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Start on. Show related SlideShares at end. WordPress Shortcode. RamseyCecily Follow. Published in: Lifestyle. Full Name Comment goes here. Are you sure you want to Yes No. For the translation of the ESPA29 from Spanish into English, the inverse translation method proposed by Brislin was followed in order to ensure the items were comparable to other language versions of the scale. Upon receiving permission from the authors, the original measure was translated into American English from Spanish by two native English-speaking colleagues.
They performed a cross-check on item grammar, clarity, and content equivalence and the resulting items were back-translated into Spanish by an independent, bilingual researcher before a final review by the authors. Each domain is measured by six items with scores ranging from 0. This scale has been used in a large number of studies to consistently relate self-esteem to other variables e.
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The data was split randomly into two halves. By extracting the maximum variance from the data set with each component, PCA provides an empirical summary of the data Tabachnick and Fidell, The CFA technique allows the degree of adjustment of the model by the value of chi-squared to be obtained. However, chi-squared has serious problems of sensitivity to sample size e. Therefore, other fit indexes have been developed which have the advantage of pre-established cut-off criteria e.
The estimation method was the maximum likelihood ML , which, although assuming multivariate normality, is reasonably robust to its non-compliance Curran et al. Once the structure was verified separately for the practices of the mother and for the practices of the father, a multigroup analysis was carried out according to gender, using the usual procedure in these cases Murgui and Musitu, First, the unconstrained model is calculated without any restrictions across parameters, and then, a new constrained model is calculated. If the difference in chi-squared values between the unconstrained model and the constrained model remains non-significant, it can be concluded that there is invariance between boys and girls, so the values of the restricted parameters are equivalent in both sexes.
With one of the two halves of the data participants , an EFA with Kaiser criterion and varimax rotation was carried out on the scores of the socialization practices of the ESPA The factor loadings of the subscales in this factor ranged between 0. These subscales loaded positively between 0. A CFA was carried out on the second half of the data participants. In addition, the factor loadings and the final structure replicated those obtained in the EFA.
For the parenting practices of the mother and the father, the multigroup analysis was performed. First, the unrestricted multigroup model was calculated Father 2U model and Mother 2U model. The models calculated for both parenting practices of the father and of the mother showed a good multi-sample adjustment, suggesting a common factor structure across the two genders. Then, in each model, the paths of the practices in their dimension and the covariation between the two dimensions were fixed. With respect to the individual subscales, the alpha coefficients were as follows: warmth, 0.
The alpha value for the items for mothers was 0. Those alpha coefficients with the total scale were calculated in order to check that there is no malfunctioning or internal consistency problem with the items or with the scales, since all the items are measuring parts of the same construct, which is parental socialization. The effect size of the correlations is similar to those reported in other studies that analyze the relation between parenting and self-esteem Felson and Zielinski, ; Barber et al.
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Correlations and R 2 between two major parental socialization dimensions with five self-esteem dimensions. The CFA replicated the two-factor structure with appropriate fit indexes. The two axis dimensions reflect two main persistent patterns of parental conduct Steinberg, , which being orthogonal the two are not related and behavior in one does not predict behavior in the other , must be analyzed together in order to determine the style of socialization that characterizes parental behavior toward the child Grusec and Lytton, ; Darling and Steinberg, ; Steinberg, Therefore the existence of two independent dimensions of parental conduct in the process of family socialization is supported Maccoby and Martin, ; Darling and Steinberg, This operationalization of parenting is congruent with that of a large number of instruments used to analyze parental conduct.
As Steinberg highlights, the majority of studies on parenting styles has operationalized one of the dimensions using measures of parental warmth and acceptance while the other has been based on parental firmness. These results are similar to those reported in other studies that analyze the relation between parenting and self-esteem Barry et al.
Although this is a first approximation of the relation of the practices of the ESPA29 with a criterion variable in a United States sample, future research should analyze the relation between parenting styles assessed with the ESPA29 in United States samples and other criteria variables that reflect personal and social adolescent adjustment.
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In the same way, other analyses, such as testing the concurrent validity of the ESPA29 with a United States sample, should be contemplated in the future. Finally, it would be advisable that the analysis of this study be extended to other age ranges and that specifically CFA be carried out with samples from different countries. Nevertheless, the results of this study show that the English version of the ESPA29 is adequate for measuring parental socialization in English-speaking adolescents.
The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. The reviewer AP and handling Editor declared their shared affiliation, and the handling Editor states that the process nevertheless met the standards of a fair and objective review.
National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Front Psychol v. Front Psychol. Published online May Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. This article was submitted to Developmental Psychology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Psychology. Received Jan 20; Accepted May The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author s or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice.
No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Parenting styles have traditionally been studied following the classical two-dimensional orthogonal model of parental socialization. Introduction Styles of family socialization and the way these styles are conceptualized and measured are key in parenting research Maccoby and Martin, ; Gray and Steinberg, Open in a separate window.
Materials and Methods Participants The sample of the present study consisted of adolescents cases with missing values were deleted listwise. Procedure The data was collected in five educational centers selected by simple random sampling from a complete list of centers in the region. Statistical Analyses The data was split randomly into two halves. Results Exploratory Factor Analysis With one of the two halves of the data participants , an EFA with Kaiser criterion and varimax rotation was carried out on the scores of the socialization practices of the ESPA All indexes are the robust version; U, multigroup unrestricted model; R, multigroup restricted model.
In model 2, covariation between variables and dimensions was added. Table 4 ESPA29 descriptive indexes. Table 5 Correlations and R 2 between two major parental socialization dimensions with five self-esteem dimensions.
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Conflict of Interest Statement The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Footnotes Funding. References Akaike H. Factor analysis and AIC. Psychometrika 52 — Garcia F. Behavior and Development in Childhood. New York, NY: Dryden. Parental behaviors and adolescent self-esteem in the United States and Germany.
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Child versus parent reports of parenting practices implications for the conceptualization of child behavioral and emotional problems. He has trained several thousand PhD students and academics from 35 countries to write research papers, prepare presentations, and communicate with editors, referees and fellow researchers.