpret the emperor's orders literally, had forbidden the authors to interpolate a ballet into the opera; consequently he had boldly cut out this indispensable scene. Mozart was furious; but the ever resourceful da Ponte pretended to acquiesce in silence; he formulated his plans and quietly prepjired a little comedy.
So at one of the principal re- hearsals given in the presence of the emperor, when the opera had progressed as far as the forbidden scene, the instrumentalists suddenly ceased playing, the artists be- came dumb and gave themselves up for the space of five minutes to the " bright and lively " pantomime which has since become celebrated thanks to the imagination of a manager on the defensive.
There ended the hostilities ; from this date the struggle ceased, or was at all events suspended and the final re- hearsals of the " Nozze di Figaro " augured well for the future of the opera. I can still hear Benucci, with his fine voice and his unrivalled verve, sing- ing the aria, 'Non piu andrai. In a twinkling the orchestral players were on their feet, the house resounding to cries of ' Bravo, bravo, maestro! The original has served as a model for many j Osthumous portraits of Mozart.
There was never a shadow of doubt as to the success of the piece. The theatre was packed and so many numbers had to be repeated that the time of the perform- ance was nearly doubled. The audience wished to hear a little duet three times. But such was not the case. In the very midst of his triumph they managed to prejudice the work. They persuaded the Emperor that Mozart's music was too fatiguing for the singers; the very best artists, they said, were knocked up by the interminable encores.
As soon as Joseph was con- vinced they had no difficulty in extracting an order from him forbidding the singers to accede to demands for a bis. Frau Storace replied that she appreciated her sovereign's wise solicitude, the others silently acquiesced. Kelly alone possessed the courage of his convictions : " I hope your Majesty will be so good as to excuse me," he replied, "but my comrades do not tell you what they think; there is not one among us who is not happy and proud to repeat the number that is demanded of him. The fatigue is slight and the pleasure is very great.
Count Rosenberg, who bore Mozart a grudge for the reprimand which he had so well deserved, gave unwilling performances of the opera, al- lowing them only to be extorted one by one when com- pelled by public curiosity. As he was sole director of the theatre he was never at a loss for some little contrivance for keeping the work out of the bills. The " Nozze " was only played nine times in the course of the season. This was perhaps oftener than most novelties, but not often considering its great success. The following year Mar- tini's "Cosa rara" obtained a fashionable vogue, the public wearied of making demands and Mozart's chef d'ceuvre was relegated to the portfolios.
The score of the " Nozze di Figaro," the original manu- script of which is since in the hands of Herr Sim- rock, of Bonn, is generally divided into four acts, some- times, however, it is arranged in two acts according to the Italian custom. It comprises besides the overture, twejity- Mozart: The Man and the Artist. Two supplementary numbers must be added written for the part of Suzanne: a rondo, "Al desio di chi Fadora," composed for Madame Ferrarese, at the time of the revival of the "Nozze" in , and also for the purpose 6i replacing the admirable cavatina of the fourth act; finally an arietta, "Un moto di gioja," written at the same period and which no doubt was substituted for the little piece, No.
THE remembrance of a little work called " Der Schau- spieldirector," sometimes named the " Impresario " is associated with the " Nozze di Figaro. The little score, which, besides the overture, comprises only four numbers, two arias, a trio and a short finale, set to couplets, was played for the first time by the tenor, Adamberger, Frauen Lange and Cavalieri on February 7, , in the Orangery of the Schoenbrunn castle. From the Imperial residence the " Schauspieldirector " passed directly to the people's theatre at the Carinthian gate, where, on October 10, , the national opera had just been re-established and in- augurated with a translation of Montigny's "Felix.
Goethe, who witnessed the Neapolitan master's merry comedy in Rome, was anxious to produce it when he took over the management of the Weimar theatre in ; he had it translated and set to Mozart's music; he named the medley, a theatrical ad- venture. Later, a German poet, L. Schneider, substituted a new text, for that of Stephanie in which he injudiciously in- troduced the impresario, Shikaneder, and Mozart as stage characters. He also added several numbers borrowed from the master's repertory to the original score, such as the pretty Lied "An Cloe" and the "Bandler Terzett," a musical jest written in a moment of fun and merriment.
One day when Mozart was starting for a walk with his wife and his friend, Jacquin, son of the celebrated botanist, Fran Mozart detained them searching for a ribbon which her husband had lately given her and with which she wanted to please him by adorning herself with it. Jacquin at last found it and waved it triumphantly in the air. Mozart and his wife both made efforts to take the neck- tie from him but in vain for he was exceedingly tall.
Suddenly the dog belonging to the house rushed in azid precipitated itself between Jacquin's legs, thus forcing him to give up his spoil. As music was always uppermost in the master's mind he at once con- ceived the idea of turning the little struggle into a comic trio. During his walk he composed the chief tnotifs and wrote out, on his return, the words and the music, both simultaneously inspired. In October a third son was born to him, but like his namesake, Leopold, the baby died a few months after its birth. When, at the end of October, his wife had recovered from her confinement, he made plans for going to England.
Signora Catalini had the work mounted in London in ; she played the part of Susanna. In Italy Mozart's chef-d'oeuvre was never, I think, very successful. A German critic justly remarked that Mozart's purity of style and simple melodies accorded ill with the impetuous tem- perament of the Italians. Vianesi, the clever and accom- plished conductor, was kind enough to show me one of the trans- mogrified libretti, two acts of which had been rewritten for the Monza theatre by Maestro Tarchi.
It is also well known that Luigi, the eldest of the brothers Bicci, wrote in his turn a new score for the "Nozze di Figaro. But Leopold energetically declined to accept the responsibility. I should like to know what you think of this idea, it is, is it not, a pleasant project? Thus Master Wolfgang wants to set off on his travels arm in arm with his wife and while I remain fixed here, he will enjoy an airy free- dom ; our two little turtle-doves will most probably settle down definitely over there and for aughi we kndw they may die there.
Can you imagine your father running after them with the two children tucked under his arms, trying to get back some of his spent money and restoring the charges to their parents! I have refused pointblank and I have just told them what I think of them. In this respect Wolfgang showed himself nobler than his father, for he had not been obdurate to his mother-in-law though she had given him much cause for displeasure.
He soon found himself on friendly terms with her and he always gave her a son's respect and devotion. He would overwhelm her with little gifts such as he was able to afford. He never arrived empty-handed, he always brought us a little parcel of sugar or coffee. In the meantime good news arrived from Prague.
The " Nozze di Figaro," which had had such a poor reception in Germany, had scored a great success in the Bohemian capital; the "Entfuhrung" had paved the way for this good fortune. This country, where music was cultivated with enthusiasm, boasted just then of an exceptional scholastic system. The teaching of music was obligatory even in the smallest village schools. The masters were required to have a tolerably wide knowledge of the arts and it was both the rule and the custom for each school teacher to compose an annual mass to be performed by his pupils.
Children who distinguished themselves at these little functions were noticed by the nobility and sent to superior schools where they received gratuitous education. AH the best families had each their private chapel; their servants were expected to lend their services also as musi- cians and the huntsmen were not given their livery until they had proved their ability to play the horn. Mozatt could count upon many admirers in Bohemia, and his new opera was received with a furore which re- dounds to the credit of the Bohemian national taste. Its com- plete and wonderful success can only be compared to the later triumph of the " Zauberilote.
The enthusiasm it evoked was alto- gether unprecedented ; the public seemed imbued with the melodies and yet never satiated. The score was immedi- ately reduced for the piano; it was arranged in the form Mozart: The Man and the Artist. It contained a pressing invitation to come and witness the great success of his work, with promises of a regal reception. The idea was pleasing to Mozart and he had no wish to elude the honours which the Bohemians were so anxious to bestow on him.
He started, therefore, with his wife in the middle of January, and went to the residence of Count Josef von Thun, who had claimed the honour of entertaining the famous maestro. This short sojourn of a few weeks, in a country where people thronged to meet and welcome him, was a de- lightful rest for Mozart, a halt, as it were, upon the steep and stony path he was destined to follow.
At no other period of his life did he meet with so much sympathetic and affectionate regard ; never had he been so joyous and happy. He scribbled a few country dances and half-a-dozen waltzes, unim- portant trifles for a composer of his renown. He even confessed his own idleness in a letter full of intimate Mozart: The Man and the Artist. The number of laurel wreaths were beyond enumeration. Arrived at the end of his programme, writes a con- temporary witness, Mozart, pressed by his admirers, re- turned good-humouredly to the piano.
He ran his fingers over the keys and then began, without any signs of weari- ness, an improvisation which lasted a good half-hour. When, at last, the great artist rose and bowed, he was greeted with such a thunder of applause and enthusiastic cries, that after returning twenty times to acknowledge the transports he was obliged to seat himself again at the instrument. His inexhaustible imagination furnished him with subject matter for another improvisation which was as wonderful as the first and as warmly applauded.
But the public was untiring and disregarded his fatigue. For the third time Mozart was compelled by the enraptured audience to play again. He was on the point of throwing himself into a new vein of melodic thought when a voice broke the silence with the magic and enticing word, "Figaro! He flung himself on his bed more exhausted by the emotion evoked by his favourable reception than by the arduous feats he had accomplished, and all the while the theatre was echoing and re-echoing the continued acclamations. These details enable one to imagine without any diffi- culty the scene of the composer's triumph on the memor- able evening when he had the satisfaction of hearing a perfect performance of this "Figaro" which was turning the heads of the good citizens of Prague.
Pleased and touched by the ardent sympathy he could not help saying that he would be happy to write a special new opera for a nation from which he had received so much kindness and goodwill. The impresario, Bondini, was not slow to avail himself of such an offer.
He took the master at his word and made him sign a contract there and then by which he bound- himself in consideration of receiving a fee of one hundred ducats to hand over a new score for the opening of the next opera season. To this lucky agreement we are indebted for the immortal "Don Giovanni.
The success of the " Nozze di Figaro " had brought unexpected good luck to the Abbe. He was now the busiest poet in the emperor's domains and all the most illustrious composers were dis- puting his libretti. Even Salieri, had laid aside his as- sertions, arid had humbly begged him to forget their past resentment. At the moment when da Ponte undertook to write "Don Giovanni" he had already two other works on hand : " L'Arbore di Diana '' for Vicenzo Martin and a translation of Beaumarchais' " Tarare " for Salieri.
Though we possess no precise information on the sub- ject, we may assume that directly the libretto was in his hands Mozart set himself to compose with his accustomed activity. While he was engrossed in his work alarming news arrived on April 4, His father, who had been ailing for some time, was taken seriously ill. Mozart wrote him a letter in which he displays a sound philosophy and a Mozart: The Man and the Artist. And now I am told that you are grievously indisposed.
It is hardly necessary to as- sure you how impatiently I await a word from you to comfort and allay my anxiety, though I have accustomed myself, as regards all things, to expect the worst. As Death is really the only true goal, I have endeavoured for the last two years, to become as intimate as possible, with this real and devoted friend, consequently, instead of inspiring me with terror and consternation, the thought of him is linked with consoling thoughts and soothing hope. I thank God for having bestowed on me this grace and given me the occasion — you understand me rightly, do you not — to consider death as the means of attaining our true happiness.
I trust even while I am writing these lines that you are feeling better ; but if my hopes are con- founded and if you become worse I beg you in the name of And this I implore by all we both hold most sacred. But as I say again I hope soon to receive a reassuring letter and in the meantime my wife, my little Charles and I, we kiss your fatherly hands a thousamd times.
It was a cruel shock to Wolfgang who had dismissed his anxieties but he bore up against his grief with the usual strength of mind and rare courage which were so finely expressed in the above-quoted letter. Yet he felt deeply not having been able to embrace the worthy man for the last time and bitterly regretted his inability to have declared his gratitude to the dying parent who had been the spiritual father of his genius and the first means of helping him to fame. We have so often insisted in the course of this narrative on Leopold Mozart's upright character and fatherly devotion, that it is needless, now that we bid him farewell, to go over the same ground again.
We feel certain also that justice has been done to his calumniated memory, and I think I may rest assured that those who have honoured me by reading this study of his son's life, will desist from charging Leo- pold Mozart of egotism and self-interest. It has never been exactly known what Mozart inherited from his father; but the division of goods could not have been a lengthy or a difficult matter.
A few pieces of worm-eaten furniture, valued for their associatfon more than their worth, a collection of old books and scores was all that the old Kapellmeister could leave to his children. But he bequeathed to them the memory of a life without stain or reproach, and a respected name, which his son was to emblazon with immortal fame. When the first days of sorrow were over, Mozart wrote to his sister : " Had you been left without means and protection, my dear sister, I should have known what to do and as I have always Mozart: The Man and the Artist.
And now without dallying any longer over family details we will return to "Don Giovanni," scrutinize its legend and recount its history. On account of its striking renown Mozart's chef d'osuvre has been surrounded, to a greater degree than any other, by romantic legends and apocryphal anecdotes. Without setting aside those estab- lished on authorised traditions and possessing a founda- tion of truth it is of great importance to distinguish them clearly and set them apart from authentic and unimpeach- able facts.
Conformably with his promise Mozart started in Sep- tember for Prague accompanied by his wife and his little boy. According to the terms of the agreement he was to be provided for and lodged at the impresario's expense. He found a room prepared for him at the Golden Lion hotel in the place du March6-au-charbon. Lately a com- memorative tablet has been affixed on the scene by the Municipality of Prague.
Da Ponte, who arrived shortly after Mozart, took up his quarters in a hotel on the opposite side of the street. The two collaborators could discourse to one another from their windows and discuss Mozart's Sons. Karl and "Wolfgang Amadeus. Uozart - II.
Mosart: The Man and the Artist. In Prague Mozart found the whole company of his prospective interpreters awaiting him. Luigi Bassi, who was to have the honour of representing the hero of the piece; Felice Ppnziani, the first Leporello; Antonio Bag- lioni, the weak and melancholy Don Ottavio and Giuseppe Lolli, who was to assume alternately Masetto's jacket and the armour of the old stone commander.
Amongst the women there were three personalities, Teresa Saporiti, whom Mozart destined for the important part of Donna Anna; Catarina Micelli who seemed purposely created to impersonate the tender and passionate donna Elvira; and the bewitching Zerlina, charmingly personi- fied by the manager's young wife, Teresa Bondini. It has been the origin of a complete novel of romantic episodes between the composer and his principal inter- preter. I do not know where he has obtained this in- formation, usually accepted without contradiction, but it is evi- dent that it is an error, for Madame Bondini and the artist to whom was entrusted the tragic and sombre part of Donna Anna were both named Teresa.
Would it be likely for two sisters to be christened alike? Y Mozart: The Man and the Artist. She did not hide her feeling but declared aloud that she considered the illustrious man to be "the most insignificant looking person she had ever beheld. So one may conclude that far from adoring one another Mozart and Teresa Saporiti's feel- ings bordered on mutual hatred. He spent most of the day within his room with Constance on guard at the door, or he would withdraw into his friend Dus- chek's garden for the purpose of scoring the finished numbers between the intervals of a game of skittles.
He devoted the first hours of his day to his interpreters, re- hearsing their parts with them, modifying here and there the turn of a phrase so as the better to adapt it to their voices or to gain a finer effect, but rarely submitting to pure caprice or unreason. And while he was in the midst of these labours the full rehearsals were begun.
You seem to possess all you want and your peaceful existence is no longer disturbed, thanks to God, by indiscretions which I hope you have altogether renounced. Faustus, have sprung from the imagination of the people. They owe their existence to the innermost genius of the folk. For tradition is deeply rooted in the soil of history. Stripped of its luxuriant blossoms, nur- tured by the breath of poetry and music, the truth of the story can almost be reduced to the following : — In days of yore there lived at Seville — for like Figaro, Don Juan is a native of the Andalusian capital — a gay cavalier, belonging to an old and noble family, named Don Juan Tenorio y Salazar, Sefior d'Albarren and Count of Maraiia.
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More renowned for his scandalous behaviour than for his illustrious name, it happened that Don Juan cast his eyes upon the daughter of the Com- mander of Ulloa, and as he always promptly suited the action to the thought he ran away with her straightway without of course taking the slightest trouble to consult ho: feelings. The com- mander was buried with great pomp, as became his dignity and rank, in the church of St.
Francis and a marble tomb was erected to his memory surmounted by his statue, while Don Juan, forgetful of the object of his caprice, sought other loves and openly incurred the ban of the law. The crime, however, could not remain unpunished. One night, when engaged on a fresh love adventure, he was lured into the church where his victim slept under his stone monument, and there Don Juan was surprised and killed.
The monks immediately hid his body and spread the news abroad that he had been precipitated into hell by the statue of the commander, which he had had the audacity to defy and insult. Upon this thrilling tale so well constructed to stiiriulate the imagination, an anonymous author composed a sort of religious drama or auto sacramental; he gave it the title of "El Ateista fulminado," and it was played for a lengthy period in the churches and convents of Spain. Later a Castilian monk, Fray Gabriel Tel lez, immor- talized under the name of Tirso de Molina, wrote on the same subject "El Burlador de Sevilla y convidada de piedra," which was gracefully translated by Alphonse Royer.
Tirso's three days' comedy was the source and origin of all the succeeding versions. From Spain it passed iiito Italy where, according to Riccobini it was already known in This piece had an extraordinary career. From it sprung two French works : one by Villiers played at the Hotel de Bourgoyne in and another by Dori- man performed first at Lyons and then in Paris in at the theatre of the Rue des Quatre- Vents and named " Le Festin de Pierre " the Stone Feast an absurd name which owed its existence and strange construction to an error of the translator.
The subject of this first Parisian "Don Juan" was analysed with numberless variations by Guculette des Boulsmiers and Cailhara. The following is an example of its style, in the form of a little sermon addressed by Don Juan to his servant Arlequin whom Moliere was to name Sganarelle and da Ponte Leporello. We have borrowed the text from M. Louis Morland who. This animal, the spoilt child of the house, of prepossessing appearance, for- getting the kindness of its friend and protector, ran into the flower garden, uprooted the jonquils and tulips and devoured their bulbous ends.
The gardener, furious, complained to his master, who blindly devoted to his young pig replied : ' you must forgive him this once, he has not yet acquired experience ; besides he is so pretty. The cook ran to tell his master who on account of his weakness and affection for his pet forbade that he should be punished. When the master saw this fresh disorder and deplorable havoc his patience was exhausted and what did he do? He at once ordered the pig to be killed and hams, sausages, polonies, black puddings and bacon to be made with the blood and remains of the innocent quadruped.
You kill the husband of some poor Mozart: The Man and the Artist. One and all they carry their complaints to Jupiter. He forgives you the first time. On the second occasion he remains deaf to their murmurs. But Moliere, it is almost needless to say, even without having preserved the chivalrous character and passionate faith of Tirso's version, had come singularly close to the original drama which had been terribly parodied by extemporaneous comedies.
The subject treated by the Spanish author, and used again by Moliere passed quickly into England where Thomas Shadwell had it performed under the name of the " Libertine Destroyed " ; in Germany under the erroneous title given it on the French stage and literally translated into "Das Steinerne Gastmahl," the Don Juan legend became a favourite theme for puppet shows.