Dove graduated summa cum laude with a B. In , she held a Fulbright Scholarship from Germany. Dove taught creative writing at Arizona State University from to , she received the Pulitzer Prize for Poetry. In , she was named United States Poet Laureate by the Librarian of Congress , an office she held from to At the age of 40, Dove was the youngest person to hold the position and is the first African American to hold the position since the title was changed to Poet Laureate.
Since , she has been teaching at the University of Virginia in Charlottesville , where she holds the chair of Commonwealth Professor of English. In her public posts, Dove concentrated on spreading the word about poetry and increasing public awareness of the benefits of literature. As United States Poet Laureate, for example, she brought together writers to explore the African diaspora through the eyes of its artists.
Dove was on the board of the Associated Writing Programs from to , she led the organization as its president from to From to , she was a senator of the national academic honor society Phi Beta Kappa. From to , she served as a chancellor of the Academy of American Poets. Dove's work can not be confined to a specific school in contemporary literature, her most famous work to date is Thomas and Beulah , published by Carnegie-Mellon University Press in , a collection of poems loosely based on the lives of her maternal grandparents, for which she received the Pulitzer Prize in Dove has published ten volumes of poetry, a book of short stories, a collection of essays, a novel, Through the Ivory Gate.
Her Collected Poems — was released by W. Norton in Dove's most ambitious collection of poetry, Sonata Mulattica , was published in Over its more than pages, it "has the sweep and vivid characters of a novel", as Mark Doty wrote in O, The Oprah Magazine. Dove edited The Penguin Anthology of 20th-Century American Poetry, published in ; the collection provoked heated controversy as some critics complained that she valued an inclusive, populist agenda over quality. Poet John Olson commented that "her exclusions are breathtaking".
Well-known poets left out include Sylvia Plath , Allen Ginsberg , Sterling Brown , Louis Zukofsky , George Oppen , Charles Reznikoff and Lorine Niedecker ; as Dove explained in her foreword and in media interviews, she had selected works by Plath and Brown but these as well as some other poets were left out against her editorial wishes. Critic Helen Vendler condemned Dove's choices, asking "why are we b.
Corrido The corrido is a popular narrative song and poetry that form a ballad. The songs are about oppression, daily life for peasants, other relevant topics, it is still a popular form today in Mexico and was popular during the Mexican Revolutions of the 20th century. The corrido derives from the romance , in its most known form consists of a salutation from the singer and prologue to the story, the story itself, a moral and farewell from the singer; until the arrival and success of electronic mass-media, the corrido served in Mexico as the main informational and educational outlet with subversive purposes, due to an apparent linguistic and musical simplicity that lent itself to oral transmission.
After the spread of radio and television, the genre evolved into a new stage and is still in the process of maturation; some scholars, consider the corrido to be dead or moribund in more recent times. In more rural areas where Spanish and Mexican cultures have been preserved because of isolation, the romance has taken on other forms related to the corrido as well.
In New Mexico , for example, a story-song emerged during the colonial period, known as an Indita, which loosely follows the format of a corrido, but is chanted rather than sung, similar to a Native American chant, hence the name Indita. The earliest living specimens of corrido are adapted versions of Spanish romances or European tales about disgraced or idealized love, or religious topics. These, that include " La Martina " and "La Delgadina", show the same basic stylistic features of the mainstream corridos. Beginning with the Mexican War of Independence and culminating during the Mexican Revolution, the genre flourished and acquired its " epic " tones, along with the three-step narrative structure as described above; some corridos may be love stories.
Prior to widespread use of radio, popular corridos were passed around as an oral tradition to spread news of events and popular heroes and humor to the population, many of whom were illiterate prior to the post-Revolution improvements to the educational system. Sheet music of popular corridos was included in publications. Other corrido sheets were passed out free as a form of propaganda, to eulogize leaders and political movements, or in some cases to mock the opposition; the best known Revolutionary corrido is La cucaracha, an old song, rephrased to celebrate the exploits of Pancho Villa's army and poke fun at his nemesis Victoriano Huerta.
With the consolidation of "Presidencialismo" and the success of electronic mass-media, the corrido lost its primacy as a mass communication form, becoming part of a folklorist cult in one branch and, in another, the voice of the new subversives: oppressed workers, drug growers or traffickers, leftist activists and emigrated farmworkers. This is what scholars designate as the "decaying" stage of the genre, which tends to erase the stylistic or structural characteristics of "revolutionary" or traditional corrido without a clear and unified understanding of its evolution.
The corrido was, for example, a favorite device employed by the Teatro Campesino led by Luis Valdez in mobilizing Mexican and Mexican-American farmworkers in California during the s. Corridos have seen a renaissance in the 21st century.
Contemporary corridos feature contemporary themes such as drug trafficking, migrant labor and the Chupacabra. Corridos, like rancheras, have introductory instrumental music and adornos interrupting the stanzas of the lyrics. However, unlike rancheras, the rhythm of a corrido remains consistent; the corrido has a rhythm similar to that of the European waltz. Corridos tell stories, while rancheras are for dancing. Like rancheras, corridos can be play. Mikhail Bakhtin Mikhail Mikhailovich Bakhtin was a Russian philosopher, literary critic and scholar who worked on literary theory and the philosophy of language.
His writings, on a variety of subjects, inspired scholars working in a number of different traditions and in disciplines as diverse as literary criticism, philosophy, sociology and psychology. Although Bakhtin was active in the debates on aesthetics and literature that took place in the Soviet Union in the s, his distinctive position did not become well known until he was rediscovered by Russian scholars in the s. Bakhtin was born in Russia , to an old family of the nobility, his father worked in several cities.
For this reason Bakhtin spent his early childhood years in Oryol , in Vilnius , in Odessa , where in he joined the historical and philological faculty at the local university. Katerina Clark and Michael Holquist write: "Odessa Like Vilnius, was an appropriate setting for a chapter in the life of a man, to become the philosopher of heteroglossia and carnival. The same sense of fun and irreverence that gave birth to Babel's Rabelaisian gangster or to the tricks and deceptions of Ostap Bender , the picaro created by Ilf and Petrov , left its mark on Bakhtin.
It is here that Bakhtin was influenced by the classicist F. Zelinsky , whose works contain the beginnings of concepts elaborated by Bakhtin. Bakhtin completed his studies in , he moved to a small city in western Russia, where he worked as a schoolteacher for two years. It was at that time; the group consisted of intellectuals with varying interests, but all shared a love for the discussion of literary and political topics. Included in this group were Valentin Voloshinov and P. Medvedev , who joined the group in Vitebsk. It was in Nevel that Bakhtin worked tirelessly on a large work concerning moral philosophy, never published in its entirety.
However, in , a short section of this work was published and given the title "Art and Responsibility"; this piece constitutes Bakhtin's first published work.
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Bakhtin relocated to Vitebsk in , it was here, in In , Bakhtin was diagnosed with osteomyelitis , a bone disease that led to the amputation of his leg in ; this illness rendered him an invalid. In , Bakhtin moved to Leningrad , where he assumed a position at the Historical Institute and provided consulting services for the State Publishing House, it is at this time that Bakhtin decided to share his work with the public, but just before "On the Question of the Methodology of Aesthetics in Written Works" was to be published, the journal in which it was to appear stopped publication.
This work was published 51 years later; the repression and misplacement of his manuscripts was something that would plague Bakhtin throughout his career. It is here.
However, just as this book was introduced, on 8 December , right before Voskresenie's 10th anniversary, Bakhtin and a number of others associated with Voskresenie were apprehended by the Soviet secret police, the OGPU , the leaders being sentenced up to ten years in labor camps of Solovki , though after an appeal to consider the state of his health his sentence was commuted to exile to Kazakhstan , where he and his wife spent six years in Kustanai , after which in they moved to Saransk where he taught at the Mordovian Pedagogical Institute.
During the six years he spent working as a book-keeper in the town of Kustanai he wrote several important essays, including "Discourse in the Novel". In , living in Saransk, he became an obscure figure in a provincial college, dropping out of view and teaching only occasionally. In , Bakhtin moved to a town located one hundred kilometers from Moscow.
Here, Bakhtin completed work on a book concerning the 18th-century German novel, subsequently accepted by the Sovetskii Pisatel ' Publishing House. However, the only copy of the manuscript disappeared during the upheaval caused by the German invasion. After the amputation of his leg in , Bakhtin's health improved and he became more prolific. In and , the defense of this dissertation divided the scholars of Moscow into two groups: those official opponents guiding the defense, who accepted the original and unorthodox manuscript, those other professors who were against the manuscript's acceptance; the book's earthy, anarchic topic was the cause of many arguments that ceased only when the government intervened.
Bakhtin was denied a higher doctoral degree Doctor of. The term Chicano is sometimes used interchangeably with Mexican-American. Both names are chosen identities within the Mexican-American community in the United States; the term became used during the Chicano Movement by Mexican Americans to express pride in a shared cultural and community identity. The term Chicano had negative connotations before the Chicano Movement, still is viewed negatively and archaic by more conservative members of this community. Linguists Edward R. Simmen and Richard F. In , a gunboat , the Chicana, was sold to Jose Maria Carvajal to ship arms on the Rio Grande ; the King and Kenedy firm submitted a voucher to the Joint Claims Commission of the United States in to cover the costs of this gunboat's conversion from a passenger steamer.
No particular explanation of the boat's name is known; the origin of the word "chicano" is disputed. Some claim; the name Mexica as spoken in its original Nahuatl , Mexico by the Spaniards at the time of the Conquistadors , was pronounced with a and was transcribed with an x during this time period. According to this etymological hypothesis, the difference between the pronunciation and spelling of chicano and mexicano stems from the fact that the modern-day Spanish language experienced a change in pronunciation regarding a majority of words containing the x.
Eliza Rodriguez Y Gibson
In most cases the has been a change of spelling. The word Chicano would have been affected by this change. Many Chicanos replace the ch with the letter x, forming Xicano, due to the original spelling of the Mexica Empire. In the United States, some Mexican-Americans choose the Xicano spelling to emphasize their indigenous ancestry. In Mexico's indigenous regions and Westernized natives are referred to as mexicanos, referring to the modern nation, rather than the pueblo identification of the speaker, be it Mayan , Mixtec , Huasteco, or any of hundreds of other indigenous groups.
Thus, a newly emigrated Nahuatl speaker in an urban center might referred to his cultural relatives in this country, different from himself, as mexicanos, shortened to chicanos; the Handbook of Texas combines the two ideas: According to one explanation, the pre-Columbian tribes in Mexico called themselves Meshicas, the Spaniards, employing the letter x, spelled it Mexicas. The Indians referred to themselves as Meshicanos and as Shicanos, thus giving birth to the term Chicano.
Some believe that the early 20th-century Hispanic Texan epithet chicamo shifted into chicano to reflect the grammatical conventions of Spanish-language ethno- and demonyms, such as americano and peruano. However, Chicanos do not agree that chicamo was a word used within the culture, as its assertion is thus far unsubstantiated. Therefore, most self-identifying Chicanos do not agree that Chicano was derived from the word chicamo. Another hypothesis is that chicano derives from the indigenous population of Guanajuato , the Chichimecas , combined with the word Mexicano.
An alternative idea is that it is an altered form of Chilango , meaning someone from Mexico City or Central Mexico. Chicano would thus be a Hispanized word for Chichen and Mayans , rather than the Aztec or Nahua people. Chicanos, like many Mexicans, are Mestizos who have heritage of both indigenous American cultures and European Spanish , through colonization and immigration.
The term Latino refers to a native or inhabitant of Latin America or a person of Latin American origin living in the U. Hispanic refers to Spain , but, in effect, to those of Spanish-speaking descent; the term was first brought up in the s but it was not until the s that the term was used on the U. Since it has been used by politicians and the media; the correct amalgamation is Latin American or Latin Americans , as coined by the Portuguese in the 17th century.
The term's meanings are debatable, but self-described Chicanos view the term as a positive, self-identifying social construction. Outside of Mexican-American communities, within them, Chicano has sometimes been considered pejorative by those who do not prefer the term. Regardless, its implications are subjective, but usually. It is one of 10 campuses in the University of California system. Located 75 miles south of San Francisco at the edge of the coastal community of Santa Cruz, the campus lies on 2, acres of rolling, forested hills overlooking the Pacific Ocean and Monterey Bay.
Founded in , UC Santa Cruz began as a showcase for progressive, cross-disciplinary undergraduate education, innovative teaching methods and contemporary architecture. While still retaining its reputation for strong undergraduate support and student political activism, it has since evolved into a modern research university with a wide variety of both undergraduate and graduate programs; the residential college system, which consists of ten small colleges, is intended to combine the student support of a small college with the resources of a major university.
Although some of the original founders had outlined plans for an institution like UCSC as early as the s, the opportunity to realize their vision did not present itself until the City of Santa Cruz made a bid to the University of California Regents in the mids to build a campus just outside town, in the foothills of the Santa Cruz Mountains. The Santa Cruz site was selected over a competing proposal to build the campus closer to the population center of San Jose. Santa Cruz was selected for the beauty, rather than the practicality, of its location and its remoteness led to the decision to develop a residential college system that would house most of the students on-campus; the formal design process of the Santa Cruz campus began in the late s, culminating in the Long Range Development Plan of Construction had started by , the university was able to accommodate its first students in ; the campus was intended to be a showcase for contemporary architecture, progressive teaching methods, undergraduate research.
According to founding chancellor Dean McHenry , the purpose of the distributed college system was to combine the benefits of a major research university with the intimacy of a smaller college. UC President Clark Kerr shared a passion with former Stanford roommate McHenry to build a university modeled as "several Swarthmores" in close proximity to each other. Roads on campus were named after UC Regents. Although the city of Santa Cruz exhibited a strong conservation ethic before the founding of the university, the coincidental rise of the counterculture of the s with the university's establishment fundamentally altered its subsequent development.
Early student and faculty activism at UCSC pioneered an approach to environmentalism that impacted the industrial development of the surrounding area; the lowering of the voting age to 18 in led to the emergence of a powerful student-voting bloc. A large and growing population of politically liberal UCSC alumni changed the electorate of the town from predominantly Republican to markedly left-leaning voting against expansion measures on the part of both town and gown.
Plans for increasing enrollment to 19, students and adding 1, faculty and staff by , the anticipated environmental impacts of such action, encountered opposition from the city, the local community, the student body. City voters in passed two measures calling on UCSC to pay for the impacts of campus growth. A Santa Cruz Superior Court judge invalidated the measures, ruling they were improperly put on the ballot. In , the university, city and neighborhood organizations reached an agreement to set aside numerous lawsuits and allow the expansion to occur. UCSC agreed to local government scrutiny of its north campus expansion plans, to provide housing for 67 percent of the additional students on campus, to pay municipal development and water fees.
UC Santa Cruz is extending its environmental leadership in coastal science with a robust new program that will welcome its first cohort of students in Fall Elevation varies from feet at the campus entrance to 1, feet at the northern boundary, a difference of about feet; the southern portion of the campus consists of a large, open meadow, locally known as the Great Meadow. To the north of the meadow lie most of the campus' buildings, many of them among redwood groves; the campus is bounded on the south by the city's upper-west-side neighborhoods, on the east by Harvey West Park and the Pogonip open space preserve , on the north by Henry Cowell Redwoods State Park near the town of Felton, on the west by Gray.
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Editing help is available. February Literature portal. Las Vegas: University of Nevada Press. A Spotlight on Lorna Dee Cervantes. Retrieved Poetry Foundation. MELUS Wings Press, Source: "Archived copy". Everyone who reads his poems will regret his early death. I recommend his book Saudades.
Oklahoma Poet to Give Reading at RSU on April 7 - Rogers State University
Although we are lucky to have other necessary Stafford books available— Every War Has Two Losers , for example, and Ask Me —this thicker volume is worth keeping alongside them as a general reference for every day, mood, need, and concern. I think every person needs to own this book. It easily brings you back to writing when you have felt far away or confused. It clarifies your spirit. Take a quick dip into the mixed back-and-forth voices of these two masters and delight. I have given more copies of this book away as gifts than any other book.
And I know for certain that many people have appreciated it greatly. So, why not everyone? Essential Book: I continue to return to the collected poems of William Butler Yeats as a writer, reader, and thinker. I love poems from many different stages of his writing life, and I like to consider his transformations and growth. His late poems are a remarkable accomplishment, but I find the entire journey of his writing an inspiration. I recommend alphabet translated by Susanna Nied. Its structure is based on the Fibonacci sequence, and from the opening line—apricot trees exist, apricot trees exist—the poem sways and unfolds with singular rhythmic and incantatory power.
I find this poem breathtaking. Browse a selection of our Chancellors's recommended books available for purchase in our Poets Shop. Materials for Teachers Materials for Teachers Home. Poems for Kids. Poems for Teens. Lesson Plans. Teach this Poem. Poetry Near You. Academy of American Poets.
National Poetry Month. American Poets Magazine. Recommended Reading. Edward Hirsch Essential Book: The anthology Another Republic was a gateway for me to a group of international poets who have companioned me ever since. Academy of American Poets Educator Newsletter. Teach This Poem.