Minimally Invasive Medical Technology (Series in Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering)

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A second layer of fabrics protects the electrodes and the wires. In conclusion, the proposed novel multi-channel EEG caps with dry electrodes can potentially replace conventional wet multi-channel EEG caps and thus enable new fields of application like brain-computer-interfaces and mobile EEG acquisition.

Nowadays, additive manufacturing otherwise known as three-dimensional 3D printing is fully implemented into the production of hard tissue replacements. Department of Biomedical Engineering and Measurement together with CEIT Biomedical Engineering company designed and produced more than 45 implants made of titanium alloy using additive technologies, which were subsequently implanted by Slovak and foreign surgeons.

Compared with non-biological printing, 3D bioprinting involves additional complexities, such as the choice of materials, cell types, growth and differentiation factors, and technical challenges related to the sensitivities of living cells and the construction of tissues. Tubular structures were tested from geometrical point of view to assure required precision, repeatability and possibility to print porous structures for application of epithelial and muscle cells and their growth. Several studies on PEEK spinal implants manufactured by 3D printing were realized, where mechanical testing, simulations and testing of biocompatibility were implemented.

Presented research covers selected case studies of patient specific implants made by additive manufacturing and research in medical 3D bioprinting and tissue engineering. These computational physiology models deal with multiple physical processes coupled tissue mechanics, electrical activity, fluid flow, etc and multiple spatial and temporal scales.

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They are intended both to help understand physiological function and to provide a basis for diagnosing and treating pathologies in a clinical setting. A long term goal of the project is to use computational modeling to analyze integrative biological function in terms of underlying structure and molecular mechanisms.

It is also establishing web-accessible physiological databases dealing with model-related data at the cell, tissue, organ and organ system levels. I had the priviledge of chairing the Clinical Engineering Division of the International Federation for Medical Biological Engineering for three years and to learn a lot from the past mistakes, that often prevented this beautiful profession from achieving the world recognition that it deserves.

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Epilepsy is a debilitating brain disorder. Understanding the dynamics of generation of seizures ictogenesis could provide the foundation for new, more effective, treatment modalities. Currently, the two most promising such modalities are removal of the epileptogenic focus by surgery and control of seizures via neuromodulation. Respectively, what these modalities really need is the accurate localization of the focus and its network, and the understanding of the dynamics of ictogenesis.

Monitoring and quantitative analysis of images and signals from the epileptic brain help neuroengineers towards these directions. In particular, our group has shown that, even from interictal seizure-free periods, it is possible to accurately localize the epileptogenic focus by analysis of electroencephalographic EEG and magnetoencephalographic MEG signals employing measures of directed information flow like the generalized partial directed coherence GPDC.

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We have also shown in the past that it is possible to predict seizures with good sensitivity and specificity minutes to hours before their occurrence by employing measures from nonlinear dynamics, and to abate them with a novel feedback control scheme. Examples of focus localization and seizure prediction in humans and closed-loop seizure control in simulations and animal models of epilepsy will be presented.

Design and Development of Biomedical and Surgical Instruments in Biomedical Applications

Therefore, the employed platform and measures are promising for identification of the topology of the pathological dynamics of neuronal networks that lead to seizures, development of biomarkers for susceptibility to seizures, timely abatement of seizures by closed-loop neuromodulation, as well as objective evaluation of the efficacy of current and new seizure treatment strategies.

Broader application of this framework to other complex systems requiring monitoring, forecasting and control is a natural outgrowth of this analytical platform. These functionalities include physical, physico-chemical and chemical processes that can be combined with nanometer size geometries of biological targets in order to predict early DNA damage.

We will present an overview of the Geant4-DNA project and discuss on-going developments. User applications based on examples available in Geant4 will be shown. A DNA double strand break DSB can be a lethal lesion if unrepaired but, as importantly, can lead to carcinogenesis if misrepaired. Our cells are equipped with two major DSB repair pathways as well as a signalling response that can impact upon the repair of DSBs in multiple ways.

Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering - IOPscience

An important issue, however, is the fidelity with which the DSBs are rejoined. Current evidence also suggests that a component of NHEJ involves resection of the DNA ends, which also has the potential to cause small deletions at the junctions. Additionally, and importantly in the context of radiotherapy, NHEJ has the capacity to rejoin the incorrect DNA ends, leading to the formation of translocations. This appears to arise at a frequency that increases exponentially with dose. The signalling response to DSBs involving the ATM kinase serves to restrict incorrect end-joining, thereby promoting accurate rejoining.

I will discuss the processes of DSB rejoining, focusing on the two distinct components of NHEJ and its interface with the signalling response. This rapid process changed healthcare delivery at developed world and increasingly improves community health in the low and middle income countries LMIC.

In this presentation we will outline the issues surrounding the dissemination of medical evidence and understanding public information needs from Internet search weblogs analytics. Educational effectiveness of serious games highlights the opportunity mobile technology brought to training, community engagement and behaviour change. Social networking with increasing amount of user-generated content from social media and participatory surveillance systems provide readily available source of real-time monitoring and epidemic intelligence.

In this talk, we will draw from several mobile technology projects aimed at citizens in low and middle income countries. In particular, mobile training and crowdsourcing for community engagement to combat the zika virus in Brazil, social media use for vaccination campaigns, early warning epidemics dashboard, and serious mobile games for increasing resilience and disaster preparedness in perinatal women in Nepal. Biologists and physicians have to be able to rely on the correctness of results obtained by automatic analysis of biomedical images.

This, in turn, requires paying proper attention to quality control of the developed algorithms and software for this task. Both the medical image analysis and bioimage analysis communities are becoming increasingly aware of the strong need for benchmarking various image analysis methods in order to compare their performance and assess their suitability for specific applications. This talk summarizes recent developments in this respect and describes common ways of measuring algorithm performance as well as providing guidelines for best practices for designing biomedical image analysis benchmarks and challenges, including proper dataset selection training versus test sets, simulated versus real data , task description and defining corresponding evaluation metrics that can be used to rank performance.

Proper benchmarking of image analysis algorithms and software makes life easier not only for future developers to learn the strengths and weaknesses of existing methods but also for users who can select methods that best suit their particular needs. Also reviewers can better assess the usefulness of a newly developed analysis method if it is compared to the best performing methods for a particular task on the same type of data using standard metrics. Most contrast in conventional MRI arises from differences in T1 relaxation time. Studies on small tissue samples have shown that extra information could be obtained from T1-dispersion plots of T1 versus magnetic field strength , but this information is invisible in conventional MRI since scanners operate at fixed magnetic field e.

We have built two whole-body human sized scanners, operating at detection fields of 0. The 0. Different types of analysis of the surface electrocardiogram have been proposed for evaluating the effects of antiarrhythmic drugs, such as: heart rate variability, QT-dispersion, ST-segment or QRS-Morphology.

A decade or so ago, new research began to appear on atrial antiarrhythmic drug effects, thanks to novel techniques for quantifying parameters related to atrial activity that commonly go overlapped by ventricular activity. Such techniques include analysis in terms of atrial fibrillatory rate and its variability, spectral characterization of fibrillatory waves during AF, P-wave signal averaged ECG during sinus rhythm among others.

This presentation analyzes how these techniques are being applied to a new field of study such as cardioversion drugs, providing knowledge on how they can act non-invasively and analyzing the evolution of atrial dominant frequency together with other parameters in the spectrum spectral concentration, second peak ratio, harmonics, etc. In order to validate the information obtained non-invasively, the analysis shows a comparison between the parameters obtained through the ECG analysis and those obtained through a duo-decapolar catheter during an electrophysiology study, in which both recordings are obtained simultaneously.

Much of the information can be obtained through advanced analysis of the ECG signal, although asynchrony and heterogeneity continue to be difficult to obtain. Health Technology Assessment HTA aims to inform healthcare decisions regarding appropriate innovative health technologies. After many years in which HTA community focused mainly on drug assessment, the attention of HTA international community is returning on medical devices, given their growing diffusion, increasing complexity and associated costs.

This talk will report on challenges and gaps met while assessing medical devices suggesting, when relevant, possible solutions. For instance, in a recent study, the ABSPIeH lab demonstrated that even the positioning of a sensor, may affect the significance of a test based on medical devices. In a different study, performing field analysis in Sub-Saharan Africa, ABSPIeH lab tried to quantify the extent of which HTA reports can be reliable when assessing safety or effectiveness of medical devices in low income countries. This talk will report on those experiences and will conclude presenting the significant effort made by the ABSPIeH, in cooperation with the IFMBE HTAD and the WHO, in order to produce pragmatic teaching material and guidelines on HTA of medical devices, which was designed specifically to meet the needs of medical physicists and biomedical engineers scientific communities.

Getting access and analyzing data is the driving force behind all progress in business today. This is also true in healthcare. Patient records hold the information for their current care and there is now intercommunication between heath systems to link data and create a complete patient electronic medical record EMR.

This requires robust security measures to ensure records are only accessible by people that should be accessing them. It also requires a dependable methodology to ensure the correct patient data is linked together. So how do you find the relevant data? In addition, the data is often unstructured or there are structured and unstructured data combined.

Consequently, an intelligent method to search and combine this data is needed. But who should get this notification and how do you minimize notification overload? Also, how do you link a clinical recommendation to a result? In addition, there is much more data that needs to be accessible by clinicians to make the right decisions on care. Clinicians need to know all the latest advances and what experts in each area recommend. This is just a small portion of things that are being done or are needed in medical informatics.

A review of some of the methods that are being used to gather and analyze medical data will be presented. The presentation will introduce IAEA standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property so called International Basic Safety Standards on Radiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources BSS , and advancements with their application in the radiations radiation safety systems.

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The first BSS were published in and have been revised and updated since then. The latest version which was approved in September and published in , is jointly sponsored by seven other international organizations. It applies to all situations involving exposure due to radiation, whether of natural or artificial origin. As such, they are universally applicable to the protection of people in all exposure situations. The presentation will also address three existing or foreseen challenges namely 1 need to address dose coefficients per unit exposure to radon and radon progeny which are being prepared by ICRP and UNSCEAR, 2 application of the concepts of exclusion, exemption, and clearance, and 3 food drinking water safety related to the presence of natural and artificial radionuclides.

In the last part, the presentation will discuss specific challenges that were highlighter in the aftermath of the TEPCO Dai-ichi NPP accident in Japan, particularly radiation protection of workers in elevated exposure situations and communication of radiation protection measures with non-expert parties. Until recently, even some academic centers in the US have opted not to scan such patients or to limit their scanning to modalities other than MRI.

In this presentation, current literature and general recommendations of scientific and professional societies as well as regulatory bodies in the US and Europe will be reviewed. This undertaking is an example of the use of a teamwork approach to hospital policy, an approach in which members of different disciplines and different departments work in concert to meet the medical and safety challenges of relatively new medical issues. Specific procedures, guidelines for pulse sequences, Specific Absorption Rate, electronic lead configuration, review of vendor information, and the steps for medical approval followed at MUSC will be presented.

Safety is a key factor, next to expected effectiveness, which characterizes quality of a medical device. Safety of medical devices became a big topic after the PIP scandal and as consequence, the authorities started to put more focus on strict and precise compliance with the requirements. On the other hand, when putting a medical device on the market, the main goal is to safeguard the public health and to offer an effective and no compromizing therapy or diagnose.

Therefore, it is crucial that manufacturers are complying with these requirements to highest possible level during the whole lifecycle of the device. In the presentation, different aspects of safety of medical device will be discussed and also a short overview of safety requirements in the new regulations will be presented. Main Topic: Micro- and Nanosystems, Active Implants, Biosensors Presentation title: Next generation multi-electrode array technologies for neuroscience and cardiology: challenges, progress and opportunities Misha Spira Neurobiology, E. Safra campus, Jerusalem, Israel The academic and clinical impact of extracellular microelectrode-arrays MEA neuroengineering technologies exceeded all expectations.

Today's brain-machines interface technologies BMIs enable to replace sensory organs, connect robotic parts to the PNS or CNS, link disrupted neuronal pathways, sense pathological firing patterns and generate stimuli to modulate them, inject drugs and suppress pain. Under in vitro conditions similar technologies are used to screen drugs using cultured human pluripotent stem cells taken from healthy subjects and patients to develop advanced personalized medicine.

Nevertheless, even the most sophisticated MEA used nowadays suffer from critical drawbacks such as poor signal to noise ratio, inadequate source resolution and instabilities overtime. These sever shortcomings are attributed mainly to the nature of the interfaces formed between living cells and the MEA devises. This is due to the use of either fast multi-detector CT MDCT scanners or highly sophisticated fluoroscopic equipment such as angiography machines to best localize the lesion or the treatment site.

The machines are used to continuously monitor and record these procedures. The most important tissue injuries affect the skin and the eye lens. They usually appear within days of exposure. They may be acute or chronic and a certain threshold is required. New medical and biomechanical information sources, intelligent sensors and transducers and their wireless networks for physiology, movement analysis and ultrasonic as well as nonlinear interactions tissue for diagnosis, development and research.

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Juceviciene, R. Jucevicius, T. McLaughlin, J. Kaunas : Technologija, Ng, U.

Minimally Invasive Medical Technology

Rajendra Acharya, Rangaraj M. Rangayyan, Jasjit S. Duro, F. Aalborg : River Publishers, Vaidotas Marozas.

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Bristol : IOP Publishing. ISSN London : Hindawi. Oxford : Pergamon-Elsevier. Oxford : Elsevier. Accuracy of digital implant impressions with intraoral scanners. Berlin : Quintessence Publishing Co. ISSN X. Berlin : Springer. New York, NY : Elsevier. Warszawa : Polish Academy of Sciences. Heidelberg : Springer. London : BioMed Central. Oxford : Elsevier Science. Amsterdam : Elsevier Science. New York : Hindawi. Schenectady, NY : Adenine Press. Medical Publishers. Oxford : Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd. Douglas; Persson, Hans W. J; Svensson, O; Sornmo, L.

Peralta, Elena. School of electrical and computer engineering. Berlin, Heidelberg, New York. Services provided by the Institute include applied scientific research, experimental development and studies of technical feasibility in the following areas:.