Das Banjo - Geschichte, Herkunft und Entwicklung in Amerika (German Edition)

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Among the works by Brentner surviving in manuscript, the collection of pieces composed to the texts of the officium of St. It seems to have originally been intended for the Carmelites in Prague.

Banjo History - Transmission Period (1750-1850)

The impulse for this article was the emergence of the inventory of the archdeanery church of St James the Greater in Sokolov Falkenau with the previously unnoticed specification of "Musicalien und Instrumenten" in three places: in The impulse for this article was the emergence of the inventory of the archdeanery church of St James the Greater in Sokolov Falkenau with the previously unnoticed specification of "Musicalien und Instrumenten" in three places: in the collection of church inventories of the Prague Archbishopric, in the parish chronicle, and finally in the parish archives with significant additions and within the whole series of church inventories , , , , , , , The article follows both the scope of the local music collection, which is lost today, and the evolution of music items in the inventories judging their changing information value.

It comprises the edition preserving the dynamic character of the sources. Their contents indicate that in the first decades of the 18th century, printed music still formed the core of the music collection. It was also possible to outline the position of the church choir within the presumed streams of music circulation and trace the links with the music centres of Prague especially with the music collection of the Knights of the Cross with the Red Star and Dresden Cozzi, Ristori, Vivaldi, Zelenka.

The inventorying method often consisted in the copying of the previous inventory and the later lists obviously strive more to keep the continuity with the preceding lists rather than reflect the real situation. The present article discusses the careful way in which the Passau composer Leonhard Paminger selected the works he published, in order to present himself as an orthodox Lutheran teacher and musician, as well as the ways in which this The present article discusses the careful way in which the Passau composer Leonhard Paminger selected the works he published, in order to present himself as an orthodox Lutheran teacher and musician, as well as the ways in which this image was amplified after his death by his sons.

It also shows how Paminger was open to many streams in contemporary biblical scholarship and exegesis, including Erasmus and Luther. Il ritrovamento di un esemplare completo della raccolta mottettistica Sacra Melodia op. Only an incomplete copy of the motets of Sacre Muse had survived until now to witness the compositions of the milanese conventual friar Giovanni Battista Cesati, maestro di cappella in his own city and also in Bologna and Turin. The discovery of a complete copy of a previously virtually unknown collection of motets printed in Sacra Melodia op. I allows us to take a more comprehensive look at a musician which can be considered as a symbolic figure of a particular context of production and use of sacred works, as well as of the circulation of music and musicians in early modern Italy.

Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Klima , Edward. Knowles , Gerry. Krauss , Michael. Krug , Manfred. Labov , William. Lakoff , Robin. Lass , Roger. Lehmann , Winfred. Lehmann , W. Lenhart , J. Lewis , M. Paul ed. Dallas, Tex. Lightfoot , David. Lightfoot David. Lowth , Robert. Lutz , Angelica. Lutz , William. Mackie , W. MacMahon , Michael. Malory , Thomas.

Mallory , J. Malotki , Ekkehart. McArthur , Tom. McDavid , Raven. McIntosh , Angus , M. McWhorter , John. Mehrotra , Raja Ram. Mencken , Henry Louis. Merriam , T. Mesthrie , Rajend. Mesthrie , Rajend ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Michael , Ian. Miller , D. Miller , Jim.

Miller , Thomas. Millward , Celia. Minkova , Donka. Moore , Bruce. Morgan , Kenneth. Morris , Richard. Mufwene , Salikoko. Mulcaster , Richard. Murray , Elisabeth. Murray , Lindley. Mustanoja , Tauno. Newbrook , Mark. Newman , Edwin. Nevalainen , Terttu. Newton , Isaac. Nielsen , Hans Frede. Ogden , Charles. Orwell , George. Oxford Dictionary of Political Slang. Partridge , A. Partridge , Eric. Pennycook , Alastair. Phillipps , K. Phillipson , Robert. Pierce , F. Poliakov , Leon. Pollard , Alfred.

Pollington , Stephen. Poussa , Patricia. Poussa , Patricia ed. Prokosch , E. Quinn , Jim. Ray , John. Raymond , Eric. Rebsamen , Frederick. Renfrew , Colin. Ringe , Don. Rissanen , Matti. Roberts , Aaron Hood. Roberts , Ian Anna Roussou. Rollins , Richard. Romaine , Suzanne. Ruhlen , Merritt. Rypins , Stanley. Safire , William. Said , Edward. Salmon , Vivian. Samuels , M. Schlauch , Margaret. Schneider , Edgar. Schneider , Gilbert. Sedgefield , Walter. Serjeantson , Mary.

Sharrock , Roger. Shaw , George. Skeat , Walter. Slater , Eliot. Smith , Jeremy. Smith , M. Snyder , Christopher. Stenbrenden , Gjertrud. Stockwell , Robert. Stockwell , Robert Donka Minkova. Sweet , Henry. Sykes , Brian. Tagliamonte , Sali. But it is fair to maintain that the preponderance of interest at German universities, and the field most favored for advance- ment to the doctorate, may be found in the more strictly philological studies of the earlier period. I will not presume to debate the wisdom of this tendency yonder, where the language courses in the gymnasiums are also to be reckoned in, nor lo claim too much prominence for the counter-movement, which seems nevertheless to bring with it a widening of the outlook and a truer conception of proportion.

But, whatever be the 56 Horatio S, White, [Vol.

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The German university is largely a nursery for specialists, an invaluable training-ground for teachers and in- vestigators. Based upon the common schools, and affording the sole supply for the learned professions, it has an intimate and unshaken hold upon the nation. We, too, have an obli- gation to perform toward our nation also. The minor part of our own duty may be to train a limited number of bright minds in progressive and independent work ; the major portion of our labors must be consumed in helping large numbers of students to gain such a vantage ground of vision that their sympathies will be permanently enlarged, and their intellectual life possess a generous and catholic range whose influence will touch distant circles which we can never directiy reach, but which ought to share whatever diversities of gifts a university may have at its command.

Is there any better method of advancing this aim than the careful and sympathetic study of the noblest expressions of modern literary thought? It has been the great privilege of many here present to draw liberally from the fountains of learning which spring so freely from Teutonic sources ; and the severe and successful methods there in vogue are exerting a powerful and not unfavorable influence upon our own higher education.

But may we not retain our gratitude and acknowledge our manifold indebtedness without too general a surrender to foreign precedents? Perhaps I may be permitted, in closing, to strengthen and make clear the position which I am endeavoring to maintain, by quoting some words from a memorable oration delivered by the Presi- dent of this Association upon a memorable occasion. At the Harvard Celebration last year, Mr. Lowell said : " It i. It made language as it should be, a ladder to literature, and not literature a ladder to language.

Education, we are often told, is a drawing out of the faculties, — may they not be drawn too thin! I am not undervaluing philology or accuracy of scholar- ship. Both are excellent and admirable in their places. But If I must choose, I had rather a young man should be intimate with the genius of the Greek dramatic poets than with the metres of their choruses, though I should be glad to have him on easy terms with both. Lowell concludes, "that the day will come when a competent professor may lecture here also for three years on the first three vowels of the Romance Alphabet, and find fit audience though few.

I hope the day may never come when the weightier matters of language, namely, such parts of its literature as have overcome death by reason of their wisdom and of the beauty in which it is incarnated, such parts as are universal by reason of their civilizing properties, their power to elevate and fortify the mind, — I hope the day may never come when these are not predominant in the teaching given here.

Let the humanities be maintained undiminished in their ancient right. Leave in their traditional preeminence those arts that were rightly called liberal ; those studies that kindle the imagination, and through it irradiate the reason ; those studies that manumitted the modern mind ; those in which the brains of finest temper have found alike their stimulus and their repose, taught by them that the power of intellect is heightened in proportion as it is made gracious by measure and sympathy.

Give us science, too, but give first of all and last of all the science that ennobles life and makes it generous. Lang, [Vol. Araucana : Ercilla, La Araucana Riv. Austriada : Rupo, La Austriada Riv. Celestina : La Celestina Riv. Cr6nicas: Cr6nicas de los Reyes de Castilla Riv. Entremes: Entremes de Refranes Sbarbi, Ref. Guerras Civ. Haller : J. Haller, Altspanische Sprichworter und sprichwortliche. Redensarten aus den Zeiten vor Cervantes. Regensburg, Lances : Calderon, Lances de Amor y Fortuna. Libro de Enx. Loores : Berceo, Loores de nuestra Sefiora Riv.

Perez : Calderon, Luis Perez el Gallego. Luna, Didl. Marin, Cant. Marin, Cantos Populares EspaHoles. Sevilla, Marques de Sant. Medico: Calderon, El Medico de su Honra.

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Obregon : V. Leipzig, F. Brockhaus, O Monast. Pintor : Calderon, El Pintor de su deshonra. Puente : Calderon, La Puente de Mantible. Sbarbi, Floril. JosA M. Madrid, Sbarbi, Ref. Teatro Burl. Tres Mar. Trueba : Trueba, Narraciones Populares. Vida : Calderon, La Vida es Sueiio. Villegas : A. Wolf y Hof. Thus, to give but one instance, the proverb : a las veces nial pcrro roye buena coyunda, corresponding to the French : sou- vent d mauvais chien tombe tin ban as en gneiile and the English : ' Into the mouth of a bad dog often falls a good bone,' is not found in any of the collections of proverbs with which we are familiar, but occurs in the works of the Archpriest of Hita, V.

It is with the object of contributing in a limited way to our knowledge of Spanish proverbial and metaphorical language that we have here arranged such expressions concerning the face and its parts as have collected in the course of reading. Our treatment does not claim to be exhaustive of the subject. In the first part of our work the proverbs and metaphors are arranged under the objects from which they are taken ; in the second part, according to the ideas which they express.

The Face as a whole. SpTumsh : cara, rostro. No conocer la cara al rniedo d la necesidad not to kn jw fear distress. I, De cara, de rostros, facing, forward : El que aquf muriere lidiando de cara Prendel yo los pecados, e Dies le abra el alma. C, Oras daban de rostros, oras de los costados, De ir en romerfa estaban nial guisados. La miijer y la sardina, de rostros en la cocina. Gald6s, El 19 de Marzo, p. Si la muertemeaguarda, Aquf, hoy la quiero buscar, Esperando cara d cara. Guerelldos ante Dios, donde rostro d rostro estA la verdad patente. VIII, p. The Face is the Seat of Light, of Intelligence : — Saltar d la cara una cosa, means like the French sauter anx yeux to be self-evident.

Mir ante d la cara, que el casamiento se ha de hacer de haldas y de mangas. Quevedo y Villegas, p. Callar, p. Llevando estos haces dos Tendr6 cara con dos haces. Salir d la cara d uno alguna cosa, to feel the consequences of doing anything : Pero, vive Dies, que es cosa Que ha de salirte d la cara.

Desc, II, p. The Face Mirrors the Different Traits of Character and the Sentiments, such as courage, boldness, impudence, shame, fear, disposition.

Synonyms and antonyms of Banjo in the German dictionary of synonyms

Cr6nicas III, p. Desc, I, p. Villegas, p. II, Portuguese: Coma-se de rala; mas cara des- cuberta. II, p. A similar figure is contained in the Spanish peasant maxim : Arada de Agosto : a esiercorada da en rostra. August plough- ing is unfavorable to manuring. Haller, p. Trueba, p. Familia de Alvareda, p. Mas vcUe vergiienza en cara que mancilla en corazon, D. Diet, of Academy. Roiz, Aseglireos esto la it que de mi teneis conocida, y haced buen rostro A la fortuna presente.

Cervantes, Galatea, I. II, 35; Humo y mala cara, saca la gente de casa. IX, p. La cara de Dios, God's grace, is a popular and very poetic name of bread : Cuando no me cato, veo en figura de panes, como dicen, la cara de Dios dentro del arcaz. The Forehead. Gald6s, Dofla Perfecta, p. C, ; cf. Que non lo engannasse per ninguna manera. MilL, 53 : Alex. The Eye. Estar empenado hasta las ojoSy to be deeply indebted.

Diet, of Acad, b As the organ of sight: Ojo al badil, Attention! Obregon, p. II, 67 is our English : What the eye does not see, the heart does not grieve for. Garay, Cartas IV. Portuguese : Ha olhos inclinados a remeloLS. The Eve Reflects Sentiments and Character : i Desire and Joy; Entrarle d uno por el ojo derecho, to please one : Desde que te conoci6, dice que le enirctsie por el ojo derecho, y el pobre viejo te ha puesto un carifio.

Gald6s, Dolla Perf. Don Habl. Quevedo y VilL, p. Qucbrarle d uno el ojo con una cosa, to disappoint, to provoke one : No pudo este fil6sofo satisfacerse mejor, ni quebrarle los ojos con mayor golpe y pedrada, que con llamarle hombre sin amigos. Seguid, p. Marques de Santillana Obras, p. Garay, Cartas I. Cf : No andes con ellos 5 mdtame la yegua, y matarte he el potro ; no quieras por sacarles d ellos un ojo sac arte d ti los dos, Sbarbi, Ref V, La Celestina, p.

Compare to this the German : Es passt wieeine faust aufs auge. Una storia que el publico no puede menos que estimarla sohre las ninas de sus ojos. Portuguese: Quetmar as pestanas. Gald6s, Dofta Perfecta, p. Una caduca africana Espfritu en forma humana Cefio arrugado y esquivc— Pr. The Spanish, like the English, speaks of the brow of a mountain : Perez 2, ,3.

La ilustre Barcelona, Opuesta al cefio de unay otra cumbre. En cuyo ceHo la esfera Del sol descansa y estriba. No hay Desdicha, p. The moving of the eye-lash is indicative of sudden emotions or impressions; hence the phrases: No mover pestana or sin pes- tanear i with undivided attention, 2 without flinching. The Nose. Spanish : la nariz, — a It is proverbial for occupying a prominent position in the face. The ignorant do not know where their nose is : Toma, toma! Es que el maestro de escuela no sabe donde tiene las narices.

Marin, Cantos Pop. Verano, p. The Nose may express pride and scorn: — Torcer las nariceSt to turn up one's nose. II, 5. The Nose figures in proverbial language as the Organ of Smell. The organ of smell is considered the seat of curiosity and suspicion : Meter las narices en una cosa, to meddle with any- thing. So also in Portu- guese: cheirar o toucinho. Sneezing is considered very significant Cf. Grimm, D. Thus it was of old a good omen with the Spaniards : Sali6 el lobo de aquel plado, corri6 lo mas que pudo, Vi6 en unos fornachos retozar a menudo, Cabritos con las cabras, mucho cabron cornudo, A la fe, dis, agora se cumpie el esiornudo.

Estomudar is used figuratively for man's activity in the proverb : Cada uno estornuda como Dios le ayuda, everybody does the best he can. The Mouth. Spanish : la boca. The mouth is proverbial for being instrumental in Speaking, Breathing and Eating, a Speaking : La mujer y la trucha por la boca se prende.

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Hence descosido, an in- discreet talker, a madman : gridar como un descosido Quevedo y Villegas, Cuento. Quijote se le ech6 S los pi6s tendida de largo d largo la boca cosida con los pits de D. Respirar por la boca de otro, to be at another's beck and call. Tener el alma en los labios, to be dying, on the point of death : 72 Henry R. Ya tengo el alma en los labios, Muero sin ver, Sebastian, Castigados tus agravios, Muy grande priesa me dan. Traer el alma d los labios : Como sabe que te acercas, Quiere ganar por la mano. Que es temerario y valiente, Trayendo el alma d los labios, — O.

The mouth indicates our desires and sentiment : Hacerse d uno la boca agua, to anticipate ardendy some pleasure in pros- pect Cf. Los befos se comie, tanto estaua yrado : Catando contro Poro maldezia el peccado. Portuguese : Trazer alg, pelo beigo, to lead, to control one. The Cheeks. Spanish : mejilla and carrillo. Mejilla is properly speaking the part of the face below the eye, whereas carrillo denotes the fleshy part from the mejilla down to the jaw.

We shall begin with the latter. Que en aquesta honrada empresa. Le mostramos los colmillos A la tropa portuguesa. Como yo lo era hombre honrado , y con mas quilates que hierro de Viz- A synonymous expression is : Tener el pie en dos zapatos. Me j ilia O. An image of pensiveness, or grief, very frequently found in Old Spanish Poetry is the gesture of holding the hand to one's cheek. Pensiveness: El huespet de Onorio que fue mal segudado, Sedie man a maxiella planiendo so mal fado.

Duelo34; Loores de Berceo 9 ; Alex. Primavera II, , The gesture itself is referred to Guz. Affliction : 74 Henry R, Lang, [Vol. Estando los maestros todos man amaxiella. El confessor pre9ioso issio de sue capiella ; Violos dessarrados. Compare Alex. In conclusion may be mentioned a few other phrases ex- pressing gestures of grief and despair : Eater mis massiellas Duelo, 28 ; romper las massiellas Mil.

The Chin being in Spanish named from the Beard barba , by which it is covered, both may appropriately be treated together. Barba represents the whole face of which it is a part. Diablo Cojuelo, p. Barba signifies hombre, guerrero : Merced ya, Cid, barba tan conplida. El rey Alexandre, una baruafacera. Un macho y dos borricos. Con perdon de las barbas que me escuchan Se llevaron tambien los companeros. Ill, Era el sefior, con perdon de las barbas honradas que nos oyen, lo que llamamos zurdo. Soldado Pfndaro, p.

Todos bien adobados, todos baruas punientes. A la sombra de la barba cana, estd la nifia muy honrada. Proverb : Callen bar- has y hablen cartas D.

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II, 7 , it is idle for men to talk when evidence is clear. As such it is the epitheton ornans of the Spanish warrior, as of the Cid, who is called el de la luenga barba P, C. Marques de Santil- lano Obras, p. This very same metaphor occurs in Don Quijote, and seems to have been a puzzle even to Braunfels and Ormsby, the most 76 Henry R, Lang, [Vol iii- recent and best translators of Cervantes' immortal work.

San- cho answers the Distressed Lady in his characteristically playful way : ' De que sea mi bondad, sefiora mia, tan larga y grande como la barba de vuestro escudero, d mi me hace poco al caso ; barbada y con bigoies tenga yo mi alma cuando desta vida vaya, que es lo que importa' D. II, 38 which is in English : ' Whether my kindness, my lady, be as great as your squire's beard, matters very little to me : but,' so continues our incorrigible punster Sancho ' may my soul have a beard be intrepid , nay even whiskers and very brave indeed when it shall have to depart from this life ; thai is of importance to me.

Sbarbi, Ref X, p. To pull a man's beard is considered an insult. Diet, of Acad. Pindaro, p. A beard of two colors is looked upon as a mark of faithlessness ; hence the proverb : Barba y pelo de dos colores, no la tienen sino traidores. X, p, The Beard is proverbial for the care it requires as an ornament of the face. En la barba del ruin se eyiseha, is a proverbial phrase which neither the dictionaries nor the collections of proverbs seem to know, but which is sufficiently characterized as such in the following passage : Sentdronle al pobre mance- bo en un banquillo, y puestos otros lienzos de jerga, segun eran gruesos, y con el color hollin, dejo la obra el maestro, y en su lugar entrb el aprendiz k acabar lo que su amo habia comenzado, y por el debib de decirse : En la barba del ruin se ensena, Don.

This proverb contains the same injunction as the well-known saying : fiat experimentum in re vili. Vuestra merced mire c6mo habla, sefior barbero, que no es iodo hacer barbas, y algo va de Pedro 5 Pedro. Relations of Men to one another. Sbarbi, Ref IX, p. Meeting: Darse de narices. Rebuke of undue' familiarity : No s6 como nos olimos que tan en breve nos conocimos. Out of sight, out of mind : Quan luefie de ojos tan luefie de corazon.

Marques de Sant, p. Gald6s, Dofia Perfecta, p. Friendship, Enmity. Defend : Sacar la cara por un otro. Forsake : Volver el rostro 5 uno. M6dico II, Spite : Por quebrarle un ojo d uno quebrarse d sf los dos. To add insult to injury: Quebrar el ojo y untar el casco. Obras, p. Mal- treatment : Cri6 cuervo que me sacase los ojos. Celestina, p. Dar en cara d uno. Echarle d uno abajo la cara. Salir 5 la cara k uno. Dar 5 uno entre ceja y ceja. Quevedo y Ville- gas, p. For want of a better place, the Spanish peasant — maxim : Arada de Agosto, a estercorada da en rostro.

Carrellada, a blow. Policy : Miel en la boca, guarde la bolsa. Physical Man. Me fu6 en la carroza con las dueflas en su mismo traje, que en las barbas habia poca diferencia de ml 5 ellas, por ser mozo y lampifio. Espinel Riv. A flat nose is considered essential to beauty : No hay her- mosa si no toca en roma. IX, To be expiring : Tener el alma en los labios. Spiritual Man. A large nose is indicative of intelligence : Hembre narigudo, pocas veces cornudo. Gald6s, Dofia Per- fecta, p. Es que el maestro de escuela no sabe donde tiere las narices. Oler el poste. Portuguese : Cheirar o toucinho.

To bear evidence of a thing : Traerlo escrito en la frente. Me la claven en la frente. Tastes differ : Ojos hay que de legafias se enamoran. Qi, Portuguese : Ha olhos inclinados a remelas. Not to know fear : No conocer la cara al miedo. To offer resistance : Hacer cara rostro. Austriada, p. Levantar la frente. Fam, de Alv. To become bold: barbar, Vida, II, 2.

II, 38 ; Ale. Double-faced : Hombre de dos caras. To be circumspect : Traer la barba sobre el hombro. Reflection prevents excess : Las cosas hechas con buen peso, quiebran los ojos al exceso. La mujer y la tructra por la boca se prende. II, 52 ; cf. To resist temptation : Quebrar el ojo al diablo. Every one does the best he can : Cada uno estornuda como Dios le ayuda.

Sbarbi, Ref V, p. VII, p. Honor, Dishonor. To have a keen sense of honor: Tener sangre en el ojo. II, 44 ; cf. Mas vale rostro bermejo que corazon negro. Joy and Pain. Eater mis maxiellas. Duelo 28; Romper las massiellas. Wolf y Hofm. Libro de los Enx. To apologize for, to excuse a thing : Lavar la cara d una cosa. Severe treatment may correct a bad character : Cefio y enseno del mal hijo hacen bueno. To feel the evil consequences of an act : Salir k la cara k uno una cosa.

Duelo Synonym : Tener el pi6 en dos zapatos. XWl, —PHce, Value. To be of great value, priceless : No hallarse una cosa ni por el ojo de la cara. Estimar una cosa sobre las nifias de sus ojos. Triguero, Teatro Burl. XWl,— Fitness, To be entirely out of place : Pegar una coso como pedrado en ojo de boticario. German : Es passt wie eine faust aufs auge. They strike the stranger upon his first contact with its people as archaisms or as innovations, at least as developments peculiar to the place itself. They are often, in- deed, heirlooms which the founders of the city have left it, in- valuable and sacred, whose historic worth is incomparable to the philologist and historian.

Often a single expression, or even sound, or a peculiar custom, conveys an historic truth more forcibly to the attentive observer than long chapters of dry history. For words, sounds, customs, also have their history, and a word has often been called an epic poem. Moreover, these peculiarities set their seal, as it were, upon each of its citizens, identifying him with itself, and whatever distinction he may acquire, either at home or abroad, is reflected upon his native place.

They carry us back, historically, to the fatherland of those pioneers who founded the city and peopled the ad- jacent country. They still preserve the kindred relations to the mother-country, even after those of a political nature have been severed. We may see this in those colonies of Greece which have left their impress upon the country colonized, observable after everything Greek had passed away.

Lower Italy, Marseille in France, and Louisiana in this country. One might gather invaluable information bearing upon the history of a city simply by collecting and collating its stock of old and new words, and noting the change in its customs from decade to decade. It is not in the scope of this article, how- ever, to attempt such a thorough investigation as that would imply.

PnriiiL; tin I. F'urtberinore, it nnist not! In every large city we find peculiarities in the language and customs which serve in the aggregate to mark its distinctive and individual character. I shall confine myself to the more marked peculiarities in the pronunciation, tracing it back to the age when the first settlers came over from England. Many sounds still current in the daily speech of the Charlestonians, especially the pronunci- ation of certain vowels and words, were brought from England It is just after the close of the great Elisabethan period, Elisabeth having died in Therefore the language of the latter part of the sixteenth cen- tury and the whole of the seventeenth century must form the basis of our comparison.

In other words the grammar and pronunciation of Shakespeare will form the nearest approxima- tion to that of England at this time. We are, however, confronted with a serious difficulty at the very outset, and one which every investigation of this kind in- volves. For " at any one instant of time," says Ellis E.

Human readable concept data

Each middle generation has commenced at a different time, and has modified the speech of its preceding generation in a somewhat different manner, after which it retains the modified form, while the subsequent generation proceeds to change that form once more. Consequentiy there will not be any approach to uni- formity of speech sounds in any one place at any one time, but there will be a kind of mean, the general utterance of the more thoughtful or more respected persons of mature age, round which the other sounds seem to hover, and which, like the averages of the mathematicians, not agreeing precisely with any, may for the purpose of science be assumed to represent all, and be called the language of the district assigned.

The influence upon its language and literature, upon educational interests in general, has been exceedingly great and the final result cannot yet be foretold. During the last twenty years the conservatism of the Old South has been gradually retiring before the new and more progressive spirit and the pronunciation has undergone a more rapid change than ever before in its history. And the end is not yet. At the present day we are in a transitional stage of more than ordinary import, since the constant phonetic laws of change, ever in operation under all circumstances, have been accelerated.

In our comparisons it will, therefore, be necessary to remember these facts and to make due allowance for the old and the new, for conservatism and progress.


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Furthermore, it must not be forgotten that there is a great and fundamental difference be- tween the American and English pronunciation. Bearing these precautions in mind we may safely venture an average comparison of the pronuncia- tion in different sections of the country. Peculiarities of this kind are naturally more marked among the middle and lower classes, though the prevailing sound which a given letter may have acquired in any place pervades to a certain extent all classes of society. This is especially true of Charleston, which, from its very foundation to the present day, has ever been conservative ; it has also been seclusive in the sense that it has never had a large floating population of mixed nationality like so many of our American cities.

Hence the facility with which it has preserved certain vowel sounds and grammatical phrases that have changed in other places with the influx of new influences, the rapid pro- gress of commercial and inland intercourse, and the varying population. Another important element tending to the preser- vation of older, or provincial, English pronunciations and phrases is to be sought in the fact that the South has ever been conservative in its literature and education. The good old English authors of the days of their forefathers have ever been their favorite reading, the earlier period having mostly the preference.

Few books but well read has been their motto.



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