It is deemed to be of a higher status, ethically, aesthetically, and even metaphysically than the love that behaviorists or physicalists describe. Some may hold that love is physical, i. Accordingly, the action of loving encompasses a broad range of behavior including caring, listening, attending to, preferring to others, and so on. This would be proposed by behaviorists. Others physicalists, geneticists reduce all examinations of love to the physical motivation of the sexual impulse-the simple sexual instinct that is shared with all complex living entities, which may, in humans, be directed consciously, sub-consciously or pre-rationally toward a potential mate or object of sexual gratification.
Physical determinists, those who believe the world to entirely physical and that every event has a prior physical cause , consider love to be an extension of the chemical-biological constituents of the human creature and be explicable according to such processes. In this vein, geneticists may invoke the theory that the genes an individual's DNA form the determining criteria in any sexual or putative romantic choice, especially in choosing a mate. However, a problem for those who claim that love is reducible to the physical attractiveness of a potential mate, or to the blood ties of family and kin which forge bonds of filial love, is that it does not capture the affections between those who cannot or wish not to reproduce-that is, physicalism or determinism ignores the possibility of romantic, ideational loveit may explain eros , but not philia or agape.
Behaviorism , which stems from the theory of the mind and asserts a rejection of Cartesian dualism between mind and body, entails that love is a series of actions and preferences which is thereby observable to oneself and others. The behaviorist theory that love is observable according to the recognizable behavioral constraints corresponding to acts of love suggests also that it is theoretically quantifiable: that A acts in a certain way actions X,Y,Z around B, more so than he does around C, suggests that he "loves" B more than C. The problem with the behaviorist vision of love is that it is susceptible to the poignant criticism that a person's actions need not express their inner state or emotionsA may be a very good actor.
Radical behaviorists, such as B. Skinner, claim that observable and unobservable behavior such as mental states can be examined from the behaviorist framework, in terms of the laws of conditioning. On this view, that one falls in love may go unrecognised by the casual observer, but the act of being in love can be examined by what events or conditions led to the agent's believing she was in love: this may include the theory that being in love is an overtly strong reaction to a set of highly positive conditions in the behavior or presence of another.
Expressionist love is similar to behaviorism in that love is considered an expression of a state of affairs towards a beloved, which may be communicated through language words, poetry, music or behavior bringing flowers, giving up a kidney, diving into the proverbial burning building , but which is a reflection of an internal, emotional state, rather than an exhibition of physical responses to stimuli. Others in this vein may claim love to be a spiritual response, the recognition of a soul that completes one's own soul, or complements or augments it.
The spiritualist vision of love incorporates mystical as well as traditional romantic notions of love, but rejects the behaviorist or physicalist explanations. Those who consider love to be an aesthetic response would hold that love is knowable through the emotional and conscious feeling it provokes yet which cannot perhaps be captured in rational or descriptive language: it is instead to be captured, as far as that is possible, by metaphor or by music. The ethical aspects in love involve the moral appropriateness of loving, and the forms it should or should not take.
The subject area raises such questions as: is it ethically acceptable to love an object, or to love oneself? Is love to oneself or to another a duty? Should the ethically minded person aim to love all people equally? Is partial love morally acceptable or permissible that is, not right, but excusable?
Should love only involve those with whom the agent can have a meaningful relationship? Should love aim to transcend sexual desire or physical appearances? May notions of romantic, sexual love apply to same sex couples? Some of the subject area naturally spills into the ethics of sex, which deals with the appropriateness of sexual activity, reproduction, hetero and homosexual activity, and so on. In the area of political philosophy, love can be studied from a variety of perspectives.
For example, some may see love as an instantiation of social dominance by one group males over another females , in which the socially constructed language and etiquette of love is designed to empower men and disempower women. On this theory, love is a product of patriarchy, and acts analogously to Karl Marx's view of religion the opiate of the people that love is the opiate of women. The implication is that were they to shrug off the language and notions of "love," "being in love," "loving someone," and so on, they would be empowered.
The theory is often attractive to feminists and Marxists, who view social relations and the entire panoply of culture, language, politics, institutions as reflecting deeper social structures that divide people into classes, sexes, and races. This article has touched on some of the main elements of the philosophy of love.
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It reaches into many philosophical fields, notably theories of human nature, the self, and of the mind. The language of love, as it is found in other languages as well as in English, is similarly broad and deserves more attention. Alexander Moseley Email: alexandermoseley icloud. Philosophy of Love This article examines the nature of love and some of the ethical and political ramifications. The Nature of Love: Eros, Philia, and Agape The philosophical discussion regarding love logically begins with questions concerning its nature.
Eros The term eros Greek erasthai is used to refer to that part of love constituting a passionate, intense desire for something; it is often referred to as a sexual desire, hence the modern notion of "erotic" Greek erotikos. Philia In contrast to the desiring and passionate yearning of eros , philia entails a fondness and appreciation of the other. Agape Agape refers to the paternal love of God for man and of man for God but is extended to include a brotherly love for all humanity. The Nature of Love: Further Conceptual Considerations Presuming love has a nature, it should be, to some extent at least, describable within the concepts of language.
The Nature of Love: Romantic Love Romantic love is deemed to be of a higher metaphysical and ethical status than sexual or physical attractiveness alone. Love: Ethics and Politics The ethical aspects in love involve the moral appropriateness of loving, and the forms it should or should not take.
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Aristotle Rhetoric. Rhys Roberts trans. Augustine De bono viduitatis.
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LaFallotte, Hugh A Companion to Ethics. Blackwell, pp. Plato Phaedrus. Social Age — Social age compares social development with chronological age. Emotional Age — Emotional, like social age, compares emotional maturity with chronological age. Murray goes on in his publication to provide symptoms of emotional immaturity and characteristics of emotional maturity, followed by a few strategies to grow more emotionally mature. Emotional maturity will make every difference in the manner in which conflicts are resolved , compromises are made, and resolutions are achieved. Ego-fighting right vs.
Communication styles fall into one of four categories:. Rarely do couples display compatible communication styles.
Take Course. Marriage Advice. Marriage Course. Marriage Quizzes. Find a Therapist. Marriage Quotes. John J. Here is a mini-anthology of poetry and prose for both aficionados and those readers discovering Rainer Maria Rilke for the first time. Mood has assembled a collection of Rilke's strongest work, presenting commentary along with the selections. Mood links into an essay passages from letters that show Rilke's profound understanding of men and women and his ardent s Here is a mini-anthology of poetry and prose for both aficionados and those readers discovering Rainer Maria Rilke for the first time.
Mood links into an essay passages from letters that show Rilke's profound understanding of men and women and his ardent spirituality, rooted in the senses. Combining passion and sensitivity, the poems on love presented here are often not only sensual but sexual as well. Others pursue perennial themes in his work—death and life, growth and transformation.
The book concludes with Rilke's reflections on wisdom and openness to experience, on grasping what is most difficult and turning what is most alien into that which we can most trust. Get A Copy.
Paperback , pages. Published February 17th by W. Norton Company first published More Details Original Title.
Other Editions 5. Friend Reviews. To see what your friends thought of this book, please sign up. To ask other readers questions about Rilke on Love and Other Difficulties , please sign up. Be the first to ask a question about Rilke on Love and Other Difficulties. Lists with This Book. Community Reviews. Showing Rating details. More filters. Sort order. Jan 03, vivian flash rated it really liked it Recommends it for: careless love. View 1 comment. Jul 07, Vincent Scarpa rated it it was amazing. But, once the realization is accepted that even between the closest human beings infinite distances continue to exist, a wonderful living side by side can grow up, if they succeed in loving the distance between them, which makes it possible for each to see the other whole and against a wide sky!
Mar 30, Catherine rated it did not like it Recommends it for: no one. Shelves: couldnt-stomach-for-another-minute. The 1 star review is not a reflection on Rilke, but the editor and his "considerations," Mr. John Mood. If you're thinking of reading Rilke, please try Letters to a Young Poet instead. Mood is quite clear from the get go that this collection is the way he sees Rilke and his hope is to remedy the state of affairs in which Rilke is praised for the spirituality of his works, instead of the sex.
I was skeptical - it's not like our culture is so spirituality based to begin with. But the real kicker The 1 star review is not a reflection on Rilke, but the editor and his "considerations," Mr. But the real kicker for me is when he takes Rilke's famous passage about living the questions and being unable to live the answers and Mr. Mood launches into an essay about how this is solely about sex.
There are no other questions to ponder? At that point, I decided I could learn more and gain more from Rilke's work without Mr. Mood's help - and also wished I could exchange this for a different collection of Rilke's work.
Love and Marriage: Premarital Considerations | avijihybihyl.ga
Sep 20, Casey Kelley rated it it was amazing. The man understand relationships, what can I say? Homeboy won't stifle you, he trusts you, and he loves your beautiful soul. Plus, anyone who does me the favor of translating their own works gets 5 stars in my book. Sometimes, late at night, I weep when I consider what I've lost in translation reading the interpretations of others. My absolute favorite quote regarding what I hope my lifelong commitment is like comes from this book. Jul 22, Sean Goh rated it liked it.
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For, if it lies in the nature of indifference and of the crowd to recognise no solitude, then love and friendship are there for the purpose of continually providing the opportunity for solitude. And only those are the true sharings which rhythmically interrupt periods of deep isolation. There is scarcely anything more difficult than to love one another. That it is work, day labor, day labor, God knows there is no other word for it. And look, added to this is the fact that young people are not pre For, if it lies in the nature of indifference and of the crowd to recognise no solitude, then love and friendship are there for the purpose of continually providing the opportunity for solitude.
And look, added to this is the fact that young people are not prepared for such difficult loving, for convention has tried to make this most complicated and ultimate relationship into something easy and frivolous, has given it the appearance of everyone's being able to do it. It is not so. Love is something difficult and it is more difficult than other things because in other conflicts nature herself enjoins men to collect themselves, to take themselves firmly in hand with all their strength, while in the heightening of love the impulse is to give oneself wholly away. In the struggle somehow to get out of their untenable and unbearable state of confusion, they commit the greatest fault that can happen to human relationships: they become impatient.
They hurry to a conclusion, to come, as they believe, to a final decision, they try once and for all to establish their relationship, whose surprising changes have frightened them, in order to remain the same now and forever. To take love seriously and to bear and to learn it like a task, this it is that young people need. Like so much else, people have also misunderstood the place of love in life, they have made it into play and pleasure because they thought that play and pleasure were more blissful than work, but there is nothing happier than work, and love, just because it is the extreme happiness, can be nothing else but work - so whoever loves must try to act as if he had a great work; he must be much alone and go into himself and collect himself and hold fast to himself; he must work; he must become something!
For believe me, the more one is, the richer is all that one experiences. And whoever wants to have a deep love in his life must collect and save for it and gather honey. View 2 comments. May 18, Rebecca rated it it was amazing. Mar 18, sologdin rated it liked it Shelves: of-best-sentence-and-moost-solaas.