The milling pins were carefully removed with a diamond rotary disc under constant water cooling so as not to heat the ceramics.
1. Characteristics of Zirconia
Two layers of die spacer Die Spacer Dentin, Renfert were applied on each master cast; once they dried, an additional layer of an isolating medium Isolit, DeguDent, Hanau, Germany was applied. The abutment of each master cast was dipped in a specific device Hotty, Renfert creating a wax Geo Dip Green, Renfert coping with uniform thickness, precise and free of tensions. Such copings were anatomically shaped with a modeling wax Thowax Beige, Yeti Dental, Engen, Germany in order to properly support the veneering ceramics.
A sharp blade was used to remove 1 mm of the modeling wax circumferentially from the cervical margin; then, this area was sealed with a specific cervical closure wax Inlay Wax Soft Violet, GC using a stereomicroscope at 24x magnification. The molding pins were carefully removed with a diamond rotary disc under constant water cooling, in order not to heat the ceramics. All the copings were anatomically veneered with dedicated ceramics using a layering technique; the silicone indexes used to perform calibrated tooth preparations were employed to check ceramic thickness as well, respecting the initial anatomical shape of each specimen.
The crowns were veneered and glazed one next to the other, in order to achieve the most similar final shapes. All the experimental crowns were cemented using a dual cure universal resin cement Panavia V5, Kuraray Noritake , strictly following the cementation procedure suggested by the manufacturer.
As to the zirconia restorations Group 1 , the inner surface of each crown was conditioned by means of the Ceramic Primer Plus for 30 sec; conversely, as to the LD restorations Groups 2 and 3 , the inner surface of each crown was etched with hydrofluoric K-etchant for 5 sec, thoroughly rinsed and dried and conditioned by means of the Ceramic Primer Plus for 30 sec.
In all the experimental groups, the teeth surfaces were treated with the Tooth Primer that was applied, left for 20 sec and thoroughly dried with mild air. Both for zirconia and LD crowns, the automixed cement was dispensed on the inner surface of the restorations and the crowns were carefully seated onto the abutments with finger pressure; cement excesses were carefully removed by means of microbrushes; then, light curing was performed for 3 sec on each surface of the crowns to gelify minor remnants of cement that were carefully removed with a plastic curette using a stereomicroscope at 24x magnification.
Luting procedures were performed under a constant pressure of 5 Kg until polymerization of the cement was complete Fig. The material was left to self-cure for the first 5 min and then additional light-curing polymerization with a glycerin barrier was performed on each crown surface for 40 sec. The median sections in the coronal mesial-distal direction and sagittal buccal-palatal direction planes of each specimen were identified by means of a micro-CT scanning Skyscan , Bruker, Kontich, Belgium and analyzed in a dedicated software NRecon 1.
Each tooth was scanned using micro CT SkyScan , Bruker with the following settings: 10 W, kV, 98 mA, a 1 mm thick aluminum plate, 15x magnification, 4. The digital data were elaborated using a reconstruction software NRecon 1. The pixel-micron conversion ratio and the cross-section distance were set in measurement tools included in a dedicated software Mimics Images were acquired from slices of each tooth. After cone beam reconstructions, the raw data were converted into bit dynamic grayscale picture files with a x pixel bitmap BMP format and saved in a specific program Skyscan Data Viewer 1.
The cementation areas were reconstructed three-dimensionally and a semiautomatic threshold-based segmentation approach was combined with manual editing of slices. Two calibrated investigators, who had been blinded with regard to the experimental groups, independently measured the precision of fit of the specimens. The measurements were repeated 3 times and the values averaged. The data were statistically analyzed using a statistical software SPSS Due to the pooled data set of cement thicknesses measured in the 3 groups at different levels, the adaptation values at measuring locations were analyzed by means of One-Way Analysis of Variance ANOVA followed by the Tukey's test for post-hoc comparisons as needed, in order to compare cement thicknesses at different levels within the same group and between different groups at the same level.
Mean values and Standard Deviations SD recorded at all measuring locations in each group are reported in Table 2. Descriptive statistics of absolute marginal opening and internal fit measurements relative to crown type were shown in Table 3 , along with significant differences according to the One-Way ANOVA and post-hoc test. When thicknesses of the luting agent were compared at different levels within each group and between groups, the cement layer was thicker at the occlusal wall and thinner at the preparation margins.
On the basis of the results of the present study, the null hypothesis was rejected since the heat-pressed LD crowns were significantly less accurate than CAD-CAM zirconia and LD crowns at the preparation margins. The long-term success of dental restorations depends on the mechanical and bonding properties of the restorative materials [ 24 ].
- Job Opportunities.
- Found at Last: The Veritable Garden of Eden.
- Acceptable Sacrifices (Sin City 3)!
- Kindle Publishing Made Easy: Write, Format, and Upload your eBook in five easy steps!?
Consequently, crowns longevity is strongly related to the quality of marginal fit [ 17 - 25 ]. Moreover, poor internal fit of a coping may increase cement thickness negatively influencing the mechanical stability of a prosthesis [ 24 , 44 ]. The marginal gap of zirconia single crowns was reported to range between A recent literature review reported that there is no consensus regarding the precision of fit of different crown systems because of differences in experimental protocols and testing approaches; although the direct view technique was the most common research method, the use of at least 50 measurements per specimen and the combination with micro-CT analysis should carry out more reliable results [ 35 ].
Similarly, another systematic review pointed out that the current state of the literature does not allow for a detailed comparison of different restorative systems in terms of marginal fit and the use of micro-CT should be recommended [ 19 ]. Although sample sectioning and light or SEM evaluation have been used for years to evaluate the marginal and internal fit of restorations [ 18 , 21 , 22 , 32 , 33 ], it is worth noticing that those approaches are destructive methods that can be performed on a limited number of tooth slices and sectioning inevitably involves the loss of some information; furthermore, the cutting procedures are time-consuming and preclude further use of the specimens [ 55 ].
Recently, the microCT analysis has been proposed for the assessment of marginal leakage and precision of fit of dental restorations. Its main advantage is to provide an uninterrupted visualization of the tooth-restoration interface in a non-destructive way, with further possibility of qualitative and quantitative structure analysis and 3D reconstructions [ 56 , 57 ]; moreover, the microCT approach was reported to be a reliable and more effective alternative to the traditional sectioning methods [ 58 ].
The Open Dentistry Journal
A drawback of the sectioning technique is that analyses. According to such a scientific background, the micro-CT approach was chosen in the present investigation, although a very few papers are to date available in the literature [ 19 , 35 , 38 , 39 ]. This innovative method allowed for the rotation of the samples in the radiological beam to evaluate both qualitatively and quantitatively the entire cementation areas and radiographs were taken at discreet intervals; then, the softwares reduced these radiographs to tomograms which were sliced through the sample on the axis of rotation; consequently, the tomograms could be viewed as 3D blocks of data, allowing for a reliable evaluation of the precision of fit of restorations.
The results of the present analysis were in accordance with previous investigations [ 38 , 39 ]. The marginal gap can be defined as the perpendicular measurement from the internal surface of the margin of the crown to the outermost edge of the finish line of the tooth margin. Similarly, the internal gaps can be defined as the perpendicular distances from the internal surfaces of a coping to the axial and occlusal walls of a preparation [ 31 ].
After the copings were fabricated, the fit of the crowns was carefully evaluated in the dental laboratory by means of a stereomicroscope at 24x magnification and no evident gaps were noticed [ 3 , 16 , 18 , 22 , 38 , 40 , 41 , 54 ]. The accuracy of a crown is best when the least amount of cement is used at the margins and axial walls [ 22 , 43 , 44 ]. The cement space should be uniform and facilitate seating without compromising retention and resistance of the crown [ 43 , 44 ]. The marginal discrepancies varied considerably based on external or internal evaluations [ 31 ].
It is worth mentioning that several studies pointed out that the initial results showed lower gaps than those recorded after cutting the samples and observing the internal adaptation [ 31 , 59 ]. In the present study, the sample size and the number of measurements per crown were selected in accordance with previous investigations [ 17 , 22 , 24 , 35 , 60 ]. The chamfer preparation was selected as no significant differences were reported in the literature regarding the influence of finish line type on the accuracy of fit assessments [ 37 , 60 - 62 ].
As reported in previous investigations, the mean values of the present study demonstrated large SDs, due to the high variation of accuracy within any crown system [ 17 , 63 , 64 ]. Particularly, local adaptation values may be influenced by the asymmetric anatomical shape of the copings as well as by non-uniform distortions during porcelain firing [ 17 , 63 , 64 ].
The results of the present in vitro investigation were consistent with those achieved in similar previous studies [ 17 , 18 , 20 , 22 - 25 ]. All the tested crown configurations showed clinically acceptable values of marginal discrepancy. This was probably due to the fact that dental CAD-CAM systems were developed to process polycrystalline materials and, consequently, the dedicated software produce better blanks [ 18 , 20 , 22 , 23 ]. Although they are already clinically acceptable, further developments in dental CAD-CAM technologies would probably improve the performances of such systems in the manufacturing of glass-based materials such as LD-based ceramics, since possible errors may be compensated in different processing steps [ 23 ].
Many manufacturers recommend the milling of zirconia in presintered blanks, although sintering shrinkage may negatively influence the precision of fit [ 1 - 6 , 18 , 22 , 23 ]; nonetheless, to date, there is no evidence that milling fully sintered zirconia blanks provides superior marginal fit [ 3 , 23 ]. Moreover, compensatory software features are nowadays available to avoid such a problem [ 23 ]. According to the results of the present study, the CAD virtual spacing proved to be effective in providing adequate space to accommodate the cement.
Regarding the internal fit of the restorations, no differences were observed at axial walls while at occlusal level the heat-pressed LD crowns showed a better adaptation than CAD-CAM processed crowns; moreover, previous studies also suggested that the adaptation of CAD-CAM restorations is less accurate in internal areas [ 19 , 20 , 22 - 24 , 37 , 54 ]. The space between the occlusal wall of a preparation and the internal surface of a crown works as a chamber to allow a good marginal adaptation of the crown itself.
It could be speculated that the better performance of group 3 crowns at this level was due to the residual thermal stresses deriving from porcelain firing that allowed the heat-pressed LD cores to shrink towards the center of their mass [ 1 - 6 ]; conversely, such a phenomenon was absent in the CAD-CAM manufactured restorations.
The present in vitro investigation was a preliminary evaluation of the marginal and internal adaptation of different types of all-ceramic crowns. Experimental studies with thermal cycling and cyclic loading stress protocols would be desirable to confirm the results of the present study. Furthermore, although the in vitro recorded gaps are in accordance with current clinical parameters, in vivo adaptation values could be far higher. Consequently, randomized clinical trials evaluating the tested crown-cement configurations would be necessary to substantiate the clinical outcome in the medium-long term.
Within the limitations of the present in vitro investigation, the following conclusions can be drawn:. Francesco Riccitiello and Prof. Roberto Sorrentino conceived the study design; Dr. Renato Leone carried out the preparation and the measurements of the experimental samples; Prof.
Gianrico Spagnuolo performed the statistical analyses; Prof. Massimo Amato critically revised the paper. Al-Hashimi graduated with B. She received a Master degree and Ph. Currently, Dr. Al-Hashimi has published over scientific publications and she is the founding of Salivary Dysfunction Clinic in Dallas.
The Open Dentistry Journal is an Open Access online journal, which publishes research articles, reviews, letters, case reports and guest-edited single topic issues in all areas of dentistry and oral cavity. Bentham Open ensures speedy peer review process and accepted papers are published within 2 weeks of final acceptance. The Open Dentistry Journal is committed to ensuring high quality of research published. We believe that a dedicated and committed team of editors and reviewers make it possible to ensure the quality of the research papers.
The overall standing of a journal is in a way, reflective of the quality of its Editor s and Editorial Board and its members. The Open Dentistry Journal is seeking energetic and qualified researchers to join its editorial board team as Editorial Board Members or reviewers. The essential criteria to become Editorial Board Members of The Open Dentistry Journal are as follows: Experience in dentistry and oral cavity with an academic degree.
Proficiency in English language. Submit or solicit at least one article for the journal annually. Peer-review of articles for the journal, which are in the area of expertise 2 to 3 times per year. If you are interested in becoming our Editorial Board member, please submit the following information to info benthamopen. We will respond to your inquiry shortly.
This is exactly what Open Access Journals provide and this is the reason why I support this endeavor. Open Access publishing is therefore of utmost importance for wider dissemination of information, and will help serving the best interest of the scientific community. They offer accessible information to a wide variety of individuals, including physicians, medical students, clinical investigators, and the general public.
They are an outstanding source of medical and scientific information. Indeed, the research articles span a wide range of area and of high quality. This is specially a must for researchers belonging to institutions with limited library facility and funding to subscribe scientific journals. They provide easy access to the latest research on a wide variety of issues. Relevant and timely articles are made available in a fraction of the time taken by more conventional publishers.
Articles are of uniformly high quality and written by the world's leading authorities. Open access journals are very helpful for students, researchers and the general public including people from institutions which do not have library or cannot afford to subscribe scientific journals. The articles are high standard and cover a wide area.
Tooth in a Bag: Same-Day Monolithic Zirconia Crown
In this perspective, open access journals are instrumental in fostering researches and achievements. Open access journals offer a good alternative for free access to good quality scientific information. Many people from institutions which do not have library or cannot afford to subscribe scientific journals benefit of them on a daily basis. The articles are among the best and cover most scientific areas. The articles are of high quality and broad scope.
This option opens several quite interesting possibilities to disseminate openly and freely new knowledge and even to facilitate interpersonal communication among scientists. The articles published in the open access journals are high quality and cover a wide range of fields. The papers published are of high quality after rigorous peer review and they are Indexed in: major international databases. This study was conducted with the hypothesis that there is no difference in bond strength to zirconia ceramic when universal adhesive and different primers are used.
The samples had a thickness of 3 mm, with a smaller base 6 mm in diameter and a larger base 8 mm in diameter Fig. These samples were prepared in a dental laboratory. The smaller diameter of the samples was fixed to a utility wax plaque. A metal matrix was positioned on the wax and the sample was kept centralized in the matrix Fig. The samples were cleaned ultrasonically in isopropyl alcohol for 4 min and dried with air.
The luting materials used are shown in Table 1. The zirconia samples were divided into five groups, and they underwent the luting procedures described in Table 2. A metallic split cylinder, 4 mm high with a 3-mm-diameter orifice at the bottom and 5-mm-diameter orifice at the top, was placed against the adhesive or primer applied on the surface of the samples. The composite resin Empress Direct was inserted in the interior of the orifice in two increments to form an inverted cone of composite resin Fig.
The tensile bond strength values in MPa were calculated from the peak load at failure divided by the specimen surface area. After the tensile bond strength tests, the fractured surfaces of the specimens were visually examined with a stereomicroscope Olympus Corp. The failures were classified as follows: a adhesive: rupture in the interface between the ceramic and the adhesive or primer; b cohesive: cohesive failure in the ceramic or in the composite resin cone; c mixed adhesive and cohesive failure.
Tensile bond strength values were submitted to the Shapiro-Wilk normality test. Group 2 An intermediate value was obtained for group 5 Group 3 7. Groups 2 and 4 exhibited predominantly cohesive failure in the composite resin cone. Groups 1 and 5 had predominantly mixed failures adhesive and cohesive failure in the composite resin cone , and group 3 exhibited only adhesive failures Table 3. The hypothesis was rejected because the study showed differences in the bond strength to zirconia ceramic with the application of zirconia primers and the SBU.
This monomer has effective bonding between the MDP acidic groups phosphoric acid and the oxide layer of the zirconia, improving the bond strength between zirconia ceramic and resinous substrate [ 30 , 31 ]. The results for the SBU corroborate those of another study [ 22 , 28 ]. The present study also evaluated the application of silane before the SBU. Silane coupling agents are usually monomeric species, such as MPS 3-Methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane , in which silicon is linked to reactive organic radicals and hydrolysable ester groups.
The reactive organic groups become chemically bonded to the resin molecules, such as Bis-GMA and HEMA monomers present in the adhesives, resin cements. Hydrolysable monovalent groups bond chemically to silicon contained in the glassy matrix of the ceramics [ 32 ]. Zirconia ceramic contains zirconium oxide and not silicon, and the chemical bonding does not occur. So, the application of silane before the SBU did not significantly influence the bond strength values for the zirconia ceramic. However, although there was no significant difference between group 1 and group 2, the bond strength value was higher when the silane was applied prior the SBU, and a greater degree of cohesive failure in composite resin cone occurred.
This may be related to the physical effect of silane, which improves the wettability of the ceramic surface, allowing greater contact between the adhesive and the ceramic [ 5 ]. This surface wettability promoted by the silane must have contributed to the bond strength values, regardless its incorporation into the adhesive or separate application. A study using secondary ion mass spectrometry indicated the formation of a chemical bond Zr-O-P between zirconia ceramic and MDP-containing zirconia primer [ 29 ].
This affinity is explained by the capacity of the phosphate group to react with zirconium, forming zirconium phosphate, where each phosphate group is bound to three zirconium atoms tridentate bridging mode or to one zirconia atom tridentate chelating mode , conferring a thermally and hydrolytically stable interface [ 21 ].
The other monomers contained in the primer, such as the carboxylic acid monomer, cooperate in the bond process [ 33 ]. The results obtained with Z-Prime Plus are consistent with the findings in the study of Seabra et al. Pereira et al. However, in the study of Lopes et al. The differences in results between studies may be related to many factors such as the testing method applied to evaluate the bond strength as well as the operator and manipulation of the materials. Although there was no significant difference between groups 1, 2 and 4, the failures were predominantly cohesive in the composite resin cone in groups 2 and 4, and there were more mixed failures in group 1 with a decrease in the bond strength values.
Mixed failure is characterized by the sum of the adhesive failure between the resinous material and the ceramic substrate and the cohesive failure in the composite resin cone. Therefore, the bond capacity of the materials used in groups 2 and 4 exceeded the cohesive strength of the composite resin cone. Thus, the methodology employed in the present study had the limitation of being able to evaluate the bonding interface when the bond strength values were high, preventing the definition of which treatment is the most effective, i.
MZ Primer had an intermediate bond strength value. Pilo et al. While the primer with MDP formed an amorphous thick film of zirconium phosphate salt, the primer with PMDM formed a thinner film of zirconium carboxylate salt, which is more sensitive to hydrolysis. According to the authors, the differences in the film-forming properties and water solubility between the carboxylate and phosphate salts may affect the strength and the durability of adhesive resin interfaces with zirconia ceramic.
Signum Zirconia Bond had the lowest bond strength mean. This finding does not corroborate with other studies [ 28 , 34 ].
Basic properties and types of zirconia: An overview
Maeda et al. According to the authors, in addition to the effect of MDP, the MMA found in Signum Zirconia Bond sets primary links with methacrylates present in the resin cement, resulting in increased bond strength. In addition, this study showed that the combination of primers for zirconia and resin cements significantly affected the bond strength to zirconia ceramics [ 34 ].
Lopes et al. In the present study, a composite resin was used instead of a resin cement to bond to the primer. Thus, the hypothesis that the composite resin does not favor a bond to the Signum Zirconia Bond as much as that obtained with a resin cement, such as Panavia F [ 34 ] or Duo-Link [ 28 ], cannot be ruled out.
High bond strength is important for clinical success in restorations luted adhesively. The good results of universal adhesives can represent a significant improvement in luting zirconia ceramic restorations. Thus, clinicians can use the same adhesive and the same protocol on the tooth and the surface of the restorations. Regarding silane, it is not yet clear whether its effects are durable over time [ 8 ]. The problem with silane is its hydrolytic instability over time, which is caused by hydrolysis due to the rupture of the Si-O bond. In addition to this, the SBU contains water and a Hydrophilic Monomer HEMA , which may contribute to the process of hydrolysis and reduction of the bond strength over time [ 35 ].
According to the authors, it is possible that the water absorption of SBU adhesive resulted in decreased adhesion as a consequence of hydrolytic degradation after aging. The present study tested the samples after 48 h of storage corresponding to a short-term period which did not allow the evaluation of the bond stability. In vitro bonding testing after long-term simulation of oral conditions seems necessary before clinical recommendations can be provided [ 37 ].
Despite the limitations of this in vitro study, it can be concluded that the isolated application of silane prior to the adhesive was irrelevant in zirconia ceramic; and the Scotchbond Universal and Z-Prime Plus provided higher bond strength values to zirconia ceramic. Al-Hashimi graduated with B. She received a Master degree and Ph. Currently, Dr.
Al-Hashimi has published over scientific publications and she is the founding of Salivary Dysfunction Clinic in Dallas. The Open Dentistry Journal is an Open Access online journal, which publishes research articles, reviews, letters, case reports and guest-edited single topic issues in all areas of dentistry and oral cavity.
Bentham Open ensures speedy peer review process and accepted papers are published within 2 weeks of final acceptance.
The Open Dentistry Journal is committed to ensuring high quality of research published. We believe that a dedicated and committed team of editors and reviewers make it possible to ensure the quality of the research papers. The overall standing of a journal is in a way, reflective of the quality of its Editor s and Editorial Board and its members. The Open Dentistry Journal is seeking energetic and qualified researchers to join its editorial board team as Editorial Board Members or reviewers.
The essential criteria to become Editorial Board Members of The Open Dentistry Journal are as follows: Experience in dentistry and oral cavity with an academic degree. Proficiency in English language. Submit or solicit at least one article for the journal annually. Peer-review of articles for the journal, which are in the area of expertise 2 to 3 times per year.
- Alchymist: Volume Three of The Well of Echoes.
- Navigation menu.
- LMTmag | Job Opportunities;
- Zirconia based dental ceramics: structure, mechanical properties, biocompatibility and applications;
- Case Report.
If you are interested in becoming our Editorial Board member, please submit the following information to info benthamopen. We will respond to your inquiry shortly. The surfaces of the traditional and translucent zirconia following particle abrasion showed nearly identical surface damage Figure 19 and Figure The similarity of the surfaces provides evidence that the difference in behavior of the traditional and translucent zirconia is due to a lack of transformation toughening with translucent zirconia.
No clinical conclusions can be drawn from these data, and the authors are investigating different surface treatments that may not detrimentally affect the strength of cubic-phase—containing zirconia, such as less abrasive particles and lower air pressure. These treatments, in combination with proven zirconia primers ie, materials containing methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate [MDP] , may enable durable bonding to cubic-phase—containing zirconias.
Another assumption is that it would behave clinically the same as the all-tetragonal-phase zirconia. No evidence supports this claim, and clearly it is much easier to damage or weaken cubic-containing zirconia, which already starts with a lower strength. One benefit of adhesion is increased stress distribution, which theoretically should minimize crack initiation and crack growth and is the basic reason bonded porcelain works. For clinical evaluation of several commercial systems, a single central crown case was chosen, because single centrals are generally regarded as the biggest esthetic challenge in dentistry.
A case was selected with a normal color substrate Figure 21 with a facial reduction of approximately 1. While this article is not intended to comment on all aspects of patient treatment, it should be noted that when taking shade information after preparation the teeth should be hydrated because teeth will appear brighter when they are dehydrated. Presintering colorization was performed using manufacturer-supplied colorants. As stated earlier, to custom colorize, the presintered cubic zirconia required custom application of shade colorants and shade modifiers to match the adjacent natural tooth.
This clearly would require experience with a given system to know how the main shade colors behave and how to use custom modifiers. Therefore, an experienced ceramist performed the task. For the Noritake STML, the material is already internally colorized and has multilayered color with both incisal and dentin colors. Shade A2 of e.
All systems required two coats of external colorants and separate firings to obtain the intricate color of the matched natural tooth. As described in the laboratory section earlier, all systems were then glazed with an overglaze and mechanically polished to obtain natural surface finish and gloss. The images clearly show that an excellent esthetic result was obtained with monolithic cubic zirconia, similar in appearance and esthetic value to that of the control.
Cubic-containing zirconia behaves differently to air abrasion than the original high-strength tetragonal zirconia without a cubic phase. Thus, one should be cautious making clinical decisions based on research and experience obtained with tetragonal zirconia.
In the opinion of the authors, cubic-containing zirconia is very sensitive to proper laboratory processing techniques, thus highly controlled processes have to be followed to obtain the mechanical and esthetic properties reported. Clinical evaluation on monolithic cubic-containing zirconia showed excellent promise as an esthetic restoration. The polymorphs of zirconia: phase abundance and crystal structure by Rietveld analysis of neutron and X-ray diffraction data.
J Mater Sci. Zhang Y. Making yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia translucent. Dent Mater. Characterization of three commercial Y-TZP ceramics produced for their high-translucency, high-strength and high-surface area.
- Advances in Human Aspects of Road and Rail Transportation: Volume 8 (Advances in Human Factors and Ergonomics Series)!
- RESEARCH ARTICLE;
- Publication details;
- Zirconia as a Dental Biomaterial.
- The Code of the Apocalypse.
- Flints Gift (Sam Flint, Frontier Editor Book 1).
Ceram Int. Denry I, Kelly JR. State of the art of zirconia for dental applications. Effect of alumina-doping on grain boundary segregation induced phase transformation in yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal. Journal of Materials Research. Effect of alumina dopant on transparency of tetragonal zirconia. Journal of Nanomaterials. Survival rate of lithium disilicate restorations at 4 years: A retrospective study.
J Prosthet Dent. A comparative evaluation of the translucency of zirconias and lithium disilicate for monolithic restorations. Transparent cubic-ZrO2 ceramics for application as optical lenses. Journal of the European Ceramic Society. Effect of grain size on the monoclinic transformation, hardness, roughness, and modulus of aged partially stabilized zirconia.
Strength, toughness and aging stability of highly-translucent Y-TZP ceramics for dental restorations. Influence of air-abrasion on zirconia ceramic bonding using an adhesive composite resin. Effect of air-particle abrasion protocols on the biaxial flexural strength, surface characteristics and phase transformation of zirconia after cyclic loading. J Mech Behav Biomed Mater.