The course aims, in particular, to enhance the students' problem solving capacity in economic and management decision problems with the aid of management science techniques. For that purpose, a number of small and large cases will be presented and discussed in the class. Cases provide descriptions of practical situations where modeling and analysis can play an important role. Some of the cases are abbreviated descriptions, where much of the detail is left to the reader's imagination. Cases provide opportunities to practice translating situations into problem structures and, in doing so, to adapt the general concepts of modeling to particular circumstances.

Discussion questions for each case are attached as part of this course description. Introduce you to the basic principles and techniques of management science. You will learn to use some of the important analytic methods, to recognize their assumptions and limitations, and to employ them in decision-making.

Enhance your ability to structure problems and to perform logical analyses. You will practice translating descriptions of decision problems into formal models, and will analyze those models in an organized fashion. Expose you to settings in which models can be used effectively. You will apply management science concepts in practical situations. Reinforce your computer skills. Von Neumann entered government service primarily because he felt that, if freedom and civilization were to survive, it would have to be because the United States would triumph over totalitarianism from Nazism , Fascism and Soviet Communism.

He was quoted in remarking, "If you say why not bomb [the Soviets] tomorrow, I say, why not today? If you say today at five o'clock, I say why not one o'clock? His citation read:. Through his work on various highly classified missions performed outside the continental limits of the United States in conjunction with critically important international programs, Dr. Von Neumann was a founding figure in computing. During this time he contributed to the development of the Monte Carlo method , which allowed solutions to complicated problems to be approximated using random numbers.

Von Neumann's algorithm for simulating a fair coin with a biased coin is used in the "software whitening" stage of some hardware random number generators. Though this method has been criticized as crude, von Neumann was aware of this: he justified it as being faster than any other method at his disposal, writing that "Anyone who considers arithmetical methods of producing random digits is, of course, in a state of sin. Presper Eckert and John Mauchly , described a computer architecture in which the data and the program are both stored in the computer's memory in the same address space.

This architecture is the basis of most modern computer designs, unlike the earliest computers that were "programmed" using a separate memory device such as a paper tape or plugboard. Although the single-memory, stored program architecture is commonly called von Neumann architecture as a result of von Neumann's paper, the architecture was based on the work of Eckert and Mauchly, inventors of the ENIAC computer at the University of Pennsylvania.

Complicated programs could be developed and debugged in days rather than the weeks required for plugboarding the old ENIAC. Some of von Neumann's early computer programs have been preserved. He arranged its financing, and the components were designed and built at the RCA Research Laboratory nearby.

John von Neumann recommended that the IBM , nicknamed the defense computer , include a magnetic drum. Stochastic computing was first introduced in a pioneering paper by von Neumann in Von Neumann's rigorous mathematical analysis of the structure of self-replication of the semiotic relationship between constructor, description and that which is constructed , preceded the discovery of the structure of DNA. Von Neumann created the field of cellular automata without the aid of computers, constructing the first self-replicating automata with pencil and graph paper. The detailed proposal for a physical non-biological self-replicating system was first put forward in lectures von Neumann delivered in and , when he first only proposed a kinematic self-reproducing automaton.

He went on to instead develop a more abstract model self-replicator based on his original concept of cellular automata. Subsequently, the concept of the Von Neumann universal constructor based on the von Neumann cellular automaton was fleshed out in his posthumously published lectures Theory of Self Reproducing Automata. The driving concept of the method was to consider a liquid as a group of discrete units and calculate the motion of each based on its neighbors' behaviors.

The result was a universal copier and constructor working within a cellular automaton with a small neighborhood only those cells that touch are neighbors; for von Neumann's cellular automata, only orthogonal cells , and with 29 states per cell. Von Neumann addressed the evolutionary growth of complexity amongst his self-replicating machines. This is an important result, as prior to that it might have been conjectured that there is a fundamental logical barrier to the existence of such pathways; in which case, biological organisms, which do support such pathways, could not be "machines", as conventionally understood.

Von Neumman considers the potential for conflict between his self-reproducing machines, stating that "our models lead to such conflict situations", [] indicating it as a field of further study. The cybernetics movement highlighted the question of what it takes for self-reproduction to occur autonomously, and in , John von Neumann designed an elaborate 2D cellular automaton that would automatically make a copy of its initial configuration of cells.

Von Neumann proved that the most effective way of performing large-scale mining operations such as mining an entire moon or asteroid belt would be by using self-replicating spacecraft , taking advantage of their exponential growth. Von Neumann investigated the question of whether modelling evolution on a digital computer could solve the complexity problem in programming.

Beginning in , von Neumann's design for a self-reproducing computer program is considered the world's first computer virus , and he is considered to be the theoretical father of computer virology. As part of his research into weather forecasting, von Neumann founded the "Meteorological Program" in Princeton in , securing funding for his project from the US Navy. Von Neumann's research into weather systems and meteorological prediction led him to propose manipulating the environment by spreading colorants on the polar ice caps to enhance absorption of solar radiation by reducing the albedo , [] [] thereby inducing global warming.

In fact, to evaluate the ultimate consequences of either a general cooling or a general heating would be a complex matter.

## Introduction to operation research, Study notes for Mathematics

Changes would affect the level of the seas, and hence the habitability of the continental coastal shelves; the evaporation of the seas, and hence general precipitation and glaciation levels; and so on But there is little doubt that one could carry out the necessary analyses needed to predict the results, intervene on any desired scale, and ultimately achieve rather fantastic results.

The first use of the concept of a singularity in the technological context is attributed to von Neumann, [] who according to Ulam discussed the "ever accelerating progress of technology and changes in the mode of human life, which gives the appearance of approaching some essential singularity in the history of the race beyond which human affairs, as we know them, could not continue. Other mathematicians were stunned by von Neumann's ability to instantaneously perform complex operations in his head.

Nobel Laureate Hans Bethe said "I have sometimes wondered whether a brain like von Neumann's does not indicate a species superior to that of man", [19] and later Bethe wrote that "[von Neumann's] brain indicated a new species, an evolution beyond man". The feeling was you were on a tricycle chasing a racing car. When George Dantzig brought von Neumann an unsolved problem in linear programming "as I would to an ordinary mortal", on which there had been no published literature, he was astonished when von Neumann said "Oh, that!

Lothar Wolfgang Nordheim described von Neumann as the "fastest mind I ever met", [] and Jacob Bronowski wrote "He was the cleverest man I ever knew, without exception. He was a genius. If in the course of a lecture I stated an unsolved problem, the chances were he'd come to me at the end of the lecture with the complete solution scribbled on a slip of paper. We were all in awe of Jancsi von Neumann". Anderson : "You know, Herb, Johnny can do calculations in his head ten times as fast as I can!

And I can do them ten times as fast as you can, Herb, so you can see how impressive Johnny is! Halmos recounts a story told by Nicholas Metropolis , concerning the speed of von Neumann's calculations, when somebody asked von Neumann to solve the famous fly puzzle: []. Two bicyclists start 20 miles apart and head toward each other, each going at a steady rate of 10 mph.

At the same time a fly that travels at a steady 15 mph starts from the front wheel of the southbound bicycle and flies to the front wheel of the northbound one, then turns around and flies to the front wheel of the southbound one again, and continues in this manner till he is crushed between the two front wheels. Question: what total distance did the fly cover? The slow way to find the answer is to calculate what distance the fly covers on the first, southbound, leg of the trip, then on the second, northbound, leg, then on the third, etc.

The quick way is to observe that the bicycles meet exactly one hour after their start, so that the fly had just an hour for his travels; the answer must therefore be 15 miles. When the question was put to von Neumann, he solved it in an instant, and thereby disappointed the questioner: "Oh, you must have heard the trick before! Eugene Wigner told a similar story, only with a swallow instead of a fly, and says it was Max Born who posed the question to von Neumann in the s. Von Neumann was also noted for his eidetic memory sometimes called photographic memory.

Herman Goldstine wrote:. One of his remarkable abilities was his power of absolute recall. As far as I could tell, von Neumann was able on once reading a book or article to quote it back verbatim; moreover, he could do it years later without hesitation. He could also translate it at no diminution in speed from its original language into English. Whereupon, without any pause, he immediately began to recite the first chapter and continued until asked to stop after about ten or fifteen minutes.

Von Neumann was reportedly able to memorize the pages of telephone directories. He entertained friends by asking them to randomly call out page numbers; he then recited the names, addresses and numbers therein. And if there were Nobel Prizes in computer science and mathematics, he would have been honored by these, too.

In , von Neumann was diagnosed with what was either bone or pancreatic cancer. He had earlier confided to his mother, "There probably has to be a God. Many things are easier to explain if there is than if there isn't. Von Neumann was on his deathbed when he entertained his brother by reciting by heart and word-for-word the first few lines of each page of Goethe's Faust. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article uses Western name order when mentioning individuals.

Budapest , Austria-Hungary. Washington, D. Abelian von Neumann algebra Affiliated operator Amenable group Arithmetic logic unit Artificial viscosity Axiom of regularity Axiom of limitation of size Backward induction Blast wave fluid dynamics Bounded set topological vector space Carry-save adder Cellular automata Class set theory Computer virus Commutation theorem Continuous geometry Coupling constants Decoherence theory quantum mechanics. Main article: Von Neumann paradox.

Main article: Von Neumann algebra. See also: Direct integral. See also: Lifting theory. Classical mechanics Old quantum theory Bra—ket notation Hamiltonian Interference. Advanced topics. Quantum annealing Quantum chaos Quantum computing Density matrix Quantum field theory Fractional quantum mechanics Quantum gravity Quantum information science Quantum machine learning Perturbation theory quantum mechanics Relativistic quantum mechanics Scattering theory Spontaneous parametric down-conversion Quantum statistical mechanics.

Main article: Density matrix. Main article: Quantum logic. See also: von Neumann cellular automaton , von Neumann universal constructor , von Neumann neighborhood , and von Neumann Probe. A simple configuration in von Neumann's cellular automaton. A binary signal is passed repeatedly around the blue wire loop, using excited and quiescent ordinary transmission states.

A confluent cell duplicates the signal onto a length of red wire consisting of special transmission states.

## Module 7 - Linear Programming, The Simplex Method - Answers

The signal passes down this wire and constructs a new cell at the end. This particular signal codes for an east-directed special transmission state, thus extending the red wire by one cell each time. During construction, the new cell passes through several sensitised states, directed by the binary sequence. This is a maturing crisis of technology The most hopeful answer is that the human species has been subjected to similar tests before and it seems to have a congenital ability to come through, after varying amounts of trouble.

See also: Technological singularity. February Quantitative Finance. The American Mathematical Monthly. The wind and beyond. The New York Times. Retrieved February 4, Mathematische Zeitschrift in German. Historia Mathematica. The Gerald R. July 18, Retrieved January 5, National Academy of Sciences. Retrieved August 16, Gray Watson Archived from the original on April 28, Retrieved January 30, Hurd" PDF.

Charles Babbage Institute , University of Minnesota. Retrieved June 3, Bibcode : PNAS Hopf, Eberhard Leipzig Ber. Princeton University. Retrieved January 6, University of California at Los Angeles. Archived from the original PDF on July 2, Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society. Annals of Mathematics. January 5, Retrieved January 12, Mathematische Annalen in German.

Bibcode : MatAn. The original paper on von Neumann algebras. Von Neumann and lattice theory PDF. Bibcode : NW English translation in Hermann, Grete Crull, Elise; Bacciagaluppi, Guido eds. Grete Hermann — Between physics and philosophy. Reviews of Modern Physics. Bibcode : RvMP Foundations of Physics. Bibcode : FoPh Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics. American Journal of Physics. Bibcode : AmJPh.. Quantum computation and quantum information Repr.

Cambridge [u. Philosophical Papers: Volume 3, Realism and Reason. Cambridge University Press. Von Neumann's irreducibility condition was called the "whales and wranglers " hypothesis by David Champernowne , who provided a verbal and economic commentary on the English translation of von Neumann's article. Von Neumann's hypothesis implied that every economic process used a positive amount of every economic good. Thompson in the s and then by Stephen M. September 21, Contributions to von Neumann's Growth Model. Annals of Mathematical Statistics. Carlucci, Sidney S. March Journal of Applied Physics.

Bibcode : JAP A History of Computing in the Twentieth Century. MacTutor History of Mathematics Archive. Retrieved December 16, Nuclear Weapons Frequently Asked Questions. Retrieved January 8, Physics in Perspective. Bibcode : PhP Spokane Daily Chronicle. December 15, John von Neumann". The American Presidency Project. In Aspray, W. Papers of John von Neumann on computing and computer theory. Cambridge: MIT Press. University of Pennsylvania. Retrieved January 27, Army Research Laboratory. Stanford, Calif. Cambridge, Mass. John Von Neumann: Selected Letters.

The Neumann Compendium. World Scientific. Analog Comp. Burks ed. The Theory of Self-reproducing Automata. Urbana, IL: Univ. Retrieved September 16, Arthur W. Urbana and London: University of Illinois Press. A New Kind of Science. Wolfram Media, Inc. Journal of the British Interplanetary Society. Bibcode : JBIS Retrieved January 9, Bibcode : TellA Archived from the original on December 12, Retrieved December 12, Lau, Duane E. Davenport, Daniel I.

Journal of Consciousness Studies. Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. F,W,S A supervised research project. If the project is of unusual scope, the course may be repeated for credit. Prerequisite s : satisfaction of the Entry Level Writing and Composition requirements, students submit petition to sponsoring agency. F,W,S Economics students are expected to learn to effectively communicate economic theory and evidence relating to economic policy to audiences that do not have economics degrees. The skills to be learned are both written and oral communication.

Students learn to present convincing policy arguments in position papers, executive summaries, and in oral presentation that may include charts and other means of communication. Independent Field Study. F,W,S Provides for department-sponsored individual study program off campus for which faculty supervision is not in-person, but by correspondence.

Independent Field Study 2 credits. F,W,S Provides for department-sponsored individual study program off campus for which faculty supervision is not in person, but by correspondence. Students spend six hours per week at the job site. F,W,S May be repeated for credit, but may be counted only once toward the upper-division major requirements.

Undergraduates may not take graduate courses for credit as Tutorial 2 credits. F,W,S Specialized study with individual faculty. May not be applied toward the major requirements. Microeconomic Analysis. F Survey of partial equilibrium analysis, market distortions, consumer choice and production and trade theory, perfect and imperfect competition, price discrimination, and intertemporal choice theory. Applications in Microeconomics. S Applies concepts and tools developed in course to problems encountered in private- and public-sector output and labor markets.

The focus is empirical; topics include analysis of labor supply and labor demand and the role of government labor market policies, analysis of pricing policies and regulation, estimation of the returns to schooling, estimation of demand and cost functions, and the role of unions in the economy. Macroeconomic Analysis. W Aggregate economic analysis: determinants of aggregate expenditures and output, the roles of monetary and fiscal policy, recent developments in macro theory; macro policy issues.

Advanced Microeconomic Theory. F Economic theory of individual and market behavior, including constrained optimization, duality, theory of the consumer, theory of the producer, dynamic optimization, behavior under uncertainty, intertemporal choice, asymmetric information, game theory, partial and general equilibrium, pure and applied welfare economics, public goods and externalities.

Illustrative examples emphasize international applications. Courses must be taken in sequence. Enrollment restricted to graduate students or by permission of instructor. W Economic theory of individual and market behavior, including constrained optimization, duality, theory of the consumer, theory of the producer, dynamic optimization, behavior under uncertainty, intertemporal choice, asymmetric information, game theory, partial and general equilibrium, pure and applied welfare economics, public goods and externalities. S Economic theory of individual and market behavior, including constrained optimization, duality, theory of the consumer, theory of the producer, dynamic optimization, behavior under uncertainty, intertemporal choice, asymmetric information, game theory, partial and general equilibrium, pure and applied welfare economics, public goods and externalities.

Prerequisite s : course B. Advanced Macroeconomic Theory. F Modern macroeconomic theory: determination of national income; employment, inflation, and exchange rates; theories of growth and business cycle fluctuations; international transmission of inflation and other disturbances; recent developments in the analysis of macroeconomic policy; modern theoretical and empirical analysis of aggregate relationships. W Modern macroeconomic theory: determination of national income; employment, inflation, and exchange rates; theories of growth and business cycle fluctuations; international transmission of inflation and other disturbances; recent developments in the analysis of macroeconomic policy; modern theoretical and empirical analysis of aggregate relationships.

S Modern macroeconomic theory: determination of national income; employment, inflation, and exchange rates; theories of growth and business cycle fluctuations; international transmission of inflation and other disturbances; recent developments in the analysis of macroeconomic policy; modern theoretical and empirical analysis of aggregate relationships. Accounting 1. Enrollment restricted to graduate students. Accounting II. W Principles, control, and theory of accounting for liabilities and equities; preparation and analysis of cash flow statements and earnings per share computation.

Covers basic matrix algebra, real analysis, functions, continuity concepts, differentiation, Taylor expansion, implicit function theorem, and optimization. Prerequisite s : qualifications as determined by instructor; inquire at department office. F A course in introductory mathematical economics which covers standard optimization problems, difference and differential equations, optimal control theory, decisions under uncertainty, game theory, and stochastic calculus.

Course A or equivalent is strongly recommended as preparation.

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Advanced Econometrics. F Advanced econometric methods are introduced. Topics include the standard regression analysis, simultaneous equation estimation, nonlinear models, qualitative response models, panel data analysis, and univariate and multivariate time series analysis. W Advanced econometric methods are introduced. Course A is strongly recommended as preparation for course B. Topics in Empirical Research. S A topic course in econometrics designed for graduate students interested in quantitative analysis. Selected topics, including standard and recently developed econometric techniques, are critically and thoroughly discussed.

In addition to methodology, focuses on exploring the research potential and applications of advanced econometric techniques. Courses A and B are strongly recommended as preparation.

## Linear Optimization

Empirical Project in Econometrics 2 credits. Prerequisite s : courses A and B. Applied Econometric Analysis I. F The use of statistical techniques for the testing of economic hypotheses and the estimation of parameters, with emphasis on regression analysis. Includes methods of dealing with serial correlation, errors in variables, multicollinearity, and heteroscedasticity.

Experience with common statistical packages.

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Applied Econometric Analysis II. W Focuses on the application of advanced econometric and time series techniques to economic issues. Computer assignments and empirical applications are used to discuss and illustrate the practical aspects of simultaneous equation systems, nonlinear models, qualitative response models, time series model specification, unit root test, and cointegration analysis. Development Economics: Theory and Cases. W Surveys traditional development economics and the neoclassical resurgence in development theory.

Topics include sources of growth, income distribution, population and human capital development, savings, fiscal and monetary mobilization and allocation, foreign investment and aid, and macroeconomic policies. Case study focus in the second quarter. Courses A and A are strongly recommended as preparation. S Surveys traditional development economics and the neoclassical resurgence in development theory. Advanced Monetary Economics I. S Covers major issues in monetary economics, focusing on the core theoretical models employed in monetary economics. Topics include: money in general equilibrium; money-in-the-utility function approaches; cash-in-advance models; search-based models; welfare costs of inflation; optimal inflation tax; informational frictions in monetary economies; financial and credit frictions; nominal price and wage frictions; time-dependent and state-dependent models of price adjustment; and money in new Keynesian models.

Prerequisite s : course A-B-C, or by permission of instructor. Advanced Monetary Economics II. Topics include: welfare-based policy objectives; optimal policy under discretion; optimal commitment policies; model dynamic stochastic general equilibrium DSGE for policy analysis; open economy models for monetary policy analysis; learning; model uncertainty and policy design; empirical evidence on the channels of monetary policy transmission; monetary policy operating procedures; zero nominal interest-rate bound; international transmission of monetary policy; policy and asset prices.

Finance I. F Applications of economic analysis in private finance. Topics include risky choice and intertemporal choice theory, asset pricing models, efficient market hypotheses, market institutions, and derivative securities. Financial Institutions and Markets. Topics include the role of banks and other financial intermediaries and the trading practices for domestic and international financial instruments, including equity, debts, futures, and options. Prerequisite s : course W Application of modern financial theory to corporate decision making. Topics covered include capital budgeting and the firm's investment decision, capital structure, dividend policies, and the implications of corporate governance for enterprise financial goals.

Financial Engineering. S This course surveys the financial risks faced by corporation, banks, and other financial institutions that arise from changes in interest rates, foreign exchange rates, commodity prices, and stock prices. It examines the characteristics, payoffs, and pricing of financial derivatives and other instruments for managing risk, including options, forwards, futures, swaps, structured notes, and asset-backed securities.

Several cases will be used to illustrate how actual firms solve financial risk management problems. Current Topics in Finance. Advanced International Trade Theory I. F The theory of international trade and commercial policy. Both traditional analyses and recent developments are covered. Topics include both normative and positive theoretical analyses, as well as empirical testing of theory.

Courses A-B-C are strongly recommended as preparation. It deals with most major current advanced research topics in trade. It is both theoretical and empirical and is designed to acquaint students with recent research in the field. Research topics include models of political economy of trade policies; trade and labor markets; regionalism and multilateralism; trade and environment; theories, determinants, and implications of foreign direct investments; economic geography. Topics include the testing and estimation of various trade models such as the Ricardian model, Heckscher-Ohlin-Vanek model, intra-industry trade models, trade models associated with multinational corporations, models of trade and intellectual property rights, the impact of trade on income inequality, and trade between developed and developing economies.

Advanced International Finance I. F Financial aspects of aggregate capital and trade flows and income determination in open economies. Specific topics include financial risk in the international setting, international borrowing and lending, money and exchange rate regimes, income determination and macroeconomic policy, current issues in international monetary reform. Advanced International Finance II.

### Undergraduate - Unit

W An examination of the formulation and implementation of international economic policy from both theoretical and empirical perspectives. Topics include case studies in fiscal, monetary, exchange rate, tariff, and other regulatory policies. S Focuses on empirical applications in international finance. Topics include structural and reduced form models of exchange rates, interest parity conditions, purchasing power parity, capital controls, capital flows to emerging markets, and government intervention in foreign exchange markets. Courses and or A-B-C strongly recommended as preparation.

History of the International Economy. Particular attention is paid to the interwar period with its problems of structural transformations and their relation to the Great Depression and its immediate aftermath, the rise and fall of the Bretton Woods system, the experience of floating exchange rate regimes, the rise of the "new industrial countries," and the problems of international indebtedness. International Trade and Development Policy I.

Advanced Public Finance. F Theory of the role of public sector expenditures and taxes in market economies. Analyzes efficiency and equity arguments for government intervention. Topics include the role of public debt and deficits in economies, international effects of tax and spending policies, and economic theories of public sector decision making.

Cost-Benefit Analysis. The issues considered include the effects of taxation on consumer welfare, consumption, labor, capital, production, growth. Public Policy Analysis. S Applications of welfare and microeconomic theory and methodology to the public expenditure question: cost-benefit. Effects of the taxes discussed in course A and sophisticated tools used in the face of these and other distortions with regard to measurement of benefits, costs, and the discount rate.

Course strongly recommended as preparation. Advanced Topics in Applied Microeconomics. S Advanced topics and current research in microeconomic theory, including game theory and general equilibrium analysis. Courses A-B and A are strongly recommended as preparation. Formerly Advanced Topics in Microeconomic Theory. Advanced Topics in Macroeconomic Theory. F Advanced topics and current research in macroeconomic theory, including DSGE models, empirical issues, and optimal policy analysis. Evolutionary Game Theory.

W Reviews static equilibrium concepts, games of incomplete information, and the traditional theory of dynamic games in discrete time. Develops recent evolutionary game models, including replicator and best reply dynamics, and applications to economics, computer science, and biology.

Prerequisite s : upper-division math courses in probability theory are strongly recommended.

Also offered as Computer Science Advanced Applied Microeconomics. W Covers topics in applied microeconomics, including labor economics, public economics, and demography. Discusses advanced econometric techniques and theory commonly used in applied microeconomics and microeconomic theory. Students make extensive use of statistical packages and large data sets to complete course assignments. Upper-division econometric and microeconomics courses strongly recommended.

Workshop in Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics 3 credits. F,W,S For Ph. Topics vary from quarter to quarter depending on the interests of participants. Prerequisite s : courses A, B, and C, or by consent of instructor. Workshop in Applied Microeconomics 3 credits. Workshop in Experimental Economics 3 credits. F,W,S For economics doctoral students who are at early stages of their research careers as well as those engaged in dissertation research using laboratory experiments and related techniques.

Topics vary from quarter to quarter depending on the interest of participants. Enrollment by permission of instructor. Topics in International Economics. Topics include imperfect competition and trade, strategic trade policies, increasing returns, and the pattern of trade, economic geography, exchange rate target zones, and balance of payment crises.

Topics vary from year to year. Workshop in Applied Economics. F,W,S Students will undertake analytical projects in public or private institutions. The material covered must be different from that of the thesis topic. Applied Economics and Finance Laboratory 2 credits. F,W Practical experience in managing computerized data sets and running statistical packages.

Formerly Applied Economics Laboratory. Enrollment is restricted to applied economics and and finance graduate students. Applied Economics and Finance Seminar 2 credits. W,S Bi-weekly seminars designed to present students with current working applications in various fields of applied economics and finance. Formerly Applied Economics Seminar. Economics Guest Seminar Series 1 credit. Applied Economics Seminar 2 credits. Enrollment is restricted to economics Ph.

Directed Reading. F Reading in research area of student interest, with faculty supervision through weekly discussion.

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W Reading in research area of student interest, with faculty supervision through weekly discussion. S Reading in research area of student interest, with faculty supervision through weekly discussion. Third Year Ph. Student discussion of presentations under faculty supervision. Independent Study.