Sometimes referred to as "rhythmic gymnastics," eurhythmics teaches concepts of rhythm, structure, and musical expression using movement, and is the concept for which Dalcroze is best known. It focuses on allowing the student to gain physical awareness and experience of music through training that engages all of the senses, particularly kinesthetic.
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According to the Dalcroze method, music is the fundamental language of the human brain and therefore deeply connected to who we are. Many active teachers of Dalcroze method were trained by Dr. Hilda Schuster who was one of the students of Dalcroze. Although not really an educational method, his teachings reside within a fun, educational framework built on a solid grasp of basic music theory and music notation in various verbal and written forms.
Most countries have used their own folk music traditions to construct their own instruction sequence, but the United States primarily uses the Hungarian sequence. The work of Denise Bacon, Katinka S. Carl Orff was a prominent German composer. Orff Schulwerk is considered an "approach" to music education. It begins with a student's innate abilities to engage in rudimentary forms of music, using basic rhythms and melodies. Orff considers the whole body a percussive instrument and students are led to develop their music abilities in a way that parallels the development of western music.
The approach fosters student self-discovery, encourages improvisation, and discourages adult pressures and mechanical drill. Carl Orff developed a special group of instruments, including modifications of the glockenspiel , xylophone , metallophone , drum , and other percussion instruments to accommodate the requirements of the Schulwerk courses. The Suzuki method was developed by Shinichi Suzuki in Japan shortly after World War II, and uses music education to enrich the lives and moral character of its students. The movement rests on the double premise that "all children can be well educated" in music, and that learning to play music at a high level also involves learning certain character traits or virtues which make a person's soul more beautiful.
The primary method for achieving this is centered around creating the same environment for learning music that a person has for learning their native language. This 'ideal' environment includes love, high-quality examples, praise, rote training and repetition, and a time-table set by the student's developmental readiness for learning a particular technique.
While the Suzuki Method is quite popular internationally, within Japan its influence is less significant than the Yamaha Method, founded by Genichi Kawakami in association with the Yamaha Music Foundation. In addition to the four major international methods described above, other approaches have been influential. Lesser-known methods are described below:. Gordon and others in the larger field of Music Learning Theory. It provides music teachers with a comprehensive framework for teaching musicianship through audiation , Gordon's term for hearing music in the mind with understanding and comprehension when the sound is not physically present.
Inference Learning, students take an active role in their own education and learn to identify, create, and improvise unfamiliar patterns. The growth of cultural diversity within school-age populations prompted music educators from the s onward to diversify the music curriculum, and to work with ethnomusicologists and artist-musicians to establish instructional practices rooted in musical traditions. Anderson, and Will Schmid, influenced a second generation of music educators including J.
The pedagogy advocates the use of human resources, i. John M. Feierabend, former chair of music education at the Hartt School , University of Hartford. The program begins by immersing students in the musical literature of their own culture, in this case American.
Music is seen as separate from, and more fundamental than, notation. In twelve learning stages, students move from hearing and singing music to decoding and then creating music using spoken syllables and then standard written notation. This early-childhood approach, sometimes referred to as the Sensory-Motor Approach to Music, was developed by the violinist Madeleine Carabo-Cone. This approach involves using props, costumes, and toys for children to learn basic musical concepts of staff, note duration, and the piano keyboard.
Popular music pedagogy tends to emphasize group improvisation,  and is more commonly associated with community music activities than fully institutionalized school music ensembles. The Manhattanville Music Curriculum Project was developed in as a response to declining student interest in school music. This creative approach aims to shape attitudes, helping students see music not as static content to be mastered, but as personal, current, and evolving.
Rather than imparting factual knowledge, this method centers around the student, who learns through investigation, experimentation, and discovery. The teacher gives a group of students a specific problem to solve together and allows freedom to create, perform, improvise, conduct, research, and investigate different facets of music in a spiral curriculum. MMCP is viewed as the forerunner to projects in creative music composition and improvisation activities in schools.
After the preaching of Reverend Thomas Symmes, the first singing school was created in in Boston for the purposes of improving singing and music reading in the church. These singing schools gradually spread throughout the colonies.
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Music education continued to flourish with the creation of the Academy of Music in Boston. Between and , more than tune books would be published by such authors as Samuel Holyoke, Francis Hopkinson, William Billings, and Oliver Holden. Music began to spread as a curricular subject into other school districts. Soon after music expanded to all grade levels and the teaching of music reading was improved until the music curriculum grew to include several activities in addition to music reading.
By the end of public school music had spread throughout the country. In , Lowell Mason and George Webb formed the Boston Academy of Music with the purposes of teaching singing and theory as well as methods of teaching music. Mason published his Manuel of Instruction in which was based upon the music education works of Pestalozzian System of Education founded by Swiss educator Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi. This handbook gradually became used by many singing school teachers. This is regarded as the first time music education was introduced to public schools in the United States.
In the Boston School Committee approved the inclusion of music in the curriculum and Lowell Mason became the first recognized supervisor of elementary music. In later years Luther Whiting Mason became the Supervisor of Music in Boston and spread music education into all levels of public education grammar, primary, and high school. During the middle of the 19th century, Boston became the model to which many other cities across the United States included and shaped their public school music education programs.
The concept of classroom teachers in a school that taught music under the direction of a music supervisor was the standard model for public school music education during this century. See also: Music education in the United States While women were discouraged from composing in the 19th century, "later, it was accepted that women would have a role in music education , and they became involved in this field In the United States, teaching colleges with four-year degree programs developed from the Normal Schools and included music.
Oberlin Conservatory first offered the Bachelor of Music Education degree. Osbourne G. McCarthy, an American music educator, introduced details for studying music for credit in Chelsea High School. Notable events in the history of music education in the early 20th century also include:. Music course offerings and even entire degree programs in online music education developed in the first decade of the 21st century at various institutions, and the fields of world music pedagogy and popular music pedagogy have also seen notable expansion. In the late 20th and early 21st centuries, social aspects of teaching and learning music came to the fore.
This emerged as praxial music education,  critical theory,  and feminist theory. Institutional music education was started in colonial India by Rabindranath Tagore after he founded the Visva-Bharati University. At present, most universities have a faculty of music with some universities specially dedicated to fine arts such as Indira Kala Sangeet University , Swathi Thirunal College of Music or Rabindra Bharati University.
Indian classical music is based on the Guru-Shishya parampara system. The teacher , known as Guru , transmit the musical knowledge to the student, or shyshya. This is still the main system used in India to transmit musical knowledge. Although European art music became popularized in schools throughout much of the world during the twentieth century East Asia, Latin America, Oceania, Africa , India remains one of the few highly populated nations in which non-European indigenous music traditions have consistently received relatively greater emphasis.
That said, there is certainly much western influence in the popular music associated with Bollywood film scores. The Indonesian island of Java is known for its rich musical culture, centered around gamelan music. The two oldest gamelan instrument sets, dating from the twelfth century, are housed in the kraton s palaces in the cities of Yogyakarta and Surakarta.
Gamelan music is and integral part of the Javanese culture: it is a part of religious ceremonies, weddings, funerals, palace activities, national holidays, and local community gatherings. In recent years, there has been an increasing market for gamelan associated tourism: several companies arrange visits for tourists wishing to participate in and learn gamelan. Gamelan music has a distinct pedagogical approach. The teacher demonstrates long passages of music at a time, without stopping to have the student demonstrate comprehension of the passage, as in a western music pedagogy.
A teacher and student will frequently sit on opposite sides of a drum or mallet instrument, so that both can play it.
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This provides the teacher an easy way to demonstrate, and the student can study and mimic the teacher's actions. The teacher trains the kendang player, who is the leader of the ensemble.
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The teacher works one on one with them and repeats the parts as many times as necessary until the piece is rhythmically and stylistically accurate. The Kendang player is sometimes relied on to transmit the music to their fellow gamelan members. ILAM's Listen and Learn for students 11—14 is "unique" in teaching curriculum requirements for western music using recordings of traditional African music. From the time that Africa was colonized up to , indigenous music and arts being taught in schools was a rare occurrence.
The African National Congress ANC attempted to repair the neglect of indigenous knowledge and the overwhelming emphasis on written musical literacy in schools. It involves the whole community because indigenous songs are about the history of its people. After the colonization of Africa, music became more centered on Christian beliefs and European folk songs, rather than the more improvised and fluid indigenous music.
Before the major changes education went through from to , during the first decade of the democratic government, teachers were trained as classroom teachers and told that they would have to incorporate music into other subject areas. The few colleges with teaching programs that included instrumental programs held a greater emphasis on music theory, history of western music, western music notation, and less on making music.
Up until , most college syllabi did not include training in indigenous South African Music. In African cultures music is seen as a community experience and is used for social and religious occasions. As soon as children show some sign of being able to handle music or a musical instrument they are allowed to participate with the adults of the community in musical events. Traditional songs are more important to many people because they are stories about the histories of the indigenous peoples.
Among the Aztecs, Mayans, and Incas, music was used in ceremonies and rituals to teach the history of their civilizations and was also used for worship. The Aztec people were mainly educated by their priests. Music remained an important way to teach religion and history and was taught by priests for many centuries.
When Spain and Portugal colonized parts of South America, music started to be influenced by European ideas and qualities. Several priests of European descent, such as Antonio Sepp, taught European systems of music notation and theory based on their knowledge of playing instruments throughout the s. Since music was taught to the general public by rote, very few knew how to read music other than those who played instruments until the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.
The development of music in South America mainly followed that of European development. Choirs were formed to sing masses, chants, psalms, but secular music also became more prevalent in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries and beyond. Music education in Latin America today has large emphasis on folk music, masses, and orchestral music. Many classrooms teach their choirs to sing in their native language as well as in English.
Several Latin American Schools, specifically in Puerto Rico and Haiti, believe music to be an important subject and are working on expanding their programs. Outside of school, many communities form their own musical groups and organizations. Community performances are very popular with the local audiences. This famous choral group tours around Mexico, showing students around the country what a professional choral ensemble sounds like. The music, languages, and sounds we are exposed to within our own cultures determine our tastes in music and affect the way we perceive the music of other cultures.
Many studies have shown distinct differences in the preferences and abilities of musicians from around the world. One study attempted to view the distinctions between the musical preferences of English and Japanese speakers, providing both groups of people with the same series of tones and rhythms.
The same type of study was done for English and French speakers. Both studies suggested that the language spoken by the listener determined which groupings of tones and rhythms were more appealing, based on the inflections and natural rhythm groupings of their language. Another study had Europeans and Africans try to tap along with certain rhythms. European rhythms are regular and built on simple ratios, while African rhythms are typically based on irregular ratios. While both groups of people could perform the rhythms with European qualities, the European group struggled with the African rhythms.
This has to do with the ubiquity of complex polyrhythm in African culture and their familiarity with this type of sound. While each culture has its own musical qualities and appeals, incorporating cross-cultural curricula in our music classrooms can help teach students how to better perceive music from other cultures.
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Studies show that learning to sing folk songs or popular music of other cultures is an effective way to understand a culture as opposed to merely learning about it. Achievement standards are curricular statements used to guide educators in determining objectives for their teaching. Use of standards became a common practice in many nations during the 20th century.
For much of its existence, the curriculum for music education in the United States was determined locally or by individual teachers. Some schools and organizations promote integration of arts classes, such as music, with other subjects, such as math, science, or English, believing that integrating the different curricula will help each subject to build off of one another, enhancing the overall quality of education. The European Union Lifelong Learning Programme — has funded three projects that use music to support language learning.
A number of researchers and music education advocates have argued that studying music enhances academic achievement ,  such as William Earhart, former president of the Music Educators National Conference, who claimed that "Music enhances knowledge in the areas of mathematics, science, geography, history, foreign language, physical education, and vocational training. An experiment by Wanda T. Wallace setting text to melody suggested that some music may aid in text recall. A second experiment created a three verse song with a repetitive melody; each verse had exactly the same music.
A third experiment studied text recall without music. She found the repetitive music produced the highest amount of text recall, suggesting music can serve as a mnemonic device. Smith studied background music with word lists. One experiment involved memorizing a word list with background music; participants recalled the words 48 hours later. Another experiment involved memorizing a word list with no background music; participants also recalled the words 48 hours later. Participants who memorized word lists with background music recalled more words demonstrating music provides contextual cues.
Citing studies that support music education's involvement in intellectual development and academic achievement, the United States Congress passed a resolution declaring that: "Music education enhances intellectual development and enriches the academic environment for children of all ages; and Music educators greatly contribute to the artistic, intellectual and social development of American children and play a key role in helping children to succeed in school. Bobbett suggests that most public school music programs have not changed since their inception at the turn of the last century.
Kerstetter for the Journal of Band Research found that increased non-musical graduation requirements, block scheduling, increased number of non-traditional programs such as magnet schools, and the testing emphases created by the No Child Left Behind Act are only some of the concerns facing music educators.
Both teachers and students are under increased time restrictions" . Patricia Powers states, "It is not unusual to see program cuts in the area of music and arts when economic issues surface. It is indeed unfortunate to lose support in this area especially since music and the art programs contribute to society in many positive ways. Studies have shown that music education can be used to enhance cognitive achievement in students. Music effects language development, increases IQ, spatial-temporal skills, and improves test scores. Music education has also shown to improve the skills of dyslexic children in similar areas as mentioned earlier by focusing on visual auditory and fine motor skills as strategies to combat their disability.
Further research will need to be done, but the positive engaging way of bringing music into the classroom cannot be forgotten, and the students generally show a positive reaction to this form of instruction. Music education has also been noted to have the ability to increase someones overall IQ, especially in children during peak development years.
Fine motor skills, social behaviours, and emotional well being can also be increased through music and music education. The learning of an instrument increases fine motor skills in students with physical disabilities. Emotional well being can be increased as students find meaning in songs and connect them to their everyday life. In some communities — and even entire national education systems — music is provided little support as an academic subject area, and music teachers feel that they must actively seek greater public endorsement for music education as a legitimate subject of study.
This perceived need to change public opinion has resulted in the development of a variety of approaches commonly called "music advocacy". Music advocacy comes in many forms, some of which are based upon legitimate scholarly arguments and scientific findings, while other examples controversially rely on emotion, anecdotes, or unconvincing data.
Recent high-profile music advocacy projects include the " Mozart Effect ", the National Anthem Project , and the movement in World Music Pedagogy also known as Cultural Diversity in Music Education which seeks out means of equitable pedagogy across students regardless of their race, ethnicity, or socioeconomic circumstance. The Mozart effect is particularly controversial as while the initial study suggested listening to Mozart positively impacts spatial-temporal reasoning , later studies either failed to replicate the results,   suggested no effect on IQ or spatial ability,  or suggested the music of Mozart could be substituted for any music children enjoy in a term called "enjoyment arousal.
Teaching Mathematics : Toward a Sound Alternative. Brent Davis. This book presents an approach to the teaching of mathematics that departs radically from conventional prescription-oriented and management-based methods. It brings together recent developments in such diverse fields as continental and pragmatist philosophy, enactivist thought, critical discourses, cognitive theory, evolution, ecology, and mathematics, and challenges the assumptions that permeate much of mathematics teaching.
The discussion focuses on the language used to frame the role of the teacher and is developed around the commonsense distinctions drawn between thought and action, subject and object, individual and collective, fact and fiction, teacher and student, and classroom tasks and real life. The discussion also addresses the question of how mathematics teaching can be reformed to better suit current academic and social climates.