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Share this: Twitter Facebook. Like this: Like Loading Leave a Reply Cancel reply Enter your comment here Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:. Email required Address never made public. Leaving before the lectures had ended, the Scholls noticed that there were some left-over copies in the suitcase and decided to distribute them. Sophie flung the last remaining leaflets from the top floor down into the atrium.
This spontaneous action was observed by the university maintenance man, Jakob Schmid. A draft of a seventh pamphlet, written by Christoph Probst, was found in the possession of Hans Scholl at the time of his arrest by the Gestapo. While Sophie Scholl got rid of incriminating evidence before being taken into custody, Hans did try to destroy the draft of the last leaflet by tearing it apart and trying to swallow it.
However, the Gestapo recovered enough of it and were able to match the handwriting with other writings from Probst, which they found when they searched Hans's apartment. However, after Hans had confessed, Sophie assumed full responsibility in an attempt to protect other members of the White Rose. The Scholls and Probst were scheduled to stand trial before the Volksgerichtshof —the Nazi "People's Court" infamous for its unfair political trials, which more often than not ended with a death sentence—on 22 February They were found guilty of treason.
Roland Freisler , head judge of the court, sentenced them to death. The three were executed the same day by guillotine at Stadelheim Prison. All three were noted for the courage with which they faced their deaths, particularly Sophie, who remained firm despite intense interrogation, and intimidation by Freisler during the trial. She replied: "You know as well as we do that the war is lost. Why are you so cowardly that you won't admit it?
Willi Graf had already been arrested on 18 February ; in his interrogations, which continued until his execution in October , he successfully covered other members of the group. Alexander Schmorell was recognized, denounced and arrested on 24 February , after his return to Munich following an unsuccessful effort to travel to Switzerland. Kurt Huber was taken into custody on 26 February, and only then did the Gestapo learn about his role within the White Rose group. The second White Rose trial took place on 19 April Eleven others were sentenced to prison, and Falk Harnack was acquitted of the accusations.
Schmorell and Huber were executed on 13 July Willi Graf was further interrogated, but managed to cover his friend Willi Bollinger, and was finally executed on 12 October On 29 January , Hans Konrad Leipelt was executed. He had been sent down from Hamburg University in because of his Jewish ancestry, and had copied and further distributed the White Rose's pamphlets together with his girlfriend Marie-Luise Jahn. The pamphlets were now entitled "And their spirit lives on. The third White Rose trial was scheduled for 20 April , Hitler's birthday, which was a public holiday in Nazi Germany.
Because he did not want to issue too many death sentences in a single trial, he therefore wanted to postpone his judgment against those four until the next day. However, the evidence against them was lost, and the trial finally took place on 13 July In that trial, Gisela Schertling—who had betrayed most of the friends, even fringe members like Gerhard Feuerle—changed her mind and recanted her testimony against all of them.
After her acquittal on 19 April, Traute Lafrenz was placed under arrest again. She spent the last year of the war in prison. Trials kept being postponed and moved to different locations because of Allied air raids. Her trial was finally set for April , after which she probably would have been executed. Three days before the trial, however, the Allies liberated the town where she was held prisoner, thereby saving her life. The hopes of the White Rose members that the defeat at Stalingrad would incite German opposition against the Nazi regime and its war did not come true.
On the contrary, Nazi propaganda used the defeat to call on the German people to embrace " Total War ". Coincidentally, on 18 February , the same day that saw the arrests of Sophie and Hans Scholl and Christoph Probst, Nazi propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels delivered his Sportpalast speech , and he was enthusiastically applauded by his audience.
Shortly after the arrest of the Scholl siblings and Christoph Probst, newspapers published all-points bulletins in search of Alexander Schmorell. On 22 February , the students of Munich were assembled, and officially protested against the " traitors " who came from within their ranks. Gestapo and Nazi jurisdiction documented in their files their view of the White Rose members as "traitors and defeatists ". Further prosecutions took place until the end of World War II, and German newspapers continued to report, mostly in brief notes, that more people had been arrested and punished.
On 15 March , a report by the Sicherheitsdienst of the Schutzstaffel stated that rumors about the leaflets spread "considerable unrest " amongst the German population. The report expressed particular concern about the fact that leaflets were not handed in to the Nazi authorities by their finders as promptly as they used to be in the past. Soviet Army propaganda issued a leaflet, wrongly attributed by later researchers to the National Committee for a Free Germany , in honour of the White Rose's fight for freedom. For many years, Hans and Sophie's sister Inge Scholl 's commemorative book "The White Rose",  first published in , followed by several editions until , as well as surviving copies of the pamphlets, reports by surviving members and supporters of the White Rose group   and editions of the letters and diaries of Sophie and Hans Scholl  and Willi Graf  were the only primary sources available for research.
The interrogation protocols were part of the Volksgerichtshof documents, and were confiscated by the Soviet Red Army, and brought to Moscow. Here, they were kept secret in a special archive. After the foundation of the German Democratic Republic, the major part of the Nazi documents were handed over to the East German government, except the documents concerning Alexander Schmorell, who was born in Russia.
With the German reunification , the documents were transferred to the Federal Archive of Germany in Berlin, and finally published. With the fall of Nazi Germany, the White Rose came to represent opposition to tyranny in the German psyche and was lauded for acting without interest in personal power or self-aggrandizement.
Their story became so well known that the composer Carl Orff claimed falsely by some accounts    to his Allied interrogators that he was a founding member of the White Rose and was released. He was personally acquainted with Huber, but there is no evidence that Orff was ever involved in the movement. The fountain in front of the university is dedicated to Hans and Sophie Scholl. The other, across the street, is dedicated to Professor Huber. Many schools, streets, and other places across Germany are named in memory of the members of the White Rose.
Likewise, the asteroid Weisse Rose is named after the group. The following is a non-exhaustive chronological account of some of the more notable treatments of the White Rose in media, book and artistic form. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the German resistance movement. For other uses, see White Rose disambiguation. Sophie Scholl.
- White Rose.
- People-Centric Project Management.
- The Code of the Apocalypse.
- White Rose - Howling Pixel!
- In the Driver’s Seat (Naughty Nine to Five Book 5)!
- La lunga corsa (Italian Edition).
Alexander Schmorell. Wittenstein, M. Who among us has any conception of the dimensions of shame that will befall us and our children when one day the veil has fallen from our eyes and the most horrible of crimes—crimes that infinitely outdistance every human measure—reach the light of day? The German people slumber on in dull, stupid sleep and encourage the fascist criminals. Each wants to be exonerated of guilt, each one continues on his way with the most placid, calm conscience.
But he cannot be exonerated; he is guilty, guilty, guilty! All three were noted for the courage with which they faced their deaths, particularly Sophie, who remained firm despite intense interrogation. Reports that she arrived at the trial with a broken leg from torture were false.
She said to Freisler during the trial, "You know as well as we do that the war is lost. Why are you so cowardly that you won't admit it? The second White Rose trial took place on 19 April Only eleven had been indicted before this trial. One was assigned after the women appeared in court with their friends.
Prior to their deaths, several members of the White Rose believed that their execution would stir university students and other anti-war citizens into activism against Hitler and the war. Professor Huber had counted on the good services of his friend, attorney Justizrat Roder, a high-ranking Nazi. Roder had not bothered to visit Huber before the trial and had not read Huber's leaflet.
Another attorney had carried out all the pre-trial paperwork. When Roder realized how damning the evidence was against Huber, he resigned. The junior attorney took over. Grimminger initially was to receive the death sentence for funding their operations, but escaped with a sentence of ten years in a penitentiary.
He did not want too many death sentences at a single trial, and had scheduled those four for the next day. However, the evidence against them was lost, and the trial was postponed until 13 July At that trial, Gisela Schertling—who had betrayed most of the friends, even fringe members like Gerhard Feuerle—redeemed herself by recanting her testimony against all of them.
Huber's widow was sent a bill for marks twice her husband's monthly salary for "wear of the guillotine. After her release for the sentence handed down on 19 April, Traute Lafrenz was rearrested. She spent the last year of the war in prison.
1940s in Munich
Trials kept being postponed and moved to different locations because of Allied air raids. Her trial was finally set for April , after which she probably would have been executed. Three days before the trial, however, the Allies liberated the town where she was held prisoner, thereby saving her life. The White Rose had the last word. Their last leaflet was smuggled to the Allies , who edited it and air-dropped millions of copies over Germany.
The members of the White Rose, especially Sophie, became icons of the new post-war Germany. With the fall of Nazi Germany, the White Rose came to represent opposition to tyranny in the German psyche and was lauded for acting without interest in personal power or self-aggrandizement. Their story became so well known that the composer Carl Orff claimed falsely by some accounts  to his Allied interrogators that he was a founding member of the White Rose and was released.
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He was personally acquainted with Huber, but there is no evidence that Orff was ever involved in the movement. The fountain in front of the university is dedicated to Hans and Sophie Scholl. The other, across the street, is dedicated to Professor Huber. Many schools, streets, and other places across Germany are named in memory of the members of the White Rose.
White Rose: The German Anti-Nazi Activists Who Were Beheaded In 1943
One of Germany's leading literary prizes is called the "Geschwister Scholl" prize the "Scholl Siblings" prize. Likewise, the asteroid Weisse Rose is named after the group. The following is a non-exhaustive chronological account of some of the more notable treatments of the White Rose in media, book and artistic form.
Though they did not correctly record all of the information about the resistance, the trials, and the execution, they were the first acknowledgement of the White Rose in the United States. Beginning in the s, three film accounts of the White Rose resistance were produced. The first was a film financed by the Bavarian state government entitled Das Versprechen The Promise and released in the s. The film is not well known outside Germany , and to some extent even within the country.
- Tratamientos Psiquiátricos (Spanish Edition)?
- EVIL IN PARADISE: THE TRIUMPH OF FAITH & LOVE OVER GREED & POWER.
- Werke von Fridrich Pfaff (German Edition).
- White Rose - Wikipedia?
- Further Your Research.
It was particularly notable in that unlike most films, it showed the White Rose from its inception and how it progressed. An account by Annette Dumbach and Dr. Jud Newborn tells the story behind the film Sophie Scholl: The Final Days , focusing on the White Rose movement while setting the group's resistance in the broader context of German culture and politics and other forms of resistance during the Nazi era.
Premiering in Hamburg, it went on to earn acclaim and a series of international performances. Several plays have also been written by teachers in the USA for performance by students.
In Fatherland , an alternate history novel by Robert Harris , there is passing reference to the White Rose still remaining active in supposedly Nazi-ruled Germany in Not long before, women readers of the mass-circulation magazine Brigitte had voted Sophie Scholl as "the greatest woman of the twentieth century".
Drawing on interviews with survivors and transcripts that had remained hidden in East German archives until , it was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film in January White Rose has inspired many people around the world, including many anti-war activists in recent years. Scattered throughout , 5 hoax pipe bombs were placed at various military recruitment centers with the words "Die Weisse Rose" written upon them. The UK-based genocide prevention student network Aegis Students uses a white rose as their symbol in commemoration of the White Rose movement.
There are numerous study guides to the White Rose, notably one available from the University of Minnesota 's Holocaust Center. In , Dan Fesperman published a novel entitled The Arms Maker of Berlin in which activities by real and fictional White Rose characters play a significant role in the story.