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According to the World Bank, Malawi has a fertility rate of 5. Many forests are being turned into agricultural fields to support the rapidly rising population. Zomba Mountain has suffered from heavy deforestation. Recent disastrous floods were partially due to deforestation, says Daniel Mwakameka, executive director of Action for Environmental Sustainability.

The floods also served as an important wake-up call alerting residents to the need to control deforestation. In recent years, many local and international organizations have introduced filtered water to rural communities to reduce the need to cut trees for charcoal. Abraham Katumbi of Kumpauda village says he planted more than trees on his own during the last year.

US Support Improving Lives In Malawi

The East African country of Malawi epitomizes the global problem of deforestation. Now, there are signs it could epitomize the solution, too, as government, community members and grassroots organizations tackle the problem together. Some 95 percent of rural Malawian households depend on wood for necessities such as cooking, clean water and sanitation. Many Malawians also depend on the money they earn from the illegal production and sale of charcoal made from wood, as well as commercial timber.

And in recent decades, many Malawi forests have been turned into farmland. As a result, the country has the fifth highest deforestation rate in the world. With population growing rapidly, you might think the problem would be more unsolvable than ever today. Not so. Thanks to a three-pronged approach of planting trees, providing water filters and encouraging use of efficient cookstoves, the country is starting to turn the tide on deforestation. Continuing to address the multifaceted issue of deforestation in the coming decades will pose an immense challenge. Nevertheless, with the combination of economic progress, efficient energy resources, right policies and ongoing community participation, tides might begin to change.

Sign up now to get the latest stories about your environment delivered to your inbox once a week. Timber Image 1 of Zomba Plateau Image 2 of Charcoal Image 3 of Firewood Image 4 of The show initially depicts a small team of alien-hunters known as Torchwood Three, based in Cardiff. The team is made up of five operatives led by Captain Jack Harkness John Barrowman , formerly a time-travelling "Time Agent" and con man from the distant future who has lived on Earth as an immortal since the 19th century. Gwen Cooper Eve Myles , the female lead, joins the team in the first episode; she is originally an audience surrogate , but later grows into a more morally complicated character.

Toshiko and Owen are killed off in the second series finale , as is Ianto in the show's third series. Kai Owen becomes a main cast member in the programme beginning with the third series; his character is initially unaware of Gwen's activities with Torchwood, but later becomes her close confidante and the team's ally. Price appears in all four series. Prior to the programme's debut, publicity materials featured Indira Varma as Suzie Costello among the regular cast members, giving the impression that she would appear throughout the series.

However, Suzie was killed off at the end of the first episode with Gwen taking her place on the team, [64] Suzie reappearing only once more as an antagonist. In the first two series, Paul Kasey regularly appears under heavy prosthetics, portraying, as in Doctor Who , a number of aliens on the series, such as humanoid Weevils and Blowfishes. Other recurring characters include Doctor Who ' s Martha Jones Freema Agyeman —like Jack, a former time-traveller, and now medical officer for the militaristic alien-investigating organisation UNIT —who crosses over into Torchwood for three episodes in series two.

The second series also introduces Gwen's parents, Geraint William Thomas and Mary Cooper Sharon Morgan , who later reappear in the show's fourth series. Cush Jumbo was cast as Frobisher's personal assistant Lois Habiba ; Habiba was written into the story after Agyeman was unavailable to return to portray Martha. The fourth series, Miracle Day , features an expanded cast of eight. Nana Visitor plays Olivia Colasanto , who directs the team toward their real enemies; Frances Fisher and Teddy Sears portray recurring villains.

The premiere episode " Everything Changes " was written by Russell T Davies and introduces the main characters and roles within the series, using newcomer Gwen as the audience surrogate in a similar style to the introduction of the companion characters in Doctor Who.


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The second episode, titled " Day One ", aired immediately after the first. It continues Gwen's neophyte role and includes a "sex monster" science fiction storyline. The first part, entitled " Captain Jack Harkness ", is a love story set in wartime Britain, with a subplot which pushes the setting toward an apocalypse for the finale " End of Days ". It deals with the ramifications of diseases and persons from throughout history falling through time and across the universe to arrive in the present day, and particularly in Cardiff.

The episode also sets up Jack's return in the Doctor Who episode " Utopia ". The series introduces Jack's ex-partner Captain John Hart in its premiere, reveals flashbacks to Jack's childhood in " Adam " and shows how each member joined Torchwood in the penultimate episode " Fragments ".

The arc focuses on the death and partial resurrection of main character Owen Harper, and how he copes as a dead man. The second series finale, " Exit Wounds ", features the departures of main characters Owen and Tosh, whose deaths at the hands of Jack's long-lost brother Gray reduced the cast to Barrowman, Myles and David-Lloyd in its closing scenes. Series three is only five episodes long, and was broadcast over consecutive nights as a single story, Children of Earth The series focuses on the consequences of appeasement policy; having been given 12 children as a tribute in , aliens called the arrive in the present demanding a greater share of the Earth's population.

For the first time in the series, the majority of the action takes place outside Wales; Torchwood's base of operations is destroyed in the premiere and the remainder of the Torchwood team have relocated to London. Kai Owen is promoted to a regular cast member, while a new cast of political figures are introduced alongside family members of main characters Jack and Ianto. Nicholas Farrell plays Prime Minister Brian Green whose intent is to give in rather than fight the 4—5—6, leaving Torchwood to stand against the government and the aliens.

David-Lloyd departs the cast when Ianto is killed by the aliens in episode four, leaving Jack distraught. In the series closing scenes, with Gwen pregnant and Jack abandoning Earth, Torchwood effectively disbands. Series four, Torchwood: Miracle Day , comprising ten episodes, sees Torchwood having been reduced to the status of legend following Children of Earth.

The agents join Gwen and Jack as they seek to restore death to the world. While primarily a conspiracy thriller , the series also examines the depths humanity can sink to under pressure. Actress Arlene Tur portrays a surgeon who challenges the failing medical system and shifting government legislation. The characters of Oswald Danes Bill Pullman and Jilly Kitzinger Lauren Ambrose are used to highlight the precariousness of fame and the amorality of the media.

The lates global recession is implicated as another element of the Miracle Day conspiracy. Though largely set in the USA, Wales remains a key setting. The origins of the Miracle Day conspiracy are revealed in a s flashback in " Immortal Sins ", as the worldwide scale of the story takes the protagonists to Shanghai and Buenos Aires in the finale " The Blood Line ".

In the epilogue, Gwen questions Jack whether he will stay to reform Torchwood; he does not provide an answer. Russell T Davies [79]. The first two series of Torchwood were both filmed and set in Cardiff.

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The makers of Torchwood deliberately portray Cardiff as a modern urban centre, contrasting with past stereotypical portrayals of Wales. The Hub itself was around three storeys high, with a large column running through the middle that was an extension of the fountain above; at its base lay the rift machine. The Hub had two means of access: a lift that rose to the plass next to the fountain camouflaged by a perception filter , and a more mundane entrance hidden in a tourism office.

Production crew were keen to use everything Wales had to offer in filming the series; for example, the military base scenes in " Sleeper " and the booby-trapped abandoned warehouse scenes in " Fragments " were filmed at RAF Caerwent , near Chepstow. The third series opened in the traditional setting, but in the first episode the Hub was destroyed; the show adapted to a conventional London setting, with many scenes filmed and set at real-life British intelligence agency headquarters Thames House.

For the show's fourth series, the programme was largely filmed and set in the United States, but parts were filmed in Wales and other locations. Torchwood explores various themes in its narrative , including issues around existentialism , the nature of human life and the absence of a traditional afterlife, and the corrupting nature of power. The program is also notable in its portrayal of LGBT characters and the degree to which its various characters are sexually fluid; through those characters, the series examines homosexual and bisexual relationships.

Davies, Gay Times. Torchwood Declassified is a "making-of" programme similar to Doctor Who Confidential. Each Declassified episode runs under ten minutes, in contrast to Confidential 's 45 formerly Installments were produced for each episode of the first two series, with a single instalment produced for the Children of Earth DVD release. The United States version was launched in February The magazine emulated Doctor Who Magazine in combining behind-the-scenes features with original story content in the form of a serialised comic strip and short stories; as the magazine's run progressed, the original fiction became more predominant.

The magazine was discontinued in early , after two-dozen issues. Titan published six issues of a monthly Torchwood comic book in for North American markets; the comic consisted of reprints of the magazine's comic strips and short stories, and was cancelled in the wake of the parent publication folding.

Torchwood has "a heavy online presence". Torchwood 's many tie-in websites amount to an alternate reality game ; the show's online presence was an example of electronic literature. On the first website for series 1 , the alternate reality game was mostly composed of weekly updates to the site in the form of fictional intercepted blogs, newspaper cutouts and confidential letters and IM conversations between members of the Torchwood Three crew.

Convergence: the International Journal of Research into New Media commented on Doctor Who and Torchwood 's foray into "convergence culture" as an achievement "on an unprecedented scale, with the BBC currently using the series to trial a plethora of new technologies, including: mini-episodes on mobile phones, podcast commentaries, interactive red-button adventures, video blogs, companion programming, and 'fake' metatextual websites. During the fourth series of the revival of Doctor Who , a crossover webcast production called Captain Jack's Monster Files was launched, featuring Barrowman, in character as Jack, hosting a series of shorts profiling various monsters and aliens featured on Doctor Who.

After Series 4, the segments were produced less frequently, with the last featuring Jack, released in December , taking the form of Jack narrating a mini-episode featuring the Weeping Angels entitled "A Ghost Story for Christmas". To promote its rebroadcasts of Torchwood , the UK digital channel Watch has twice commissioned the creative team of the Torchwood Magazine comic strip to produce brief online-exclusive comic strip stories for the Watch website.

The first of these, The Return of the Vostok , was uploaded in February , with a follow-up, Ma and Par , appearing in February In January , Barrowman announced that Torchwood would return, for the first time since Miracle Day , in the form of several BBC radio plays, One will feature the original Torchwood team from Series 1—2, including Barrowman; the others will be character-based. Accompanying the main series of Torchwood are a series of novels. To date all of the core cast members from the first two series have narrated at least one abridged or audio-exclusive reading.

The new series of audio dramas will each focus on different members of the Torchwood team, exploring the impact that a mysterious event has on them, taking place at various times in and around the TV episodes. On 22 September , Silva Screen Records released a compilation of music featured in the show's first and second series. The disc features 32 tracks composed by Ben Foster and Murray Gold. As a spin-off of long-running British cultural artefact Doctor Who , Torchwood 's launch into British popular culture has received many positive and negative reviews, commentary and parody following the hype of its inception, especially regarding its status as an "adult" Doctor Who spin-off as well as its characterisation and portrayal of sex.

Reviews for the first series were largely negative, with sites such as Behind the Sofa giving many more negative reviews than positive ones.

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Reviews of the second series were more positive. The third series, which took the form of a five-part story arc with the blanket title of Children of Earth , received a number of positive reviews. Critics described it separately as a "powerful human drama"; [] "Best. This led several writers to analyse the death in view of the character's earlier refusal to admit to his relationship with a man, and claimed that the death was a sign that the LGBT community was leaving behind its image of victimhood.

Positive and negative attention has been given to the portrayal of same-sex relationships in Torchwood. Although fewer in number than Doctor Who spoofs , there have been a number of parodies of Torchwood in various media. The piece comments on the level of swearing present in Torchwood and the role of Rhys Williams , whom the piece describes as "Barry Backstory ". The sketches parodied the level of sex in Torchwood , claiming "we never deal with an alien unless at least one [of the team] has shagged it", and describing the lack of motivations of the characters.

It also parodies the bisexuality of the characters and the melodramatic personality of Jack, who in the sketch walks extremely dramatically, swinging his coat about himself. It also featured Albert Steptoe of Steptoe and Son as the leader of the team, claiming "a terrible event in my past means that I can't die. It's called UK Gold ", and parodied its use of amnesia pills unnecessary for this team due to the onset of senile amnesia. The first episodes of Torchwood on BBC Three gave the channel its highest-ever ratings and the highest ratings of any digital-only non-sports channel at the time with 2.

The audience share was Ratings for later episodes dropped to around 1. Again, initial ratings were respectable, and the first episode garnered 4. However, the series again began to decline and had lost a million viewers by its fourth episode. It dropped to a low of 2. The second series had an overall average rating of 3. The first episode of series four, Miracle Day , attracted a consolidated audience of 6. The awards, given by the Welsh branch of the British Academy of Film and Television Arts , celebrate the achievements of film and television productions made in Wales.

Miracle Day received four shortlist nominations for the 38th annual Saturn Awards which are held in June When series 2 started broadcasting on 18 September , ABC2 started broadcasting Torchwood Declassified after each episode. In New Zealand on Wednesday, 9 July , starting with series 1 and running straight through to the fourth episode "Meat" in the second series.

Series 2 continued airing on 11 February and series 3 premiered on 10 February Repeat screenings of the first two series began on 16 March after the conclusion of Children of Earth during the previous week, and now plays re runs on UKTV in New Zealand. On 13 August , Children of Earth began repeated transmission after the conclusion of the second series on 6 August The first series began screening on TV2 [].

The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation helped to finance the first two series, as they had the revived production of Doctor Who in Series 2 began airing on Space on 8 August [] [] and series 3 was aired on Space over five consecutive nights in 20—24 July From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. British television series and spin-off from Doctor Who. For the plants, see Amyris. For the fictional institute, see Torchwood Institute.

Science fiction Horror Drama [1] [2]. Main article: List of Torchwood characters. Main article: List of Torchwood episodes. Whereas this series is going to be honest-to-God Cardiff. Main article: Themes in Torchwood. I want to knock down the barriers so we can't define which of the characters is gay.

We need to start mixing things up, rather than thinking, 'This is a gay character and he'll only ever go off with men. Jack doesn't categorise people: if he fancies you, he'll do it with you. If anything, more women seem to fancy Jack than men do. Main article: List of Torchwood novels and audio books. Main article: Torchwood Big Finish series.

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Main article: Torchwood: Original Television Soundtrack. BBC portal Doctor Who portal. Retrieved 9 May London: British Film Institute. Den of Geek. Retrieved 26 November Williams, Rebecca. Digital Spy. Retrieved 21 March Tolworth : Telos Publishing Ltd. BBC News. Retrieved 10 July BBC Radio Wales. Archived from the original MP3 on 14 January Retrieved 29 March Retrieved 13 May CBBC Newsround. Retrieved 4 May Future Publishing Limited. Retrieved 9 January BBC Press Office.


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    Seven Cuts of Wood : A Spin Black Projectc by Barry Sankey (2013, Hardcover)

    Retrieved 9 July Archived from the original on 20 September Retrieved 12 November Retrieved 5 December Archived from the original on 25 October United Kingdom: BBC. South Wales Echo. Western Mail. The Times. Archived from the original on 11 January Merthyr Tydfil County Borough Council. Archived from the original on 16 July Retrieved 7 May Gay Times The Sun. Archived from the original on 22 September Retrieved 6 October Radio Times.

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