Instead, Cilla Black recorded it for her debut single, which was produced by George Martin. It was not a big hit for her, reaching 35 on the UK Singles Chart. Mark Lewisohn dates this song to the first half of , and his supporting details are convincing. McCartney devised the song on his acoustic, during a night-time walk home. He is said to have often burst into song on such occasions if he had his guitar with him.
On balance, the first account is probably the more reliable. It seems the song was instead considered suitable for other artists, landing with Cilla Black just as Brian Epstein was agreeing management terms with her. For reasons unclear, when the Decca tapes were semi- officially released, the three Lennon-McCartney songs were left off. Each time I look into your eyes I see that there a heaven lies And as I look I see the love of the loved. Someday they'll see that from the start My place has been deep in your heart.
And in your heart I see the love of the loved. And I know that from today I'll see it in the way That you look at me And say ah you love me. So let it rain, I'll never care? Deep in your heart, I'd still be there. And when I'm there I see the love of the loved. So let it rain, I'll never I care? I see the love of the loved. There is truth in the traditional view that sees emotions as disrupters of rationality; but if this mechanism of disruption takes place more often than not, the opposite mechanism, that of aid to rational thinking, seems to be also effective in a number of cases.
Mechanisms, as Jon Elster defines them, are "frequently occurring and easily recognizable causal patterns that are triggered under generally unknown conditions or with indeterminate consequences. They allow us to explain, but not to predict. It is hard to rely on any kind of law-like explanation for when emotions take one role and when the other, or to make generalizations about the conditions that would lead to one or the other effect. I do not intend to generalize my thesis for all kinds of emotions, especially since I suspect that it does not apply to all emotions, like those characterized by very visceral reactions, such as fury or panic.
Since emotions are so diverse I am going to limit my claim to the case of love. Perhaps some of the conclusions that I hope to reach here would also apply to other emotions.
I am not going to attempt to develop any meticulous articulation of the nature of love and I am not even going to talk about the different kinds of love that we may find, particularly since it is such a multifaceted and diverse emotion. There are several kinds of love and not all of them work in the same way or are manifested in the same manner. Maternal love is not the same as romantic love, brotherly love, self-love or love of God. Because of the connotations of irrationality that it traditionally carries, I have preferred to focus on erotic or romantic love, and I want to challenge this aspect of the received view that sees it as inexorably linked to irrationality.
I have chosen this kind of love because, unlike the other kinds of love that I have mentioned, this kind is the one that, in the minds of many people, more clearly has associations with sexual desire, lust, concupiscence, and with those lower passions that make us lose control of ourselves, and go head over heels.
From now on, my use of the word "love" will refer to erotic or romantic love. Perhaps some of the things that I am going to say about it may be extended to other forms of love, but I am not assuming so. Pure emotions are hard to find in our emotional and mental life. The received view of love has emphasized its irrational effects.
It is no coincidence that we even say in English "to fall in love" when one is overcome by love: to be in love is to fall from the right way of reason, it may lead us out of ourselves, towards a lack of good sense, understanding, or foresight. It may even lead to self-destruction, craziness and irrationality. Ruth, one of the hundreds of people interviewed by Dorothy Tennov in her classic book about the experience of being in love, put this thought in the following way: "Love is irrational.
Whether you call it a mental illness or sublime spirituality, you behave in love in ways that do not represent your own true best interests, ways that deflect from the goals you've built your life around, even if the deflection is slight, even if it is easily rationalized and even when it is disguised as beauty or experienced as ecstasy. In these few verses, Graves gives me a good formulation of the ideas that I want to develop here, though in an opposite way.
Love may not only be no stain on the vision, blotting out reason, but it may facilitate the former, while developing the latter. I shall leave the effects of love on epistemic rationality for the next section. In this section, I shall analyze the simplest form in which love may affect practical rationality: by developing an instrumental kind of rationality. When talking about practical rationality I shall refer mostly to instrumental rationality. In its character as a reason for action, love sets the goals of our actions paving the way for a means-ends way of thinking.
Love has characteristic action tendencies that fix the goals of our actions. Although my main aim is to talk about how love may develop rational ways of acting, love in itself is open, at least in part, to rational evaluation and control. This might be claimed about almost any emotion. Emotions have cognitive and evaluative antecedents and this makes them, to a certain extent, assessable in rational terms. In the case of love, this emotion involves beliefs and value judgments about the object of love: the judgment, for instance, that the other person is beautiful, or nice, or attractive, or more generally, that the other person is lovable.
Love does not entirely depend on reasons in the same way as beliefs or some of our desires do. An agent may have the best reasons for being in love with somebody, even from his own point of view, and nevertheless not fall in love. Even if she is, say, the most convenient person for the agent or the one he admires the most, he may not fall in love with her. Love just doesn't happen.
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An emotion may be rationally "appropriate" depending on its object and on the circumstances in which it appears; and our rational assessment of it is about when it makes sense to have it or not, and about the role we let it play in our lives. The object of our love may be assessed in rational terms depending on the general context of our life in which it appears, that is, in the context of the goals and life plans around which we have constructed our life. It might be argued that somebody may just not be convenient for us given the kind of persons we are, our goals or our specific circumstances.
Thus, an emotion in itself can be assessed in terms of its appropriateness in relation to its object and surrounding circumstances.
Love of the Loved
But at other times the love of a person may be judged as irrational, not because the emotion he experiences is itself irrational, but because of the role he allows it to play in his life. For instance, a person who is led by love to such a degree that he misses out on some experiences or benefits that life has to offer. Let me now turn to the role that love may play in developing strategic or instrumental forms of rationality.
In belief-desire models of instrumental rationality, a desire is usually regarded as the state that sets the goals of our actions, and beliefs just play a role in determining the means through which those ends are going to be achieved. When emotions get into this picture, they tend to be viewed as interfering with the process of deliberation through which we achieve our goals. But sometimes emotions and desires are bunched together given, among other things, their alleged character as drives that push us to action. In that sense, both play similar roles in setting the goals of our actions.
But the roles they play in practical rationality when an emotion, and more particularly love, is involved are different, so let me make clear the point about the relationship, and the differences, between love and desire: it is not that she who is in love looks for the love of the other person because she wants to see her desire satisfied.
Thus, it is not desire that sets the goals that are going to determine our deliberation and conduct, but love. Love determines our desire, and not the other way round. When love is implicated as a reason for action, the starting point of practical deliberation, so to speak, is love, not desire. However, the boundaries between love and desire as well as other emotions and more generally other mental states are not clear-cut and it is not always easy to distinguish them; sometimes what passes for love may actually be some form of sensuous desire or lust. For the sake of the argument, let me assume that love is not only different from desire in general, but also from the sensuous desires love may generate.
I take it that love and desire have a distinct phenomenological character. In general, and when not interfered with by other emotions, love has three characteristic action tendencies, which we can also identify with the kinds of desires that it may generate: 1 the desire for reciprocation, 2 the desire to benefit, and 3 the desire to be with, the beloved.
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The first moment in which this takes place is when love is making us behave in certain ways in order to get the attention and the love of the loved one; a second moment will come once the love of the other person has been achieved and one is seeking to maintain it. Here, love also appears combined with hopes of reciprocity and fear of rejection. The strategies of love may emerge perhaps even before the appearance of love, with the desire to be in love, through trying to put oneself in a position where it is more likely that one finds the love desired.
It has been claimed that love and the dating scene are a sort of marketplace and that there is a kind of shopping involved in it. The possible shopper will look for the smartest, kindest, funniest, or most attractive person available; she knows, or should know, that the same criteria apply to herself and may thus try to enhance or accentuate what she takes to be her best features in order to win the attention of others. The person who seeks love may try to behave in ways that attract the attention of potential partners.
Although there is no guarantee of gaining their attention, the love-seeker knows that by enhancing those characteristics that she takes to be her best assets she increases the probability of impressing these potential partners and getting what she desires. Things are not that different for the person who is attracted to somebody or who has already fallen in love: he may try to behave in ways that please the loved one, and win her attention: maybe by getting trim, by being more careful of his attitudes and about what he says, or maybe even by following Ovid's advice for conquering and maintaining the love of women.
Love, it is claimed, may produce miracles in people: it may turn them into attentive, sensible, formal, prudent or non-selfish people. In one of the stories of his Decameron , Boccaccio tells us the story of Cymon, a stupid man who is turned into a intelligent one by love:. Now that Cymon's heart, which no amount of schooling had been able to penetrate, was pierced by Love's arrow through the medium of Iphigenia's beauty, he suddenly began to display a lively interest in one thing after another, to the amazement of his father, his whole family, and everyone else who knew him.
He first of all asked his father's permission to wear the same sort of clothes as his brothers, including all the frills with which they were in the habit of adorning themselves, and to this his father very readily agreed, he then began to associate with young men of excellence, observing the manners befitting a gentleman, more especially those of a gentleman in love, and within a very short space of time, to everyone's enormous stupefaction, he not only acquired the rudiments of letters but became most eminent among philosophic wits.
In short without going into further detail about his various accomplishments , in the space of four years from the day he had fallen in love, he turned out to be the most graceful, refined, and versatile young man in the island of Cyprus. It is true that the mood of the person in love changes, but also, in order to see one's love reciprocated, sometimes one has to change certain character traits, habits, personal appearance, or do those things one thinks would please the other person but as we all know, nothing guarantees that these effects may last after one has already reached the object of desire, or once love fades: they may last as long as love lasts.
When in love, we may try to display our best characteristics, what we feel is most ours, most true, and we want this to be appreciated in order to get the love of the other person. This is also what is behind the idea of courtship, that is, of trying to gain the love of another person by following certain strategies of ploys and flirting.
The person in love has to figure out some courting or dating strategies, that is, plans of action directed at accomplishing the goal of winning other person's love. A dating strategy would consist in finding the best possible means to achieve this goal. Courting and flirting, as any manual on the subject would tell us, are skills that one can develop, consisting of strategies for attracting others and getting one's love reciprocated.
This requires the ability of knowing when to make a move, and when not to; of knowing what to do when one does not get the response one wants; of knowing how to decipher body language; how to overcome one's fears and shyness, and so on. But these are just some of the means that tend to promote the achievement of one's goals. If one is not a Don Juan and is not merely moved by the thrill of seduction, but by love, then it is this emotion, and not some other attitude, that fixes the goals of one's actions. The lover does not love in order to get some ulterior end, satisfy some desire or need or not exclusively because of this ; love and the desire generated by it do not have any other end than having one's love reciprocated, benefiting and being with the beloved.
If one is lucky and one's love is reciprocated, once the other person's love has been attained, our love requires of us that we behave in ways adequate to it so as to maintain the object of our affection. Love imposes some practical demands on the lover. Since love is a way of caring about the beloved, it requires of us certain ways of acting proper to this caring.
Love Of The Loved (song) - The Paul McCartney Project
Love is about benefiting and being with the loved person, but this requires of us that we behave in ways that actually benefit our beloved and make this person appreciate or enjoy our company. Harry Frankfurt has pointed out that love creates some practical necessities:. Insofar as a person loves something, the fact that he cares about it as he does requires that he must care similarly about how he acts in matters that concern it.
Because love entails that the lover has certain volitional attitudes toward the object of his love, it also entails that he has corresponding volitional attitudes toward himself. In the very nature of the case, he cannot be indifferent to how what he does affects his beloved. To the extent that he cares about the object of his love, therefore, he necessarily cares about his own conduct as well.
Love, then, imposes on us certain practical requirements: we have to behave in certain ways if we actually want to benefit, and be with, the loved person, and keep her love. That is, we have to behave rationally.
Rationality, in the instrumental way in which I am using it here, is a teleological concept, and we use it to design behavior in the light of some goal or end. An act is rational if it tends to promote the achievement of a certain goal, irrational if it tends to frustrate it. A person in love can be called irrational if she tends to frustrate the goals of her love, if instead of benefiting and being with her beloved, she does not procure the other's well-being, and acts to the detriment of the beloved.
Then she would be acting against her self-acknowledged own interests. For instance, a man who loves his partner and is reciprocated, and nevertheless deceives her without there being any stronger reasons than his love for doing so , would fit under this description, since he would be acting against his own acknowledged best interests and undermining his relationship with the person with whom he is in love. Now, by caring about the other person, and wanting to maintain his love, the lover takes on herself a kind of commitment promise and a responsibility for the other person's well-being.
Love is a form of cooperation in which both partners tacitly agree to be with, and benefit, each other: "to be there for each other," as people say. Romantic love is a kind of promise to do this, and to respond for each other. Unlike other forms of cooperation, one gets into a romantic relationship not exclusively for one's own benefit, but also for the sake of the other person, because one cares about the other person and wants to be with her. Love is a kind of commitment promise, but in order to make the promise credible, one has to behave in ways proper to one's love. There have to be grounds for trusting the other.
If one does not provide these grounds, it is very likely that sooner or later the beloved will start having doubts that might undermine her love, her interest in being in the relationship, and therefore, her reciprocity. One has to provide these grounds by acting in a rational, and also in a sincere, way, by fulfilling the requirements of love. To be sure, I do not think that the grounds for love and trust are given entirely by intentional actions or by verbal behavior; our unintentional behavior and our non-verbal communication also play a role when we are in love, through facial and physiological expressions, arousal, and so on, that are also implicated in having this emotion.
Only on this basis can we form reliable forms of cooperation, such as the one reciprocal love may create. There is another possible effect that love may have on our rational conduct, and that is actually somewhere in between the spheres of practical and epistemic rationality. For the person who is in love, some of the practical necessities that love imposes on her may oblige her to have a better knowledge of the nature of her own love and that of her beloved. This knowledge, as a side-effect, would also give her access to a better understanding of other people's similar emotions, since one is better suited to understand other people when they are experiencing love or any other emotion, if one has experienced it oneself.
In the first place, love may help to a better self-knowledge: in order to make happy, benefit, or just be with, the person with whom one is in love, and get one's love reciprocated, it is necessary to know the best ways to do it and get to know the possibilities of oneself to do it. If I want to please my beloved, and even change to please her, I have to know myself and my own possibilities for really pleasing her and, if necessary, changing. Obviously enough, having knowledge of one's own love and of one's own possibilities for fulfilling these necessities influences the way one loves. While I was writing this, Apollo suddenly appeared plucking the strings of his lyre with his thumb.
He who knows himself may be able to carry out the necessities that love imposes on him in a way that suits his powers. The person who knows himself may be able to love in a way that makes the most out of his own capacities and limitations, and serves better the goals of his love, that is, benefiting and being with the other person.
Self-knowledge, therefore, may entail a richer, more rational, love. Love may not only require a better knowledge of oneself, but also of the beloved.
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The practical necessities of love may also require that one embarks on a process of knowledge of the other person, and the better one gets to know her, the better one will be able to please and benefit her. One may become more sensitive to certain traces of the other person, to his or her desires, needs and interests, to what the other expects from oneself.
Love may lead me to adopt the beloved's point of view, and understand how she sees me and how she sees herself. I have to know how she perceives me and what she expects from me. This requires the effort of understanding and deciphering the other person. Of course, in this hermeneutic process, it is hard to know when one gets closer to an interpretation that really fits the object of one's interpretation. At last, this process of interpretation may not only count for a better understanding of the beloved, but as a reflection, of oneself.
By understanding the emotions of the other person, one may come to understand one's own emotions better. So far, my emphasis has been on the ways in which love may bring in instrumental or strategic forms of rationality. However, love may rationalize in another sense other than the strategic one. Since rationality is not only a practical, but also an epistemic concept, love may affect it in this other sense. Self-knowledge actually belongs to this category.
Emotions, says Elster, may "facilitate knowledge rather than obstruct it. For Iris Murdoch, love enhances perception: "Falling in love is very enlightening; for a short while you see the world with new eyes. However, there is another tradition that has emphasized the ways in which love distorts perception, which I have called the received view. The traditional dualistic view that keeps emotions and rationality as radically opposed to each other tells us that emotions interfere with the formation and objective justification of beliefs.
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One's perception of reality tends to be distorted at the heat of lust or a very passionate love as well as with emotions such as hate, jealousy, anger, or even depression , and the justification of our beliefs tends to serve completely subjective motives. In love one tends to surrender intellectual control and the justification of beliefs, for instance, to wishful thinking and self-deception. There is truth behind the traditional view of love when it tells us that lovers are not reliable while forming beliefs about the beloved, and while thinking and paying attention, more generally.
The image of the distracted lover not paying attention to anything but the object of his love is not casual. In this tradition, love is "a bright stain on the vision" and usually takes the form of distorted and biased perception, wishful thinking and self-deception. Probably one of the clearest cases in which love may interfere with the way in which we form and justify beliefs, is what Stendhal calls "crystallization. When madly in love, people may just refuse to see some of the negative features or vices of the other person, justifying her wrongdoings, creating imaginary solutions for any problem between the couple, or even disregarding clear signs of unreciprocated affection or infidelity.
However, as Elster points out in his analysis of the phenomenon of crystallization, this can be contrasted with Stendhal's own novels in which the loved characters are exactly as the loving characters believe them to be. The perception that these women have of Julien is equally accurate: despite their passionate love for him they do not fail to perceive his negative characteristics and weaknesses. This is where love may have the positive effects I want to emphasize. Love may redirect perception and enable a better identification of relevant aspects of the loved person; and let me go further and say that it may help us to perceive better some aspects of reality that would pass unperceived otherwise.
Love may not only help us to perceive more acutely traces of the character and body of the beloved, but also aspects of the world or objects that may be instrumental in fulfilling the requirements of love: benefiting, or being with, the beloved, or even looking for reciprocity.