Both of these explanations show the speed at which the sport grew here and and how this came from the expansion and intrusion of the British Empire. The image of Queen Victoria in this passage is used to show how the English viewed the growth of the sport in Uruguay and Brazil, as her image is looking down on them with disdain, as they have taken this sport and made it their own.
At this stage they were viewed as beneath the British with regards to this game, and as it was the British who pushed it on them, this is a fascinating point: that the British might be disappointed in what they created. This is ironic given the eventual success of these South American nations when it comes to World Cups, particularly in games against England. Specifically, Galeano notes many famous political changes that happened in the year , specifically the Watergate Scandal, the fall of dictatorships in Greece, Portugal, and Spain, and the deaths of a few famous artists.
However, the most striking political aspect of this World Cup that Galeano does not explicitly state is that of the Cold War. Galeano points out that the Soviet Union, a superpower both geopolitically and athletically, had failed to qualify for the tournament, while U. These two teams would play in the final of the tournament, with West Germany surprisingly triumphing over the free flowing Dutch. Those these two nations are not thought of as part of the Global South, the important metaphor that can be taken from their story is the conflict between the values endorsed by the U.
In other words, the Soviet Union failed to even qualify while its rival, West Germany, won the entire tournament. This can be seen as a metaphor for the eventual triumph of the U. This shows that despite the emergence of South American nations as soccer superpowers with their own flair, European nations were equally as capable of innovating and adapting to new styles of the game. Chile underwent a coup in to depose President Salvador Allende, which ushered in the dictatorship of Augusto Pinochet.
This event had two massive consequences: the Soviet Union refused to travel to Chile to play a qualifying match, and the Chilean team was left in a period of turmoil. Though Chile qualified for the tournament because of the Soviet forfeit, they failed to win a single match once there. Galeano does an excellent job of noting that a changing and turbulent political climate can have crushing effects on the morale and ability of a national soccer team. The author points to the fact that it was around this time that Algeria began the process of independence, having discussed it in class and upon further research, the Algerian Football Federation was not established until that year and would not become an official part of FIFA until Before its recognition, playing soccer matches as their own team was a form of defiance, an act of rebellion against their European oppressors.
The author mentions other events of importance. It is hinted that this had some ramification for the development of the sport in the country. Though not exactly imperialism, the USSRs expansion of influence into the new world had a profound effect on the expression of cuban soccer; the island became an outcast and invitations to international cups and friendlies became a rarity.
A German referee gave England the match against Argentina, while an English referee gave Germany the match against Uruguay. The creators of the sports would have their due. In the discussion of each World Cup, Galeano notes how many participants came from each continent, frequently framing those from the Global South as invaders and conquerors of European soccer. In many of these South American countries, soccer was a symbol of power. Extrapolating this metaphor, and we can understand that, when countries from the Global South beat the Europeans, they were retaking power, leveling the playing field after generations of exploitation and colonization.
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I also took note of how Galeano emphasized the equalizing nature of soccer — how players could rise to the top of the game, regardless of the color of their skin or their socioeconomic background. From its origins as an elite school boys sport in England to a world wide sport that crosses into all genders, cultures, and socioeconomic categories, the wave of soccer swept the globe prompted by imperialism and latched onto by the masses.
And it was the masses that changed the game. Teams like Uruguay and Argentina, filled with players who had grown up playing barefoot in the streets with a homemade ball, were beginning to beat England at its own game. The teams were winning world titles and making a name for their countries that were otherwise over looked and undervalued. The game went from being a white mans sport where any color was punished or banned to a diverse game where you were celebrated for your skill and ability to manipulate the ball.
She can be put to sleep or made to leap around in a beautiful partner dance with who every happens to have possession of her at that time. The beauty, the skill, the tricks and touches that make the crowd go wild is the game that was introduced and perfected by the likes of Brazil and other south and central American players. And that is the game that has become popularized and challenges that more proper and less creative and artistic style of Europe.
The global south has made the game their own. It has turned work back into play, and brought about an appreciation of the game that can be thanked for providing hope of a way out and an unspeakable joy as an escape from the toil and struggle of daily life. When England introduced the world to soccer, little did they know that the world would take it, run with it, and make it their own.
With what England has taught to play, the world has learned to dance. While soccer has the magical ability to unite a nation, it can also entrench long-standing division through regional rivalry. Players from the slums become gods on the pitch, yet biases against neighborhoods, counties, and whole sections of a country thrive in the passionate rivalry that produce these chants.
Galeano points to this phenomenon in Italy where the north has traditionally always looked down upon the south. This presents an interesting struggle as the modern, wealthy world becomes obsessed with politically correctness while fans from poorer countries still use any insult that has a bite. Soccer in a way heralds the old values of masculinity: to be victorious, one must have the heart of a warrior and the skin of a rhino.
And since the stadium will always allow man to blow off steam, this increasing effort to make chants politically correct will prove to be an interesting debate. Throughout his book, Soccer in Sun and Shadow, Galeano makes a number of references to imperialism and its connection with soccer. As it well known, soccer was invented in England, but it was the South Americans who truly mastered the game. In this description, Galeano almost seems boastful and proud of his countryman.
Although imperialism is not explicitly referred to, Galeano seems to hint at the irony of Andrade becoming an international star. In the face of oppression from European imperialists in South America, an unlikely boy transformed into a figure that received wide praise from playing the game they created. As with any imperialist campaign, the invading empire makes its presence feel felt in various aspects of the invaded society.
This certainly did not exclude soccer. In the same sketch, Galeano recounts early South American soccer games that were played under a large portrait of Queen Victoria.
There are a wide variety of reasons as to why soccer is a useful lens to analyse the politics of imperialism. For one, soccer and imperialism are inherently linked in that the global craze for soccer can greatly be attributed to British imperialists that spread the game throughout their colonies. In these colonies, it was likely that British citizens would play games in their own leisure time, and, in some countries, were the original organisers of local teams that would eventually form the basis of future leagues.
With this, we are able to understand the political role that soccer may have played in these early colonies, in addition to how this role transformed over time and shaped the nations that exist today. With the formation of this new identity, countries symbolically break ties with past imperialist aggressors and forge a new path forward.
Each section in his book on world cups is a little summary of the world during the year of the world cup. He covers everything from pop culture to global politics and finds a way to tie all back to the sport. Focusing on the politics outlined in the sections, Galeano rarely shies away from making his thoughts known when it comes to certain world events.
The book is chock full with metaphors and similes that are used to make his thoughts clear. A good example of this is when Galeano discusses the events of the world cup. He sees it as the reflection of the world and the power that has. Soccer really is a mirror into the human psyche. As was discussed before, soccer has a lot of values that humans find admirable, and these values play a role in how soccer and politics can be connected. When it comes to the politics of imperialism nothing is more representative than the world cup.
Country battles country to determine who is the best, and like in real war and imperialism it is the countries that are the most developed that will come out victorious. But every now and then an underdog rises to the occasion. Mexico will beat the world champions of Germany; Russia will defeat the classic Spaniards who have been training for this their whole life. It is these upset that make soccer a useful lens to view politics through. Just as in the real world, anything can happen on the pitch. Today there are countless stories of fans hurling racial slurs and acting out violently in countries from England to Italy to Russia and beyond.
Beyond blind hate, hooligans are notorious for their ultra-conservative, nationalist, and racist motivations. These groups of people use football as a medium through which to express their hateful views. These personally offensive and inappropriate insults cross a well-recognized line of chanting etiquette. Insulting other teams is a staple of football culture and provides supporters with a common enemy — and this can be perfectly acceptable if practiced in the right way, but chanting racist and xenophobic content should have no place in the stadium. Hooligans somehow neglect all codes of ethic when inside the stadium and allow their most deep-seated and vile emotions to boil over.
Therefore, through soccer we can analyze divisions in a community that might not otherwise be visible outside the lawlessness of the arena. If he returns in defeat, the warrior becomes a fallen angel. Similarity to war, the author describes the field as the battlefield. The quote from this sketch relates to imperialism because of the emphasis on taking land by military force. Galeano describes these battles as fighting for glory on far-off fields.
In essence, soccer teams travel the world and fight other teams for glory. Eventually the top team will rule the world from its imperial conquest over all other teams standing in its way from a World Cup. Like the early conquests of Ancient Rome, you either won or you had no home. An all or nothing mind set can also be related to soccer. If we lose, we no longer exist. Without question, the national uniform has become the clearest symbol of collective identity, not only in poor or small countries whose place on the map depends on soccer.
For many countries, soccer is the only subject that keeps them relevant to the rest of the world.
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The only thing that keeps them competitive and seen as threat. They say an army with nothing to lose is the most dangerous.
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I believe the same can be said about a desperate soccer team being the most lethal during their conquests in a tournament. Galeano outlines how soccer fanaticism can draw from far more than just a love of the game; fanatics from England, whom Galeano describes as dressed in tattoos, smelling of alcohol, and wearing brass knuckles, would often use nationalist language when supporting their teams. These fans more than dislike their opponents; they view them as racially inferior.
Galeano mentions how soccer can be used as a cover for nationalist agendas, as Nazis and nationalist groups use the sport to mask their anti-immigrant agendas. Soccer highlights the relationship between modern nationalism and the history of imperialism, and Galeano uses the sport to demonstrate how the politics and soccer cannot be separated. This reference back to imperialistic ventures draws a connection between the two rapid changes in relationships between European and American countries.
During the era of imperialism, European countries quickly transitioned from ignorance, in their lack of knowledge about the existence of the Americas, to fascination; countries poured large sums of money into exploring the foreign land and exploiting its bounties for their own betterment. Similarly, in the realm of soccer, the victory of the Uruguayan national team at the Olympic Games put their small country on the map and this emergence attracted mounds of European attention.
One of the reasons that soccer has been able to become so universally popular is that it was adopted and mastered in all different parts of the world, thanks to the vastness of the British Empire. Additionally, the fact that soccer can be played with nothing more than a ball allows it to be a sport that anyone can master, making it possible for a small country passionate about soccer to reinvent the game and dominate the country that introduced it to them as a game for royalty.
Because of the universal appeal of soccer, it provides a useful lens for analyzing the politics of imperialism. Soccer teams from all over the world have committed to the sport, raised brilliant young players and risen up against their imperialists or former imperialists. Whether the Uruguayans dominating the Europeans in the s, or the Algerian team competing with France in , soccer teams have long served as a symbol of defiance or independence and always as a source of national pride.
We noticed how important it is for children to feel like at home. Before we went, we got the children to each pack their own bag with some favourite toys. These were important and were much appreciated when the children needed time to unwind or wanted a moment for themselves. But the best things to have along were their bikes and scooters. Everywhere we stopped with the motorhome there were flat, child-friendly areas where they could get some exercise and play on their bikes. We are really pleased that we managed to fit them into our Sun Living and they already have their own special place reserved in the luggage compartment for the next trip.
TIP 4. Stay overnight by the sea. Sleep where you want to wake up. That really is the essence of quality of life. And it gives children a lively and exciting holiday where they can be involved in decisions on where to sleep and what things to do. TIP 5. Mix activities. Everyone should get to do their own. And of course you have to do activities where the children are the focus. But we also believe that it is at least as important for adults to be able to live their dreams together with their children.
This makes parents happy. And happy parents mean happy children. And children learn about passion, and through that, are able to find their own. TIP 6. Have the courage to mess about with routines. The motorhome makes everything so easy. It was a very exciting time for our children.
Normally our little bundles of energy wake up at five in the morning. But in the motorhome we sometimes got to experience some of our first lie-ins as parents of young children.
Perhaps partly because the children were allowed to stay up later in the lovely summer evenings. But also just because we slept so incredibly well in our Sun Living.