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Waldman, Berta Passos e Rastros. The purpose of this study is to identify some issues arising from the theme disability arts and its implications for education of students with disabilities comparing experiences in two countries - Brazil and Great Britain. The research data are focused on textual and visual resources from conference papers, art magazines, art web sites, and semi-structured interviews conducted with artists and directors of organisations. Key Words: disability, cultures, aesthetics and education.
That is so often people — able-bodied people, sighted people — think they know answers so they make assumptions about what Tim, The two extracts above are from interviews quoted in my recent research about art and disability in a British cultural context. The second is Tim Gebbels, also British, non-sighted actor and dancer. These two quotations present the way that art and disability implicate on education, dance and culture.
At a glance we can identify the challenges to people with disability to work in the field of Arts. Regardless of these problematic aspects, or maybe as a consequence of this, there has been increase in the demand of people with disability in Arts courses, now bringing around these issues to the field of lifelong education in general, and to teachers in particular.
It seems plausible and legitimate those arts agencies are looking for good and interesting professionals. Indeed, it is quite reasonable that disabled people are looking for good professional qualifications. But at the same time, this can be a complex picture. In fact, we can start inquiring what kind of artist work has been developed by or with disabled people.
In order to investigate this question, I will be describing the features of the arts involving people with disability in Brazil and Great Britain. Before this, I should clarify that the terms, which will be used here, are the ones proposed by the British National Disability Arts Forum. In addition, Arts and Disability, refers to the process of introducing disabled people to the arts in general, either as practitioners or as consumers.
Mainstream arts are a very broad term and apply at every level of arts practice and to every art form Getting Noticed, , p. Disability arts have been proposed as disability culture. Similarly, disability culture should offer a key to the basic process of identifying as disabled person, because culture and identity are closely linked concepts. Disabled people community has been discussed in this argument. For some of them the constitution of a culture causes some hostility.
Actually, culture is presented as a complex concept. Disability culture could be interpreted as a process through which disabled people produce meaning. The question is not only if the artistic work is good or bad, but also how this produces specific meaning. From this point of view, disability culture, unlikely consolidates disability, indeed, validate the singularity of the way disabled people produce meaning. As an illustration, we will present next, the ways of nonsighted people appreciating dance. Seeing as method Looking through the web sites and media in general, reading magazines, watching performances groups, also, interviewing artists and directors of arts organisations I have verified a widespread variety of works involving arts and disabled people.
Similarly to England, in Brazil it is possible to find an expressive number of disabled artists, and several groups of able bodied artists working with people with disability, even though in smaller proportion. As a Brazilian researcher and dance movement teacher of blind and visually impaired people, I have been learning to see the altered states of disability. Seeing requires an effort. The connection between art and disability drives forward the professional of education forward to an intentional understanding of the ways of seeing. And thus implies an at least potential recognition and acknowledgement has far-reaching consequences for what we, appearing beings in a world of appearances, understand by reality, our own as well as that of the world.
June at the John F. The similarity in these events lies beyond the discussion about culture, education and accessibility. Firstly, people with disability become more aware about their rights. As disabled people within it moved the company away from limited vision of its able bodied founder towards a firm policy that the company would put on plays that in some way reflected the disability experience. This was actually quite radical back in or there about, an the company met with quite a lot of opposition to it both from disabled people and able bodied people.
In the context of the current movement to lifelong learning. There are personal and professional educational needs across the life span, and the case I shall make for providing a disability-aware education applies to adults as well as to children. In spite of this awareness, guarantees, Acts, disabled people are still facing barriers to access career in Arts. The study of Carol Gill investigates the obstacles to careers in the Arts for young persons with disabilities.
She identifies in first place some early developmental barriers. For instance, the discouragement from family and professionals, as well the low expectations, also, the lack of support from vocational counsellors. The second major barrier is the absence of a stimulating environment that invites exploration and creative expression. Certainly, the school barriers like conflict activities during school day, or inability to engage in after-school activities, and the framing of the arts as therapy. My supposition, lie behind the nature of the artist working is designed to population with disability.
Michael Gordon investigated this tension. In short, the author warning about the danger that the active role is going to be exercised solely by able-bodied artists, with disabled people participating only as passive recipients. Also, the danger of disability arts slipping into a sort of artistic social work is ever present, in my point of view, this situation is reflected in the Brazilian context.
In addition, the proposition by the political activists those disability arts as part disability culture likewise polemic into disabled people community, some of them to constitute a culture cause some hostility. As has been said arts bring out an altered state of disability. By holding conferences across different countries, by acts, by definition of terms, disabled students struggle to a formal training in art.
Furthermore, looking at the tension distinction between disability and art may be we can find the questions of this phenomenon addressing to adult education teachers. Education, dance and Disability What are we seeing about art and disability, Britain shows the emancipation of disabled artists by struggling to a definition of the roles in art. On the other hand Brazil show us a picture of an incipient mainstreaming art. In short, from my looking at the artist working applied to disabled people in both countries it is possible to list some issues for us to consider in the teaching and learning process of the adult with disability.
For the reason that able-bodied people has misconception towards disability and disabled people, therefore two clear problems to disabled artist faced. My supposition on this discredit is related with the quality aspect of artistic works. Notwithstanding, this work can be in a big quantity or important, also valuable, if is not enough artistically interesting and the same time austere, consequently, the learner with disability and the able-bodied teacher are still in a misconceived apprenticeship.
This issue is clearly connected with our ways of seeing. Since, nothing and nobody exits in this world whose very being does not presuppose a spectator Arendt, In other words, seem natural disabled people being perceived by others, as such them perceiving others. Although, been perceived by other as disturbing, sound quite differently. Of course, there is a connection with spectator.
Arendt: 93 However, there two spectator positions in this tradition I want to illustrate here. First is the mere spectator as praising by Lucretius as a beneficial or noble distance. At this point I wish bring around a contribution of some contemporary artists, whose have been proposed a new role to the spectator. Charman, We should be open to learning other ways of seeing on art and disability. Maybe, we could reflect upon what we see.
As an active observer of the project invisible dances I was invited to change, again, my attitudes towards disabled performers, during an interview with the Frank Bock and Simon Vincenzi, able-bodied artists of the dance company, they spoke about the relationship between dancers and audience. We say, well this is just happening. You have to bring yourself and interpret this. We probably present more questions than answers.
The inclusion of activities like dance in a lifelong learning. In short, we can confirm that through dance, that art as a culturally produced good, can be socialized and extended to all people, even those with disabilities. Meanwhile, the connection between art and disability requires the teachers to have an intentional understanding on the ways of seeing disabled learners.
Moreover, the linking with a disability culture has been polemical. Note: The research on which this study is based was support by grants from CAPES, during the years when I was visiting scholar in The University of Nottingham doing postdoctoral studies. Arendt H , The life of mind, vol.
London, Sage, p. Email: caleidos caleidos. Summary: in his article the author discusses some questions on multiculturalism in the big cities and its relations with the contemporary world. Calvino, I. Morei durante anos em uma rua que ainda era chamada Instalou-se o drama: o que era tipicamente paulistano? Fazia sentido levar o doce de leite de Minas Gerais? O vestido branco rodado das baianas? Por que Salvador foi a cidade escolhida para sediar o congresso internacional da daCi? Mas que cara tem o Brasil?
A melhor pergunta talvez fosse: que cara queremos que o Brasil tenha? Em outras palavras, como temos vivido, percebido e atuado no ambiente urbano multicultural? Estas significa Vejamos um pequeno exemplo, o da capoeira. Defesa e ataque? Ou ainda, em que aspectos nos reconhecemos enquanto seres sociais urbanos — todavia brasileiros - na capoeira? Partilha com o grupo a roda? Pedagogia do oprimido. Rio de Janeiro: Vozes. Revista USP, no. Such foreign representations are not innocuous, objective and apolitical, and often lend themselves to the more extreme political agenda of others. Cultural, political and social equality can therefore only occur when people are provided the right to directly represent their own culture.
Whilst teaching ballet class for a dance workshop in the Philippines, an eager young man whose right arm had been severely stunted in pregnancy wanted me to help improve his second position port-de-bras. Second position, I hesitated. It simply is not going to happen. I smiled, spread his arms as wide as I could and moved on to the next student. I had no idea why he was in the class, and was too self-involved to care.
Whilst the attention that I gave to the other students felt like an investment in the future of Philippine dance culture, I quietly thought of any attention that I gave to him as pure charity. I was not alone in these thoughts. Jones which presented actual AIDS sufferers on stage. In partial support of this stance, Robert Brustein wrote in a letter to the New Yorker of the need to transcend harsh reality if we are not going to just gawk at it. A victim can be a very one-dimensional character, something mute and bleeding by the roadside, without past or future.
A voyeur, in turn, is somebody who looks and then disregards. This is often because they have either presented agonised images from their own experience, or because something about their personal circumstance suggests that they are less fortunate than others. Victorian era freak-shows, which elicited pity and pennies for so many years, may have left a profoundly cynical mark on 20th Century theatre-goers.
Sympathy became the assumed motive of any disconcerting show, and patronising the assumed role of any discerning audience. Many other cultures value the insights of a dancer who has actually experienced the suffering they portray. A Kularma, performed by Aborigines on Bathurst Island, first showed this to me.
A lament for a tribal elder, the singing and dancing went all night and day. The grieving relatives were performing, whilst scores of other tribal members were in attendance. The Kularma provided a chance to display how the bereaved experienced the suffering. Far from being a tired ritual, the dancers were evolving their dance form with innovative contemporary movements. Any of the expressions that seemed particularly poignant had the power to influence subsequent Kularmas, and shape the future grieving of others. For me it was quite a revelation that dancing can be at its most beautiful when performed with actual, not feigned, passion.
Now I am working in the Occupied West Bank. Many of the Palestinian dancers and choreographers have been imprisoned without charge or trial, some have been used as human shields, one had his home demolished, the mother of another was randomly executed, all by the occupying Israeli army. Good art does not demand that these dancers transcend their experiences before sharing them.
Paradoxically, performing their reality as truthfully as they experienced it may help their community transcend the siege, and other communities acknowledge it. But exposing such vulnerability to an audience requires a lot of courage. It also requires a lot of patient foresight on the part of cultural writers.
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Had I read about it more before arriving, I probably would never have come to dance and choreograph in the Occupied West Bank. That is not to say that I am unhappy living there, or that reading is such a bad thing. It is just that all I read about the place, now that I have moved there, seems very off-putting. War, Terrorism, Religious Fundamentalism —none of these words suggest a ripe ground for innovative choreography. And yet dance there is worth being involved in, despite the bad rap. It is made more difficult by the Israeli military and by the image of Palestine created by various writers, and as such I can not feel All this leads me to the question: The pen may be mightier than the sword, but is the pirouette so much weaker than both?
Whilst words have been more effective at bringing peace than any choreographed movement, it is curious to note that warfare has often been hastened by the words written about dance. Denigrating the dances of indigenous people and assessing them by irrelevant standards, dance writings have often bolstered the righteousness of empires.
European colonies were able to enslave, exploit and ethnically cleanse without guilt, as learned Western critics dismissed the native cultures. If we explore dance writing in Palestine as an example, we can find many illustrations of such an attitude, and its result. In H. They were a miserable and degraded looking set, scantily clad in blue cotton, all very filthy; and, excepting two or three of the younger ones, most repulsive in feature.
I never saw such vacant, sensual and debased features in any group of human beings of the type and form of whites. There was no trace of mind in the expression of any one of these poor creatures, who scarcely know they have a soul, and have not an idea beyond the day…we felt, as we looked at them that if there is one thing more trying than to witness pain which one cannot alleviate, it is to behold degradation which one cannot elevate.
Their dance is much the same as that of the men, a semicircle, with a couple of women to jump about and whirl swords.
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But the women display more fierceness and more passion as they warm to their work, and their shrill cries, dishevelled hair, loose robes and frantic gestures give us new ideas of the capacity of the gentle sex; you think that they would not only slay their enemies, but drink their blood and dance upon their fragments…a pretty face was here and there to be seen, but most were flaringly ugly, and — to liken them to what they most resembled — physically and mentally the type of North American squaws….
This scene has recurred every Thursday for, I suppose, hundreds of years, within a mile of the birthplace of Jesus. In , Palestinian contemporary dance was caricatured by Israeli dance writer Dr. The room itself is a cause of pain, an exact reversal of the therapeutic myth that dance should cure all ails.
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But the very real spatial situation and the resulting ideologising of space in dance point their own choreographic goals in just the opposite direction. At that time I did. Political correctness may seem tedious to many who have not known discrimination, but the power that words have to propel prejudice should not be disregarded. Having engaged in so much conflict within the Middle East however, an America this expressive of political correctness in domestic affairs would do well to apply the same rigour to its foreign relations.
With such words and swords being hurled at it for more than a century, one might expect Palestinian dance to succumb to this image of brutality. Having been involved with Palestinian dance for the past four years, I have instead been impressed by the diversity of its contemporary creations. The beautiful dancers dignify the title Philistine and belie the narrow colonial assessments of Charles Dudley Warner, H. Tristram and Dr Ronit Land. By telling their own traumatised stories in dance, Palestinians are both regaining control of their social identity and challenging the idea that victims have no place in theatre culture.
Were the Israeli government to allow more Palestinian dancers out of the Occupied Territories to tour and perform, more audiences might be able to judge this for themselves. Until then, dance pens will need to behave more responsibly, if the sword is to not prove mightier. I wonder about that young Filipino man quite often these days, and his courage. Second position of the arms in ballet, when done well, suggests both great power and great generosity. I wonder if he is managing to express these qualities in dance with second position or with other movements and if he is inspiring these qualities in others.
Perhaps he has given up and is now hiding his stunted arm in an empty sleeve stuffed into a trouser pocket. I do not know. But my own habitual voyeurism remains shaken by the strength and desire he had to fully live his reality in that dance class. References: Tristram, H. Journal of Travels in Palestine. BalletTanz, Germany May Croche, Arlene: The New Yorker. Abstract: Dance can't be imposed upon people; it emerges from curiosity and interest resulting in fulfillment. This is justifiable prominent when referring to dance and inclusion. To create a dance it must feature quality movement and focus, these and many others are not determined by body type, but by the natural development of movement and the ability to facilitate creativity.
When working with young people the environment in which work is made must be safe and solid, child protection is paramount. As stereotypes about dance are changing, social barriers are being eroded. The benefits of young people participating in dance and working in an inclusive environment is the first step in changing the attitudes that could last a life time, as a cycle of prejudice and separation are broken down. Dance and Inclusion It is important to abandon preconceived notions about what art can or cannot be, and especially what dance can or cannot be.
Many conferences occur globally debating this issue, arguing whether 'art' can be defined specifically. I personally don't feel that there is a definitive answer to the question 'what is dance? I like to keep things simple, living by my own ideas, and as I say to my class on many occasions "there is no such word as can't". Quite simply, we are all dancers. We all move and have the ability to arrange those movements in time and space. When you are aware of the movements you are making and those movements are then organized for effect, you have created Dance.
It is with this in mind that makes dance inclusive, open to young, old, rich, poor, abled, disabled, creatives and scientists. As Martha Graham wrote "I learn to dance by practicing dancing or to live by practicing living". To practice is to perform, learn, engage and to try and smile at times along the way, in the face of all obstacles - "some act of vision, faith or desire" Dance Studies Reader, Routledge, Easier said than done sometimes, when these obstacles seem too big and you can see no way round them.
I am not professionally equipped to help with life issues, but dance I can do.
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And as a teacher I continue to 'practice' and include all participants. For many, dance is just 'not their thing', which is fine because it would be a pretty overcrowded art form if we all loved it. In saying that it's not 'their thing' indicates they have 'had a go', explored the art form slightly and made an informed decision based on experience and personal taste.
But it's those people who say they 'can't dance' that disappoints me. Not only are they using that word 'can't' but it makes for a negative starting point. They may believe, because of their age, profession or disability that dance is not suitable for them and some people still believe that dance is all about ballet and girls in tutus. Celeste Dandeker, our artistic director, trained and danced with London Contemporary Dance Company until a stage accident in confinded her to a wheelchair and inevitably, or so she thought at the time, put an end to her career.
However, in , she was asked to dance for a short film for the BBC. Returning to rehearsing and performing was, she says, 'like being in a playground'. She formed CandoCo the following year with Adam Benjamin, an able-bodied dance teacher, initially as a dance workshop for disabled people in order to discover what dancers of different physicalities could achieve. Things were difficult at first - money was short, and classes and rehearsals were held alongside sporting activities in a draughty sports hall in north London - CandoCo, however, quickly made a name for itself.
One reason for this was that CandoCo was the UK's first integrated dance company. Celeste's determination to build a first rate dance company, and her understanding of the consistent hard work and discipline required to do this, has kept the company focused on artistic achievement and has prevented it being sidelined as a 'disability dance' group Ten years on, with our reputation well established in the mainstream of contemporary dance, CandoCo tours extensively overseas and in the UK.
It also runs a wide ranging education programme based on workshops and residencies in schools and colleges. In the company looked ahead and formed Cando II, an integrated youth dance company, of which I am the Co-ordinator. There are over 50 young people on the books, with a core group of 15 attending every weekend workshop and half term projects.
The ages vary between , the average being This group is run as an out of school activity, but state schools are now providing increased opportunities for young people, dance being included as part of the National Curriculum. In primary schools dance is a compulsory activity in the physical education curriculum and is usually taught by the pupils' classroom teacher. Each module, is covered and supported by an 'Including Young Disabled People' activity card, offering teachers ideas and advice on how to be inclusive and make lessons challenging for all pupils. Dance promotes learning and contributes to cross-curriculum activities.
For example a geography project that looks at the world beneath the Secondary schools can choose whether to teach dance and it may be taught as part of physical education or performing arts. It is usually taught by Qualified Teacher Status teachers, but there is no specialized help from any additional sports bodies for these teachers as there is for Primary teachers. Exams can be taken in dance as part of the curriculum, but accessibility to some colleges is limited. As awareness about inclusion increases, access is becoming a pressing priority to many students in secondary education and further education, as well as higher education.
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The young people who take part in CandoCo are no exception and they are already inquiring about how to further their dance studies through the state system, especially as they become more of the work possibilities available to them in the dance world. Promoting dance and offering encouragement to this new generation is not something I find hard to do. In the time I have spent with them I have already seen the positive effect dance has had on their lives.
The benefits of dance are endless for anyone who takes part. It promotes a healthy life style, encourages friendships, helps bodily understanding, and offers an escape from the grind of every day life. All these benefits are transferable and important to young people although I believe the greatest benefits are an increase in confidence and self-esteem, and the practice of verbal and non-verbal communication. Inclusion in society enables us to experience different walks of life, to learn about other cultures and beliefs, to be broad and open minded whilst trying to avoid conflict and ridicule at all costs.
So to join the two, 'dance' and 'inclusion', you are enabling an art form to flourish, grow and develop - some might even say break through social boundaries and stereotypes - therefore pushing out the boundaries of dance and disability benefiting everyone. People join either group for three reasons - 'the work we perform, our openness and our unique way of operating, and our high reputation. Our able-bodied dancers certainly do not join us because of a desire to work with disabled dancers.
However the fact that CandoCo consist of disabled and able-bodied dancers cannot be ignored. Celeste Dandeker CandoCo's artistic continues, There is no point in disabled dancers emulating able-bodied dancers. They need to find their own personal dance language. To begin with, when CandoCo was founded in , I wondered whether what we were creating could be called dance. I found the answer a few years later when I stood in the wings watching two of our dancers, one of whom was disabled, the other not, performing a duet.
The movement was so beautiful, good and riveting that I had no doubt that what was being performed was dance. From the s, "Duncan inspired 'natural' movement as it offered a more creative approach" Routledge, pg5. Creativity has new boundaries and is not confined to sex, class or ability. All participants and performers of CandoCo are encouraged to explore their 'natural' movement, find there personal dance language. The company's dancers work with students, disabled and nondisabled alike, to develop the physical skills they need to dance together and to enhance their creative, performing and appreciation skills.
What results, from a week long intensive workshop or an afternoon in a school, is a dramatic piece of dance with enormous visual impact. The most valued time for CandoCo is when the two groups work together, show each other's work and devise work. What the young people learn from the main company and vice versa is important part in making them feel part of a bigger picture, that of feeling connected.
Some of these young people have never even been to a theatre to see dance before, so to talk, watch and learn from role models is an invaluable part of their learning and personal development. A lot of the young people who attend have not danced before and it is with this in mind that fun and laughter is top of the agenda. The environment in which we work is safe and solid and as described by one of the young people "like a family, but Pippa's like a big sister who's sillier than.
Child Protection and safety is paramount and vital to the running of the group as they explore, grow and develop with freedom of speech and movement Creating such an atmosphere is done through trust, making sure participants know about the company. As a teacher it means being open to questions and allowing participants to take responsibility for their own bodies. Welly O'Brian, now a dancer for CandoCo, talks about how she gained training but first started out as a participant, It was really good to start out as a participant. It meant I could take the time to find out what I liked, what I was good at and how it all worked.
It is imperative and essential to encourage young minds and allow them to speak freely, all of which make a good teacher. Allowing them this freedom of thought and encouraging them to challenge themselves and each other is reflective in their movement and their openness to explore, and absorb different dance styles and techniques. The expectations from pupil to teacher and vice versa is to create quality movement and focus, these and many others are not determined by body type, but by the natural development of movement and the ability to facilitate creativity.
To conclude, dance and inclusion emerges from curiosity and interest, and always results in fulfillment, even if some tasks are perceived more successful than others. The fact that an integrated dance setting has emerged - the class is taking place and all young people are engaged and focused - a dance has already begun. As a teacher of integrated dance I am continually asking myself questions and exploring new ideas with participants.
I feel very privileged and quite humble that the young people continue to attend classes, particularly when there are many external factors, issues and problems in their everyday lives. As someone who also teaches in non-integrated settings, I believe that young people have a far greater experience with regards to creativity, in an inclusive setting. Dance has much to offer all young people, however, groups such as Cando II bring something special and magic to their work. Bibliography Dance Studies Reader, Routledge, This process has created new forms of connection and interdependence among people, and it has also seen the growth of inequality, poverty and violence.
This paper explores some of the implications of globalization for dance education. In particular, it focuses on the growing importance of the recognition and valuing of difference among human beings, while at the same time drawing our attention to the need for ways to affirm our commonalities. Creative dance with its emphasis on interpretation, and expression offers a powerful vehicle for understanding both our own experiences and the experiences of others, and thus enhancing human dialogue and understanding.
Keywords: dance, education, globalization, daCi, creative. We are being globalized. What does this mean for us, for dance? The creation of dance is no longer space or time determined in a global world. Instead it is constantly changing, absorbing new influences. Arabic music has become part of world beat. Argentinean tango and Brazilian capoeria can be found in studios in many parts of the world. African and AfroCaribbean rhythms have crossed cultural boundaries, as has the practice of yoga.
Through these aesthetic crossings barriers of difference have been broken down, opened us up to the vibrancy and excitement of alternative cultures, become a catalyst for new forms of experience, and encouraged new forms of empathy and concern for marginalized voices. Experiencing the movement of other cultures challenges me to become familiar with what is strange to me and, as I will argue in this paper, expands my sense of self.
The strange, or the stranger, is no longer external to who I am, but becomes part of my identity. The globalization process is not new; cultures have always been influenced and shaped by their contact with other cultures. What is new is the intensification of the process in terms of time as it affects the extent of the interplay between cultures and people. It took years for ballet to develop its form, yet today it took a matter of months for Latin rythmns to spread throughout the modern world.
What body form belongs to which dance is no longer so easily labeled. The dance expressions of minority or indigenous peoples have made their way onto the main stage. Just as markers of body classifications become more unworkable where people mix, fall in love, have children and create increasingly complex and hybrid identities, dance classifications too have become increasingly complex reflecting new interactions and encounters. Our ability to experience a world so rapidly on the move, even as we physically might stay in place, has changed our sense of boundaries—our sense of location.
Coming to recognize the imaginary nature of our boundaries—the narratives of country, race or ethnicity, even gender, has spurred us to deconstruct what has hitherto been accepted as pure and fixed, and to exhibit the reality of its fluid and constructed state.
Within this context it is significant to understand that is it not dance that creates us but we who create dance. Dance always mediates who we are and how we live within time and culture. In this sense dance is a text written by the body signifying how we experience and give meaning to our world. In other words pedagogic practices that draw upon the body and aesthetic processes as ways of understanding the world and ourselves can be a starting place for dance educators to contribute to developing human beings and citizens of a more humane, just and loving global community.
Dangers and Possibilities The process of globalization is a double-edged one. We might say it has a yin and a yang quality—it is both generative and also destructive. It makes more apparent, and more real, our human connections and commonalities. It offers possibilities and dangers and both are powerfully present today. Dangers increase as conflict arises between peoples as they become aware of the terrible inequalities that mark our world. The values of capitalism and modernity spread into every corner of the globe undermining and eroding the traditional religious and cultural beliefs of generations.
Extraordinary technological innovation has brought about such rapid changes in jobs, communication and community that it has unleashed a dangerous sense of anxiety and insecurity in our homes and lives. Such instability inflicts fears, pressures and anxieties on our children in ways not yet fully recognized. Yet, globalization offers possibilities as it brings connections between peoples, creating new engagements and interactions. It enables us to appreciate identity as a process always open to new cultural influences.
And it allows us to see that it is change and connection, not separation that brings growth and renewal. Globalization has expanded our understanding of reality. Indeed it reveals that for the inhabitants of this world there are many realities. In other words, it allows us to see that there are many different ways in which we organize our perceptions and understandings of our world. All of this, as we will see, brings new importance to dance education. As we have given more attention to the many varied and diverse ways human beings experience their world so we have become more aware of the importance of place, temporality, and embodied experience.
Perhaps, those in power knew such images would draw horrified indignation from many viewers and therefore, create more resistance to the war. Yet, as human rights activists Richard Falk reminds us one of the most profound challenges confronting humanity today is to devise alternatives to war as the foundation of global and human security. The Dalai Lama, as a voice for world peace, suggests that it is the general experience of suffering that acts as a unifying force that connects us with others. Perhaps, then it is the body, more than anything in our diverse and complex world that unites us in recognition of our shared fragility and our common human condition.
One more reason to value the work we do as educators of the body. Who more than us appreciates the potential beauty and extraordinary capabilities of that which all of us humans share. These recognitions alone however cannot be depended upon to transform us into caring human beings. Our rational capacities have proven to be insufficient in informing and guiding us to a more humane global existence.
Human practices that can bring about a more valuing, caring, nurturing world also require the development of our spiritual, moral and feeling capacities. Michael Lerner , rabbi and social critic, has called for a politics of meaning to heal, repair and transform the world. Richard Falk would call for a utopian realism as the ethos of a humane global society. Each of them recognizes that it will take the development of whole human beings to bring about change in the world.
As they came together from different cultures, religions, countries and experiences they created a prophetic vision for dance. And it is the presence of children at DACI from different places in our world that makes the vision concrete. Children love dancing, not white children or black or Latino, Asian or African. What they know is that our differences whether in the color of our skin, the kind of hair we have, or our physical shape are of only small importance. What matters is how we understand and treat each other. Taking care not to diminish the importance of difference, as there is much left to be done in the way of adequately recognizing and valuing all of our experiences, cultures and traditions, I nonetheless want to draw attention not so much to the question of difference, but how we might organize through our commonalities.
It is the commonalities of our bodies that offer ways of. To address the importance of a common humanity is to understand that the struggle for human rights and human liberation are indispensable in a globalized world. The body, our bodies, is what grounds our commonalities. For those of us who teach, it can be the starting point for developing children who are more sensitive, caring, connected and tolerant of others. How might we do this? Aesthetics of Identity What we know is that a freely chosen life, like creative dance, is one that contains choices, opportunities for judgment, and the possibility of remaking our world and ourselves.
Such opportunities for choices and judgments means that this process is both an aesthetic and an ethical one. It is this kind of fluid process which is an inevitable part of a globalized world.
We might speak here of a never finished, always open process of becoming that never finally arrives at some essential or completed self. This ability to be fluid, to flow, is in contradiction to some static notion of identity. Sadly, it is worth remembering here how many children grow up in places where they are taught to see who they are as different and permanently closed to other influences.
Whether because of religion, ethnicity, or nationality, they are taught to remain pure and unaffected by the lives of others who are different from them. It provides a process in which the creative interpretation of experience is central. Drawing upon creative dance as a process of meaning-making contributes to nurturing identities that find joy and celebration in freedom, imagination and the encounter with others, and the recognition that a full human life requires openness to possibilities.
At DACI we know it is through the encounter with others that we come understand so much about ourselves. As the critical philosopher, Cornell West has noted who we are is always who we are in relationship to others. This engagement with otherness is an act of recognition and affirmation, an act that signifies that we come to know ourselves and our world in relationship. Sadly, such positive influences of interaction with others and exposure to different cultures are not uniformly welcome in many parts of the world.
Indeed, globalization with its migration of people can produce resentment and hostility to the presence of new languages, styles, art forms st and behaviors. In the 21 century one of the great challenges before us is how to ensure that this engagement with difference is experienced as one of celebration, growth, and creativity — a way to develop and expand who we are- and not as a source rising hatred and anger towards those who are different from ourselves. This includes challenging the limited ability and constraints of our international institutions. Arts education, then, becomes revolutionary as it shows us reality in As dance educators we can assist children in learning how to give voice to their life-stories through dance.
Not only is moving their own stories pedagogically valuable, but also moving them for others provides a place for students to share their stories. In sharing their stories a common dialogue can begin. For, as they learn how to express the world as they experience it they become able to see themselves in others — able to develop that empathy for the life of another that a true and just community demands.
As I come to understand the power of dance education to be a transformative experience needed to overcome the limitations of our differences and understand our commonalities, I become more convinced that dance educators have been given a unique gift. We have the opportunity to work with children and young people in ways that affirm their identities, challenge their taken-forgranted assumptions, and impart a way of being in the world that is compassionate, critical, creative and bound up with a vision for a more just global community.
Such a community is, unlike our present fragmented and competitive world, a place we can count on, where we understand each other, where we are never a stranger, where we trust each other, and where we are safe. While such a community stands for the kind of world that is not yet available to us it is, I believe, the loving and just world our children need and deserve — and for which we as educators must struggle to make possible.
As dancers and dance educators our wisdom is in the act of creating the impossible. For it is in art as the impossible we seek to truly cherish all that makes us distinct and different. And, it is in art as the impossible that we seek to embrace our commonalities as we re-vision and remake bonds that link us all in ways that are truly caring. There are no permanent solutions only imagination and creativity, and the passionate desire for a more just and loving world. References Bauman, Zygmunt.
Oxford: Blackwell Publishers. Bauman, Zygmunt. Falk, Richard. The great terror war. New York: Olive Branch Press. Greene, Maxine. The dialectic of freedom. New York: Teachers College Press. Hall, Stuart. Race, the floating signifier. Media Educational Foundation. Northhamton: Virginia. Lama, D. The art of happiness. New York: Riverhead Books. Learner, Michael. A spiritual politics for the post-taliban world. Shapiro, S. The body: the site of common humanity. Body movements: Pedagogy, politics, and social change. New Jersey: Hampton Press. Smith, D. Zygmunt Bauman: Prophet of postmodernity. The presentation encloses concepts on Dance Teaching for Adolescents in Situation of Social Exclusion, including the structure of the dance department, its curricular parameters, objectives, methods and specific strategies of dance education.
This text also describes processes of sheltering adolescents until their possible professionalization, including supporting and follow up, as well as regular activities and extra classe, artistic results, dance abillits, products and methods of assessment. Key Words: social exclusion; adolescent; teaching; dance. A Cia. ABC Direitos humanos. Seis estudos em psicologia. Exige portanto, novos professores. Stelarc pode ser citado como outro exemplo. Ele utiliza-se de novas tecnologias para estender 1 as capacidades de seu corpo. Entreter e distrair, propiciando um escapismo da realidade?
Mas como? Marques, a, p. A pele da cultura. Champaign, Human Kinetics, A arte do motor. These bodies are products and produce tension between rationality and subjectivity in contemporary societies. A qualitative research was made, based on hermeneutic phenomenology. In this sense we create the phenomena by descriptive, comprehensive and interpretative discourses Rezende, These discourses are about pedagogical practice of four female teachers and one male teacher with academic and artistic preparation into dance. The descriptive discourse identified that these bodies were multiple, and presented concomitantly as objects and subjects.
The comprehensive discourse, however, revealed bodies which were at the same time multiple and contradictory, but unique and singular. The interpretative discourse evidenced that these bodies were fractals Cunha e Silva, , because they are multiple and unique. Bodies: immaterial, chaotic, meaningful, limitless, identifiable, relational and transitory. Keywords: Body, dance teaching, phenomenology, modern, post modern. Classificamos as propostas em: racionalistas-objetivistas; empiricistas-subjetivistas e interacionistas.
Ao longo do processo procedemos a um total de 57 cinquenta e sete entrevistas. Os sujeitos da nossa pesquisa foram identificados ao longo do processo de observar. Estes apresentam sempre a mesma estrutura. Quanto ao professor Lion, em suas aulas, observamos corpos que os corpos: a aceitam ser tocados; b brincam; c sorriem; d falam; e gritam; f executam. Salvador, Bahia. Barbosa, A. A imagem do ensino da arte: Anos oitenta e novos tempos. Cunha e Silva O lugar do corpo: Elementos para uma cartografia fractal.
Lisboa: Instituto Piaget. Foster, S. Dancing bodies. Meaning in motion: new cultural studies of dance. London: Duke University Press. Border tensions: dance and th discourse. Proceedings of 5 Study of Dance Conference. Surrey, Guilford, England.
Notas sobre o tempo, o clima e a diferença
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In: Fraleigh, S. Researching dance: Evolving modes of inquiry. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press. Curriculum and the morality of aesthetics. Taylor, S. Touraine, A. Madrid: Temas de Hoy. O samba foi influenciado pela marcha, pelo lundu e pelo batuque, entre outros ritmos. As suas letras falam da vida urbana ou de amor. Cultura brasileira: multiculturalismo ou interculturalidade?
Ed: UniverCidade, E o "corpo-samba":imagens do corpo em festa. Santa Cruz do Sul, Rio de Janeiro, Nova Fronteira: Postpositive research in dance. Researching Dance evoluing modes of inquiry. USA, Pttsburgh Press, Sentimento e Forma. Em outros momentos, a realidade delineia contornos que nos fazem visualizar que sobrevive um Brasil que luta e se afirma. Um grande projeto de unidimensionalidade de que fala Marcuse.
Queremos ser iguais ou queremos ser diferentes? Para o autor, houve um tempo em que a resposta se abrigava, segura de si, no primeiro termo da disjuntiva. Isto porque a humanidade do homem se confunde com a corporeidade. Somos criadores do 'nosso mundo', inventores do 'nosso mundo', fabuladores e sonhadores do 'nosso mundo', transformadores do mundo real porque transformadores do 'nosso mundo' Segundo ele, perceber " Sempre nos movimentamos13PARA Desta forma, estou atado a um certo15mundo por Ser corpo e " Campinas: Rio de Janeiro, Campinas: Papirus, Carlos Alberto R.
Rio de Janeiro: Mauad,