Ce serait envoyer vers une mort certaine Cinq hommes pour le moins, cria le capitaine, Et je dois les garder pour le salut commun! Elle en fait-y des malheureux, des malheureuses! Jamraes, H. Bataille, Ch. Pilon, G. Cazals, etc. Sans doute M. Paul Fort a refondu dans cette nouvelle. Cette fille, elle est morte, est morte dans ses amours. Les dryades craintives se groupent en buissons. Les sylvains, aux coteaux, gagnent les tournants brusques.
Leurs cornes ont disparu comme des feux follets. Il tombe! Et les astres bourdonnent sous la ruche des cieux. Roman de Louis XI. Et, en effet, M. Au pays du Bcrry. Les filles filent leurs quenouilles Ou bercent les petits berceaux. Maeterlinck, de M. Adam, etc. Ses premiers vers parurent en , dans La Conque de M. Pierre Louys. Le Sang parie. Sept heures. Y a-t-il des pardons pour les amours Qui imploreraient un retour? Le Sang parle. Revenu en de Pile Bourbon, M. La nature se tait. Fleurs de Corail. Le Verbe surprit Rome en sa luxure immonde.
Pourquoi laisser encor vos muses endormies? Marseille, En Passant. Pourtant vous laissez les jaloux Ravir quelque chose de vous A chaque mot cruel ou doux Que vous leur dites. Je suis triste tout simplement. Dans la cour une voix ravie Chante un refrain toujours pareil Sur la route toujours suivie. Mon mal est fini comme un drame. Or, M. Silvestro entre autres. Plus tard, M. Il se recueillait. Pour M. A ce moment, M. Septembre Tout est calme. Pierre Rovert. Cachaient leur douceur bleue entre deux brins de jonc. Les Heures de la Muse. Mais qui dira surtout les souvenirs antiques Epars en ce pays?
Les hauts faits, la valeur, les gloires, les reliques De ses illustres fils? Je ne puis me passer de vous. Le son de la Syrinx est doux au soir tranquille. Memphis dormait. O Virgile! En janvier , M. Il chante la vie avec ses joies et ses tristesses. Je sais que la candeur de ses yeux ne ment pas. Comme ils sont exigeants! La Chanson des Hommes. Cette nuit, je me pendrai A quelque vieux marronnier, Non loin de ta porte.
Qui te rendrait jamais une telle tendresse? Jours heureux! La Blafarde , etc. Gabriel Randon fut de retour en France en Il connut alors Albert Samain, qui devint un de ses intimes. Il se lia aussi avec Dubus et Julien Leclercq, tous deux disparus. Cause un peu? Tu dis rien! Mon dieu mon dieu! Dans les derniers vers de M. Les Vierges. Nous nous aimons. Un peu de vent tressaille aux pentes du coteau. Il fait froid. Chaque jour notre corps nous semble plus lointain.
Que de baisers perdus! Tombeau de Jules Tellier, Dans le dernier livre de M. Le Chemin des Saisons. Et le sourire fin de ces Parisiennes! Es-tu morte? Puis le vent meurt avec la voix du muletier. Le soleil, rouge, tombe au bout du long sentier. Claveau, M. Enfin, il indique bien notre point de vue sur le monde, qui est, lui aussi, tout humain. Nous ne sommes ni mystiques ni sceptiques. Je fus un homme. Voir aussi la lettre de M. Salut, Maison!
Assez de ce rire moqueur! Je respire! Et le reste, le reste est vain! Il pleut, Les vitres tintent. Une porte, en battant sans fin, grince une plainte Mineure et monotone. Souffle le vent, batte la porte, Tombe la pluie! Il pleut… — La vie est belle! Je vis, je vais parmi des choses, Bonnes, mauvaises, je ne sais. Je ne sais pas. Rame, etc. Mais M. Filsde M. Ils seront des citoyens, etc. En , il fonda, avec M. Les Chants de la Vie Ardente. Terre, en vain tu te plains! O jeune homme, entends-la, ma parole nouvelle! Que mon corps tout entier se disperse en lambeaux! Je cueillerai la rose et prendrai les flambeaux!
Le soir qui les grandit tombe sur leur destin. Ce laboureur pensif sous le ciel radieux Evoque je ne sais quel obscur sacerdoce. O saveur du baiser! Les Voix de la Terre et du Temps. La peur les saisit. Mais pas un bruit Si loin de la terre ne passe,. Les vignobles heureux dans le fleuve se mirent. Il se juge, et sa douleur et son orgueil en sont accrus. Il rejette tout ce qui est net.
Suivant M. Voici comment raisonue M. Quant au fond, M. Bienstock Fasquelle, Paris, Hiers bleus. Les premiers romans de M. Les bonheurs de jadis aux tristes souvenances Nous attendrissaient doucement. Dont la jeune gloire Fleurit. Elle est morte. Namur, lo 12 avril Robert Arnaud signe ses vers du pseudonyme de Robert Randau.
Son style est nerveux et puissant. La chair grille, chair de torture, odeur qui grise. Et quelles bouches enfantines. Est-ce un souffle sur une fleur? Un son de soie et de velours? En trevisions. Fils de M. La mer vient recouvrir le sable. Qui me rendra la vie et les raisons de vivre! Ouvrez-moi la nature et sa grotte profonde! Si vous veniez trop tard! Je te consacrerai, dans ce temps, tous mes chants!
Je dirai tout cela! A travers le Voile. Payen… M. Ajoutons que M. Charles, Paris, Adolphe Boschot et M. En elfet, M. Poinsot et son ami et collaborateur habituel, M. Auguste Dorchain, ensuite par M. Le vers de M.
Poinsot est impressionniste. Quoist, Le Havre, Mon Ame. O femme! Campion, a dit M. Comme la nuit, ce soir, descend perfidement! Rimes paysannes. Chacune de ses quatre planches Supporte de beaux draps de lin, Des nappes, des chemises blanches, Des robes, des rubans sans fin. Sully Prudhomme Vanier-Messein, Paris, Comme auteur dramatique, M. Et ce sera bien encore. Nous le croyons fermement. Et dos lors, il y a vers. Adolphe Boschot, un grief, que nous ne pouvons taire, subsistera toujours contre toute prosodie exclusive et formaliste.
Il doit avoir sa place dans toutes les prosodies.
Ex nihilo nihil. Et nous protestons. Nous ne le croyons pas. La gageure tenue est bien bonne. Aux innocents les mains pleines! Nous nous en doutions. Le lecteur moderne est ce personnage. Elle nous a des airs de carnaval ou de rodomontades. Nos Colloques. Pourquoi pas? Sans doute convient-il de nous prononcer aussi sur le symbole. Mais qui trompe-t-on, grands dieux?
Grande Revue 15 mai Le Cardonncl et Ch. O nature! Ou parle, parle enfin! Le Vavasseur, L. Duval, J. Le nom de M. Poinsot Et Ch. Ma Cueillette. Or Research on the Principle of Justice and Government Proudhon kept up his criticism of property with a series of books and pamphlets throughout the decade, with many of then being republished during the Second Republic to counter the renewed defense of property made by the political economists at this time. The original owners of property may have taken previously unowned property and made it their own, which according to Molinari is perfectly just, but they transgressed the rights of others if they then forced them to work on their land without voluntarily agreeing to do so.
The mere fact of ownership was not the problem at hand but who had the legal privileges made possible by the state:. Another attack on the right to property in a free market came from socialists like Louis Blanc and Victor Considerant. Their writings provoked a considerable outpouring of criticism on the part of the economists between and who realized the power of their threat to key aspects of the operation of the free market.
Using capital which had been set aside for this purpose exactly how this would be done was not specified , the state would be the sole director of the social workshops and would regulate their activity. Naturally, he found the objections of socialists like Considerant and Blanc to be wrong and misplaced. These market-based organisations differed from those proposed by Blanc in two ways: they would be purely voluntary and not be state funded or controlled; and they would exist in profusion because competition would allow all kinds of experimentation and innovation which would be lacking in a single, economy-wide, bureaucratic organisation.
This was a better way to unite people by all sorts of economic ties through mutually beneficial exchanges. The old regime corporations may have eliminated competition in the market between people who practiced the same profession but they also created many opportunities for conflict and rivalry within the bureaucracy itself as individuals sought influential positions within it. Similarly with the large bureaucracies planned by the socialists to control the social workshops. It did not take Bastiat long to turn his sharp wit and insights onto the socialists after his arrival in Paris in Par M.
Vidal" On the Redistribution of Wealth by M. He would do this in after the Revolution when the threat of socialism forced the economists to temporarily abandon the free trade cause. It cannot be imagined out of thin air by some founding legislator or organizer. The socialists, he argues, do not understand what the economists like J. Say and Dunoyer have always known, that humans are naturally sociable creatures who can only survive by cooperating and trading with other in a voluntary manner.
Because of this fundamental fact about human nature, humans are actually quite good at finding the best form of organizing their affairs through a process of trial and error. They do not need an economic Solon to do this for them:. On the eve of the February Revolution the intellectual and political debates we have outlined above concerning free trade vs.
Like everybody else the economists were surprised and shocked by the events of February. Widespread corruption and crony capitalism meant that it had some very self-interested supporters within the government and the bureaucracies but also many enemies among those who had been excluded from the spoils of office.
The rise of socialist ideas among sectors of the working class and the intellectuals meant that a new source of opposition had arisen who were willing and able to move very quickly when the opportunity arose. Blanc issued decrees of dubious legitimacy but which had the support of both activists among the workers on the streets of Paris and the other members of the Provisional Government who also signed them.
The real extent of his influence is hard to gauge exactly but it was considerable in the first weeks of the revolution but gradually diminished as less radical politicians jockeyed for positions of influence. Blanc and his group of socialists did not receive much support in the April elections for the Constituent Assembly of the deputies elected were monarchists and were republicans of various descriptions, of which only were radical or socialist republicans and once it began meeting in May there was a growing movement to close the National Workshops down which it did in June, provoking rioting in the streets of Paris which were brutally put down by General Cavaignac under instructions from the Constituent Assembly.
The next stage in the socialist attempt to reform France came with the extended discussion of drafts of the new Constitution into which they wanted to insert clauses guaranteeing the right the work to be provided at tax-payer expense. The major debate on this issue came to a head in September when it was debated and voted upon in the Constituent Assembly in which the economists played an important role. He was deliberately a very private man and unfortunately we know very little about him or his family. Bentham which appeared probably after some months of delay in September He, Hippolyte Castille and Bastiat decided to launch a magazine to hand out on the streets of Paris.
They then joined the ranks of scores of similar ephemeral publications which sprang up in the first few weeks of the revolution. The magazine appeared daily for 30 days between February 26 and 28 March, an effort which would have taken a considerable amount of their time to accomplish. The views expressed in the magazine were a mixture of fervent republicanism and free market ideas which would have made it unique among the leaflets, broadsides, and small magazines being distributed on the streets of Paris at this or any other time.
The magazine folded when Bastiat pulled out to campaign for a seat in the Constituent Assembly representing his home department of Les Landes in the election of 23 April. The first acts of the Provisional Government confirmed the worst fears of the economists as it quickly passed a number of decrees concerning the right to work and the maximum number of hours per day allowed. The Provisional Government of the French Republic undertakes to guarantee the existence of the worker by means of work.
It recognises that workers ought to form associations in order to enjoy the legitimate benefits of their work.
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The Provisional Government hands over to the workers the million francs which was to be given to the Civil List, which now belongs to them. It was signed by all members of the Provisional Government:. The Provisional Government decrees the immediate establishment of National Workshops. The first response of the editors of the JDE came in the next issue March which appeared, as it always did, on the 15th of the month.
The old regime made sense to Bastiat because it was possible for a privileged elite to live at the expense of the majority of consumers and taxpayers. Since the state could not give to the majority of workers and consumers what it did not have, it would have to take from them in the form of broadly based taxes like indirect taxes on consumption goods and other necessities of life, and then disperse what it had left over, after taking its customary percentage cut to fund the ever growing bureaucracy.
At the first public meeting of the FTA after the revolution, held in the Montesquieu Hall on 15 March, a motion was discussed to form a political club to promote free market ideas on the streets. Say and his delegation of free traders met with the mayor the next day but were fobbed off with evasive replies.
Under the inspiration perhaps of Saint-Simon the Provisional Government wanted to remove the free market economists entirely and replace them with technocrats who would teach future bureaucrats the economics of public works, government finance, and statistics. Faucher visited Lamartine, who was the Minister of Foreign Affairs in the Provisional Government, on 23 April to present him with a statement signed by 30 members of the SEP protesting the decision also signed by Molinari.
Bastiat in particular had a crucial position as Vice President of the Finance Committee where he argued relentlessly for tax cuts, spending cuts, and a balanced budget. He reported regularly to the Chamber on financial matters and drew upon the economic information provided to it in the stream of articles and pamphlet he wrote. On the other side of the ideological divide, the keys works of Blanc and Considerant were reprinted several times during and Blanc and others gave many speeches in the Chamber in defense of their ideas as well.
The next major turning point in the Revolution was the decision made by the Chamber to close the bankrupt National Workshops and force the unemployed receiving state benefits to either join the army or return to their home regions in order to continue to receive financial assistance there rather than in the capital. This decision provoked a violent reaction in the streets known as the June Days which was put down by the army with considerable loss of life. As late as mid-June Molinari still believed that an alliance might be forged between the economists and the radical socialists in their efforts to appeal to ordinary French workers and in their struggle to reform French society.
But this was to come to naught once the June Days rioting broke out and the economists emphatically rejected violence as a just or economically efficient way to bring about change. He now focused his attention on writing more serious articles and book reviews for the JDE and planning his next effort to popularize economic ideas which he was to write over the summer of The Constituent Assembly which gathered in May to draw up a constitution for the new Republic established a Committee to draw up a draft which would be debated in the Chamber.
The sticking point for both the socialists and the economists was how the Committee would phrase the preamble and clauses dealing with the right to work [see above]. The economists wanted to remove this entirely or at least to dilute it to the point where it became a meaningless piety which would have no legal teeth.
Molinari saw the intellectual battles lines in the Chamber somewhat differently to Thiers. The compromises conservatives like Thiers were willing to make in allowing an expanded role for government regulation of the economy and for a less than absolute defense of private property was taken up by Molinari in his long review JDE Jan. The JDE tracked the course of the debates in the Chamber very carefully between June when the first draft was presented to the Chamber and September when an important vote was taken on the final wording of these key clauses.
The ins and outs of these complex, frustrating, but sometimes amusing debates were reported in some detail in the Chronique section of the journal which was probably written jointly by the editor Joseph Garnier and Molinari. When a speech by an important opposition politician was delivered in was usually reviewed caustically by Molinari such as Proudhon and Thiers. Lesser figures were ridiculed in the sharply worded comments section of the Chronique. Garnier collected all these speeches and documents in a book which Guillaumin published in November, making sure the economists got equal billing with their anti-socialist speeches and comments.
The Constitution guarantees to the Citizens the freedom of working and of industry. As the year came to an end the threat of socialism which had seemed so great in late February and March has receded considerably. Garnier and Molinari seemed to accept this constitutional compromise reluctantly as a kind of victory over the more extreme socialists but not as an outright victory for laissez-faire political economy. The radical socialist plan for national workshops had been reduced to a vague public works program to soak up unemployed laborers and the right to assistance would be limited to abandoned children, the sick, and the destitute elderly.
Their dire warnings were rejected by most people who mocked the economists as so many Cassandras:. Comme le remarquait le bonhomme La Fontaine, le pouvoir est un grand endormeur:. The February Revolution surprised us like it did everybody; but from the very first day the special understanding we had of the intellectual and moral state of the country gave us the grim premonition of the catastrophes which were to come. But people do not listen to us, or rather they mocked our fears, as if we were so many Cassandras! As that chap bonhomme La Fontaine remarked, power is a great sleep inducer endormeur :.
Molinari blamed the spread of socialist ideas on the lack of education about political economy among the ruling elite as well as the general public. Although the threat of violence in the streets had died down socialist ideas were still pervasive in the minds of the people and the economists were determined to continue their educational efforts in the coming year. Molinari would spend considerable time and effort over the coming three or four years in pursuing the educational strategy outlined by Fonteyraud. He would write his own popularization of economic ideas the first of three designed to appeal to conservative and socialist intellectuals which would come out in the fall of , and dozens of articles he would write for the DEP which appeared in and which was to provide a compendium of sound economic thinking on all topics which would be the intellectual foundation for free market ideas for the foreseeable future.
The hardest working and perhaps the best of the economists at challenging the socialists in print was Bastiat. The pamphlets sold well for Guillaumin and they were reprinted several times and even marketed as a set which could be purchased for 7 fr. Some originally appeared in journals such as the JDE, while others were written as stand alone pamphlets. In two of his Electoral Manifestos in he identifies the particular socialists he was attacking in each one of them. Bastiat also wrote other anti-socialist essays and articles which are also listed below.
The following is a list of his anti-socialist pamphlets in the order in which they were published and the socialist or group they were directed against:. We are just listing here his main works from this period for the time being. Yet, after a brief introduction where some theoretical matters are discussed, Molinari focuses the conversations on a number of very specific issues for which he provides considerable historical and economic information.
The Socialist enjoys the second largest share of the conversation with Together the two opponents of the Economist get The Socialist is marginally the more important intellectual opponent over the Conservative which seems logical given the fact that the book was written after the socialists revealed how strong they were during the revolutionary days of before they were suppressed by the army and the police after June and again in June A fuller listing of the topics covered is provided here:.
The other topics related to contemporary political issues which were being debated in the Chamber or in the press. One should also mention the things that Molinari does not discuss which one might have expected in such a work of the moment. He does not discuss the French constitution which was so hotly debated throughout by the Constituent Assembly, the role that political parties should play in a free society, the role that Revolution played in French history and politics, or other related political topics.
We have to wait until the end of the Cours for a critical discussion of what he thought were the weakness of constitutions where he sates that:. This is certainly true. Molinari would have known that his views on the production of security were controversial as his article on that topic had been published in the JDE in February. But there were reasons why he might have been feeling a bit cocky and felt he was able to speak on their behalf on this matter.
He had had a meteoric rise through the ranks of the economists over the previous two or three years. Perhaps he thought that he could now speak for all of them since he had reached conclusions about the new directions in which the school should move once they realised its logical necessity. Unfortunately Fonteyraud died suddenly in the cholera epidemic that swept Paris in July and August of and Molinari found himself isolated ideologically because of the radicalism of his ideas. It seems that Molinari felt obliged to insert a ten page digression on the nature of rent as he was getting the book ready for publication.
There are two possible reasons for this; firstly, throughout and the Economist's views on the nature and legitimacy of profit, interest, and rent had been under attack by socialists such as Proudhon and Louis Blanc both in print and in the National Assembly. Perhaps as he came close to finishing his book the topic of rent came up again in the Assembly which he thought needed addressing.
In February he had written the anti-socialist pamphlet Capital and Rent and at the time Molinari would have been finalizing his manuscript for the printer Bastiat may have been circulating a draft chapter of what would appear as Chap. It seems that Molinari felt the matter was of sufficient importance to insert the discussion here, perhaps at the last minute, before Bastiat got his theory of rent published.
The result was a two volume, nearly 2, page, double-columned encyclopedia of political economy which appeared in Molinari was a major contributor, writing 24 principle articles and 5 biographical articles. In the acknowledgements he was mentioned as one of the five key collaborators on the project.
Other significant contributors to the project were Coquelin, who died suddenly in August before he could start work on volume 2, wrote 70 principle articles, Garnier wrote 28, and Bastiat 3 which were published posthumously. The socialism which emerged in the period to was not the only time Molinari was confronted with observing attempts to put socialist ideas into practice.
He was again living in Paris when the Paris Commune March to May came to power and took over the city. The first category of socialism was based upon the degree of radicalism of the socialists and their readiness to use violence to achieve their goals. They could mobilise large crowds of supporters in the streets to put pressure on the government and were prepared to seize power or rather institutions within the state, like the National Workshops program, to begin putting their ideas into practice. Their form of socialism was not the revolutionary version but an institutional version, whereby they planned to use the existing government bureaucracies like the department of public works and the central Bank to use the power of the state to regulate the French economy and thereby reform society.
As he noted in a review of the events of for the JDE:. At the other end of the spectrum were the voluntary socialists like Proudhon whose views were more acceptable to Molinari. Socialists like Victor Considerant had worked hard to get the new government from the beginning of the Revolution to fund various socialist experiments in labour organisation such as guaranteed equal pay for all workers, low or zero interest loans, not making a profit on the goods produced, etc.
Louis Blanc had taken matters into his own hands by seizing the Luxembourg Palace and running his National Workshops from there. Considerant wanted to set up experimental communities just outside of Paris to show how well socialist organized economic activity would function. Bastiat responded very quickly to these challenges by sarcastically arguing that if the socialists were given land and money to start their own experimental communities, then the economists should be given the same opportunity.
He was convinced this free market utopia would quickly expose socialism for what it was. Needless to say, the Provisional Government did not take up his challenge. Both Bastiat and Molinari liked to use this term to taunt the conservative groups who had become so incensed by the challenge posed by the rise of socialist groups during the revolution. As he lived a long time some 92 years he returned to both these topics several times. I have referred to these later works on occasion but have not dealt with them at length. That would require another essay.
One topic which interested him greatly in the s which I have not discussed is his interest in slavery. Again, this would require another paper. These include the following topics:. These laws operate independently of human will and if they are ignored or violated by government policies the laws will still continue to operate and will produce bad consequences for those who attempt to do this. The Economists of the s were very conscious of their intellectual roots in the Physiocratic movement of the 18th century.
These volumes were appearing just as Molinari was entering the Guillaumin network of free market economists and he was soon enlisted to assist Daire with the final two volumes of the series which appeared in and , also on 18th century authors. Thus the work of the Physiocrats was very much in the air as Molinari was forming his economic views.
The new generation of Economists who emerged after the Restoration of the monarchy in continued to make the same arguments each time the French state discussed reforming its tariff policy in , , and , and each time they were defeated by powerful vested interests.
With the emergence of organized socialist groups in the s and their early political successes in the first half of during the Revolution the Economists realized that a new generation of interventionists had appeared who shared with the protectionists of the July Monarchy an ignorance of and disdain for the natural laws which governed the operation of the market.
He believed, along with the other Economists, that the critics had got things back to front. That if they objected to food shortages and high prices caused by government restrictions on the trade in grain then they should be attacking those artificial government restrictions instead of the natural response of the market to a restricted supply in the face of continued high demand, namely higher prices.
These governed the operation of inanimate, unthinking matter and could be observed and described with great precision. The second set governed the economic world which consisted of large numbers of producers and consumers whose economic activity gave rise to patterns of behavior which could be observed in an empirical fashion by economists who could gather economic statistics and study economic history. From this study they concluded that the regularities of behavior they observed were akin to physical laws. For some of the economists, such as the orthodox Malthusians, they were regarded as being as absolute as any physical law such as gravitation.
These are laws or principles which enabled individuals to cooperate together peacefully, to pursue their goals, and to flourish in society. These included things like property rights, the respect for laws such as contracts , and the absence of coercion or violence in the relationships between individuals. Molinari came to believe that the latter had not been as well developed by the Economists as they should have been, and had not been incorporated into the very foundations of economic theory. They were:.
In his concluding remarks at the end of S12 the Economist argues that governments today, as they were during the Old Regime and the Revolution, are faced with a stark policy choice depending upon whether they do or do not accept the existence of natural laws which govern the operation of the economy. This brought the work of Quesnay and the other Physiocrats to the attention of the younger economists, perhaps for the first time. He summed up his view of property in the following paragraph:. These were:.
A man who possesses things of value is endowed with the natural right to use and dispose of them as he sees fit. The things of value so possessed can be destroyed or preserved, transferred by means of exchange, gift, or bequest.
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To each of these modes of use, employment, or disposition of property, corresponds a particular kind of liberty. The liberty of directly using created or acquired things of value for the satisfaction of the needs of whomever possesses them, that is "the liberty of consumption. The liberty of employing them things of value to produce other things of value, that is "the liberty of industry and the professions. The liberty of combining them to the things of value belonging to another person in order to create a more efficient instrument of production, that is "the liberty of association.
The liberty of lending them, that is to say to transmit pass on, hand over? The liberty of giving or bequeathing them, that is to say to transmit freely to another person the things of value which one possesses, that is "the liberty of gifting or bequesting. Perhaps as a result of his frustrations resulting from the failure of the liberals to develop a coherent and effective theory of limited government in the Restoration period, Dunoyer had given up the attempt to derive liberty from first principles.
As he defined it:. As the Economist expressed it in S6, p. This view placed Molinari in an entirely different tradition to that of Dunoyer; the absence of coercion was a moral perspective based upon natural rights, whereas the physical capacity to do certain things was a physical or historical perspective based upon a more utilitarian view of political economy. It was not just directed against socialists who rejected the right of property itself but also against the political economists who rejected the notion of a natural right to liberty and property in everything unconditionally.
There were two arguments by Molinari to which they objected. The first obviously was his argument in favour of the private provision of security. The second was their opposition to his natural rights based rejection of the right of the state to seize or expropriate property in the name of the public interest for things like public works. This was a direct consequence of his view that the natural laws of political economy were all pervasive and universally applicable. These entrepreneurs would compete in an open market for business by providing the highest quality good or service at the lowest price in order to attract consumers and make profits.
This very successful political campaign led to the repeal of the protectionist Corn Laws in In his understanding of the important role the entrepreneur has in the economy Molinari is building upon the earlier work of Richard Cantillon, Adam Smith, Jean-Baptiste Say, and Charles Dunoyer.
It has now of course entered into the English language and requires no translation. Charles Dunoyer had his own take on the important role played by the entrepreneur in industrial activity. In S1 he provides a list of the occupations he would like to see opened up to competition [pp.
What is a bit more unusual is his idea that the small family farm would eventually have to give way to larger farms run on a more commercial basis. Even more unusual was his call for the complete deregulation of prostitution, which he also regarded as a business, and the right of women to set up their own brothels whenever and however they wished without government regulation or supervision.
The new entrepreneurs would not all come from the wealthier and and better educated classes but also from the ranks of the working class. We will now turn briefly to two areas mentioned at the beginning of this section where Molinari made original contributions with the application of economic ideas and especially the role of the entrepreneur to the study of the provision of security and the operation of the family.
This only went to show that even organizations based upon coercion like slave plantations and governments could sometimes benefit by operating like entrepreneurs in order to keep their costs down and maximise economic returns, but this of course was not something Molinari advocated. Quite the contrary. He wanted parents to be aware of the real costs of having children and caring for them so they could become free, responsible, and useful human beings in the future. In addition to these economic failings of government there was always the political problem of the state being captured by powerful vested interest groups and being turned to satisfying their needs rather than the needs of ordinary people.
No one before him had argued using standard classical economic thinking and property rights theory that private firms operating in a free market could satisfy the strong need of consumers for protection and security services at an affordable price, while at the same time avoiding the problems inherent in any monopolized industry.
In the past, the few political theorists who advocated a society without a state had little idea about how such a society would go about solving its problems, other than to piously assert that some kind of moral change would take place in the hearts of men which would cause violence against others to gradually disappear. All forms of monopoly had deleterious consequences such as high prices, poor service, lack of innovation, and that it produced higher profits than normal to a small group of people who enjoyed the monopoly privilege at the expense of other consumers.
It is important to note that he uses modern commercial terms to describe the operation of the English state:. The ability to control the exercise of coercion had enormous importance because from it flowed the power to create all the other kinds of monopolies which were common under the old regime, such as trading and manufacturing rights, access to certain professions, and so on. A similar situation existed in the July Monarchy in France.
A/CONF.171/13/Add.1: Rapport de la CIPD, Additif (94/10/18)
They controlled the army and the police as well as the votes required to introduce tariff protection and subsidies for the industries from which they made their livelihoods. Molinari thought this was unfair because the vast bulk of the French taxpayers were excluded from any say in how much taxation could be imposed upon them or how this money would be spent.
One of the arguments he used in arguing for an expansion of the franchise in France was the idea that the main reason for having a government in the first place was to provide all citizens with a guarantee of security of their persons and property. The problem was to find a system which would avoid the weakness of both systems.
This was to prevent a democratic majority of voters voting for confiscatory taxes on the property and income of the rich, which Molinari thought was a major weakness in the American system of government. The leap he made was to stop thinking of this similarity as purely a metaphor and to see it as an actual possibility that real insurance companies could sell premiums to willing customers for specific services which could be agreed upon contractually in advance and provided competitively on the free market.
Galerie Champetier, Catalogues raisonnés, oeuvres complets, estampes
Having laid out this mini-treatise on political economy, Molinari then proceeds to make his case that the provision of security was just another government monopoly which should be liberalized. He turns the counter-argument on its head by challenging the economists who want to de-monopolize nearly everything the government does to justify why they have made this important exception to the general principle. Why should there be a government monopoly in this case when the theory of political economy shows conclusively that monopolies lead to higher prices, lack of innovation, and high profits for a privileged minority?
This was in fact exactly how the market operated for everything else. Molinari would take up many of the same issues in S11 but it should be remembered that the discussion of the private provision of security takes place in a much broader context developed throughout the book concerning the private and competitive provision of many other public goods as well, such as mineral resources, state owned forests, canals, rivers, city water supplies, the post office, public theatres, libraries; and the ending of private monopolies protected by government licences and heavily regulated professions such as bakeries, butchers, printing, lawyers, brokers, funeral parlors, cemeteries, medicine, teaching, and even brothels.
A twist which he adds in S11 is that he introduces the radically new idea that an actual insurance company might be the type of private company best suited to providing security services for person and property. The only things an economist needed to know is whether or not there is a demand for a good or service, whether or not there are people willing to supply this good or service at a given price, and if there are no legal impediments to these two parties coming together to trade with each other; then the economist can say with some certainty that markets will evolve to satisfy this demand:.
This is of course a true statement about many if not most economic activities. As he was writing these very lines Molinari was witnessing the dramatic transformation of shopping in Paris with the emergence of the department store. No economist could have imagined how this new invention of the competitive market for the sale of consumer goods would transform cities like Paris. Whether such a market could arise was, of course untested, but Molinari was confident it would and, if fact was so confident, that he made a very bold prediction in S11 about how long a transition period was needed for this to occur, which only confirmed in his critics minds that he was a bold and daring utopian thinker:.
Rodet, and M. Molinari was notable for his absence, which is probably understandable. Bastiat followed Coquelin with a statement about his own views for a state which was strictly limited to guaranteeing justice and security. Since this required force to accomplish and since force could only be the attribute of a supreme power, he could not understand how a society could function if supreme power was split among numerous groups which were all equal to each other.
He concluded that therefore it would be better to leave the exercise of force where history had placed it, namely in the hands of the state. The result was that none of his friends or colleagues took up any of his ideas, leaving Molinari as the sole advocate of these ideas for the rest of the century. The important insight Molinari had, with interesting similarities to the Pubic Choice approach to understanding politics, was to treat the state in the same way he would treat a firm or a company, that the people who owned or ran the firm had goals which they wanted to achieve with limited resources, that they responded to changing relative costs and benefits, and that they had to adjust to technological and other systemic changes.
The terminology Molinari used to describe the state is quite instructive. What Molinari is doing here is similar to what Douglas C. North did in the s with his history of the emergence of political institutions from an economic perspective. As these things change over time, especially as technological change introduces new possibilities for economic activity, institutions change in order to take advantage of them.
See below for further discussion of this idea. Most importantly, he developed a list of reasons why the monopoly provision of security by the state was more costly and less efficient than private companies, all of which were based upon his theory of the natural laws of political economy and how the state violated them. The first reason he gave was that government monopolies tended to overproduce goods or services beyond the needs of the consumers because, in the absence of prices and freely negotiated contracts, the government monopoly did not know how much production is optimal.
Molinari thought that defence was an excellent example of this tendency to overproduce a good or service:. A second reason was that government had become too big and complex, and was active in too many fields to be expert in all of them. A final reason he gave was that firms had a natural size limit la loi des limites naturelles beyond which they could not operate effectively. Molinari thought that the market should determine the optimal size of firms which would best be able to satisfy the needs of its consumers as well as make a profit for its owners:. He still talks about producers and consumers of security, about the greater economic efficiency and lower costs of free market alternatives to government, and the need for governments to obey the economic principles which govern all enterprises, especially living within its means and paying its debts.
Only then, Molinari thought, could governments avoid becoming what J. The integrity of states had already been challenged and some secessionist movements had succeeded like Latin America in the s and he thought this process was most likely to continue in the future.
As new kinds of property emerged new means would be required to protect it from force, fraud, or loss. In a very Spencerian way of arguing he observed:. So it seems that he had both components of the anarcho-capitalist position developed to some degree by , the idea that private companies operating in a free market could supply protection services more cheaply and efficiently than a state monopoly, and that law too could evolve in order to solve disputes about property and violence. Molinari then proceeds to show how the villagers are mistaken, how free and open competition by grocers would lead to greater variety in the choice of food, lower prices, and even more work for people in the grocery business.
His reply then and here was that no economist could say anything specific about what a future market might look like other than extrapolate from present practices and what they know about human economic behaviour. When compared to the future which he thought lay in store if the current regime of protectionism, statism, and militarism continued to expand, or to the future proposed by the socialist parties of government planning and regulation of the economy and society in general, then his liberal utopia did not seem any more utopian than theirs did:. It was at moments like this that Molinari liked to remind his readers of Adam Smith's pessimism in about the chances of free trade being introduced in Britain against the prejudices of the general public and the powerful self-interest of politically well connected lobby groups who benefited from protection.
In spite of these obstacles the Corn Laws were repealed some 70 years later:. To expect, indeed, that the freedom of trade should ever be entirely restored in Great Britain, is as absurd as to expect that an Oceana or Utopia should ever be established in it. Not only the prejudices of the public, but what is much more unconquerable, the private interests of many individuals, irresistibly oppose it.
Were the officers of the army to oppose with the same zeal and unanimity any reduction in the number of forces, with which master manufacturers set themselves against every law that is likely to increase the number of their rivals in the home market; were the former to animate their soldiers, in the same manner as the latter enflame their workmen, to attack with violence and outrage the proposers of any such regulation; to attempt to reduce the army would be as dangerous as it has now become to attempt to diminish in any respect the monopoly which our manufacturers have obtained against us.
This monopoly has so much increased the number of some particular tribes of them, that, like an overgrown standing army, they have become formidable to the government, and upon many  occasions intimidate the legislature. The member of parliament who supports every proposal for strengthening this monopoly, is sure to acquire not only the reputation of understanding trade, but great popularity and influence with an order of men whose numbers and wealth render them of great importance.
If he opposes them, on the contrary, and still more if he has authority enough to be able to thwart them, neither the most acknowledged probity, nor the highest rank, nor the greatest public services, can protect him from the most infamous abuse and detraction, from personal insults, nor sometimes from real danger, arising from the insolent outrage of furious and disappointed monopolists. His calculations are obviously incorrect, but he was partly right in that it was in the late s and early s that a new generation of libertarians in the United States rediscovered his ideas and began to discuss them in earnest.
Molinari took a great interest in labour matters when he was a young journalist in the early s. He thought the legal persecution of workers who tried to set up their own labour unions was unjust and he was inspired by the example of Stock Exchanges which he thought could be applied to the creation of Labour Exchanges to help workers find the best paying jobs.
Both were banned under the Civil Code but punishments were heavier and more often enforced against labour unions than employer associations. French workers were regulated in two main areas. If they were found without the workbooks in their possession, workers could be imprisoned for vagrancy.
The workbooks were introduced in , were abolished during the Revolution, and then reinstated under Napoleon in Although they were often ignored in practice they were a significant regulation of labor and were not abolished until The ban on forming labour unions dates back to the Chapelier Law of which became the basis for articles and of the Penal Code.
The Assembly had abolished the privileged corporations of masters and occupations of the old regime in March and the Le Chapelier Law was designed to do the same thing to organizations of both entrepreneurs and their workers. The law effectively banned guilds and trade unions as well as the right to strike until the law was altered in Any coalition between those who give the workers employment, which is aimed at forcing down wages, unjustly and improperly, followed by an attempt at carrying this out or actually beginning to do so, will be punished by an imprisonment of from six days to a month, and a fine ranging from two hundred to three thousand francs.
Any coalition, either attempted or initiated, on the part of the workers, which is aimed at bringing all work to a halt simultaneously, forbidding activity in a workshop, preventing people going there or staying there before or after certain hours, and in general, stopping, preventing or making production more expensive, will be punished by an imprisonment of at least one month and no more than three months.
The ringleaders or instigators will be punished with an imprisonment of two to five years. The law, based upon the Le Chapelier Law of June and Articles and of the French Penal Code, turned a blind eye to business owners associating in order to improve their economic situation but cracked down severely on workers who did the same thing. Molinari, on the other hand, saw unions as just another example of a voluntary association between free individuals to achieve common goals see S6.
This view was also shared by Bastiat who gave a speech in the Chamber of Deputies on 17 November, defending unions on these very grounds and that they should be protected under the law. He tells us some 52 years later that he had assisted the Parisian Carpenters Union in their trial in He sadly notes that the crack down by the government on the workers and their unions provoked a reaction against the government and the principle of individual liberty:.
The electric telegraph had been introduced in France in for government and military use only and in it was opened up for public use but the possibilities it might open up for business were obvious. In his arguments to the workers he wanted them to see that there were many parallels between them and their employers. One of course was the need for quick and accurate information about prices which would be satisfied by their respectives Bourses.
His physical strength and intelligence are his capital. Work is a product of physical force and intelligence. Among the criticisms which are made of the school of the Economists, to which we have the honour of belonging and whose doctrines we promote, the gravest is the criticism of being uncaring towards the working classes. It is even claimed that the application of the doctrines of this school would harm the mass of the workers; it is claimed that there is in liberty who knows what kind of fatal seed of inequality and privilege; it is claimed that if the reign of unlimited liberty should ever come one day it will be marked by the enslavement of the class who lives by the labour of its mind and its hands, by the class who lives from the product of its land holdings or its accumulated capital; to be honest, it is claimed that this noble reign of liberty would inevitably create an unbearable oppression and terrifying anarchy.
During the Revolution there were some attempts to set up a version of the Labour Exchanges. There was strong opposition by labour groups who saw the bureaux as an opportunity for lower priced competitors from outside to undercut their place in the labour market was brought to bear and the police arrested many who were involved in the formation of the bureaux. The plan thus never went any further. A second attempt was made by the National Assembly in February when it proposed a law to create a "Bourse des Travailleurs", but this too went no further than the planning stages.
It is not known if Molinari had any personal involvement in these schemes or not. It was aimed primarily at ordinary workers but the employers and workers they approached were indifferent or hostile to the scheme and so the magazine soon folded. They also reminded the legislators that.
Neither the magazine, the fledgling Bourse, nor their political lobbying efforts had any long lasting impact and they eventually disappeared from sight. However, twenty years later the French government again showed some interest in setting up Labour Exchanges. In the Third Republic steps were taken to create a government Office of Labour with associated exchanges throughout France.
Discussions began in but it was not until February that one was formally launched, in spite of organized opposition by unions. Union opposition had been successful in but in the more conservative Third Republic their opposition was ignored. A central Bourse was created in Paris in May and many others throughout France appeared shortly afterwards. Molinari received some attention in the late s for his early work in promoting the idea of labour exchanges and he wrote a book summarizing his ideas and efforts in , Les Bourses du Travail Labour Exchanges.
I said that population, when unchecked, increased in a geometrical ratio; and subsistence for man in an arithmetical ratio This ratio of increase, though short of the utmost power of population, yet as the result of actual experience, we will take as our rule; and say, That population, when unchecked, goes on doubling itself every twenty-five years or increases in a geometrical ratio… It may be fairly said, therefore, that the means of subsistence increase in an arithmetical ratio.
Let us now bring the effects of these two ratios together… No limits whatever are placed to the productions of the earth; they may increase for ever and be greater than any assignable quantity; yet still the power of population being a power of a superior order, the increase of the human species can only be kept commensurate to the increase of the means of subsistence, by the constant operation of the strong law of necessity acting as a check upon the greater power.
A man who is born into a world already possessed, if he cannot get subsistence from his parents on whom he has a just demand, and if the society do not want his labour, has no claim of right to the smallest portion of food, and, in fact, has no business to be where he is. At nature's mighty feast there is no vacant cover for him. She tells him to be gone, and will quickly execute her own orders, if he does not work upon the compassion of some of her guests.
This infamous passage from Malthus is mentioned by the Socialist in S10 [p. The most outspoken defender of orthodox Malthusianism in France was Joseph Garnier who was the editor of the JDE from to He edited and annotated the Guillaumin edition of Malthus's book which appeared in as well as a second edition in with a long Foreword defending Malthus against his critics.
He also published a condensed version of Malthus' On the Principle of Population in with copious commentaries and many appendices. Perhaps under the influence of Bastiat who rejected orthodox Malthusianism, Molinari realised that Malthus had underestimated the ability of the free market, free trade, and industrialization to increase output at a faster pace than population growth. Under the influence of Bastiat and Dunoyer Molinari gradually came around to this way of thinking.
In the same spirit with which he approached the economic analysis of the production of security in Molinari rethought the problem of population growth in the Cours in in a way which seems to anticipate some of the work on the economics of families done by the Nobel Prize winning Chicago economist Gary Becker. This investment included such things such as looking after the foetus in the womb, the activity of doctors and nurses at the birth, the costs of rearing and educating the child, the costs of training the child for productive work, and so on.
The economic aspects of investing in human capital was most obvious Molinari thought in an earlier stage of society when coercion was more prevalent, such as in the activities of the slave owner who rationally planned the size and composition of his slave work force, but the same principles also applied to the way men and women went about planning the size of their own families in a fully free society. One of the most important restrictions which Molinari had in mind was a legal system which would enforce the obligation of parents to look after any children they brought into the world.
An interesting and somewhat unexpected consequence of this view was that Molinari believed the state should force parents to educate their children but play no role whatsoever in providing that education. After having laid out his economic theory of the family and its reproduction, Molinari then turned to a thorough critique of Malthus. Although he still paid homage to his essential humanity and his economic insights, the effect of his critique was to largely demolish the whole body of Malthusian doctrine.
His first major criticism was that Malthus had focused on only one of the three factors which influenced the size of population, the reproductive capacity of human beings, while ignoring the factors of labour and capital. The historical example he thought was definitive in this respect was the previous 60 years of population growth in the United States. Moral restraint combined with a proper understanding of the productive power of free economies was all that was necessary to ensure, not a fixed population size, but a steadily growing and wealthier population.
Some of the more extreme Malthusians went so far as to suggest that population could only be limited by measures such as abortion, infanticide asphyxiation, exposure of new borns , sterilization castration, hysterectomies , prostitution, or polygamy. One should note that a young John Stuart Mill very much influenced by the Benthamite school was arrested and spent three nights in jail in for handing out leaflets on the street with information about contraceptive methods.
Some more liberal minded Malthusians like John Stuart Mill some 36 years after his arrest even contemplated state regulation of marriage to ensure that couples could not marry unless they had the means to support their children:. And in a country either overpeopled, or threatened with being so, to produce children, beyond a very small number, with the effect of reducing the reward of labour by their competition, is a serious offence against all who live by the remuneration of their labour.
The laws which, in many countries on the Continent, forbid marriage unless the parties can show that they have the means of supporting a family, do not exceed the legitimate powers of the State… However, these more radical ideas were rejected by the mainstream Malthusians like J. They probably didn't know that the Church had already put the collected works of Proudhon on the Index in Unlike the Conservative, Molinari was probably not a strict practicing Catholic. What made moral restraint possible was a moral code where religious values played a role.
Nevertheless, Molinari was very critical of organized religion, especially the monopoly of religion which had emerged in Europe, the political privileges of religious corporations, and any form of state subsidies to any particular religion. Another interesting example of his application of economic analysis to human institutions is the Catholic Church. This proved not to be the case and Molinari returned to the issue of religion 40 years later in a book length historical and sociological analysis of the overall benefits of religion to human progress so long as it remained outside of the jurisdiction of the state.
Constancio with notes by J. Ricardo defined rent as:. It is often, however, confounded with the interest and profit of capital, and, in popular language, the term is applied to whatever is annually paid by a farmer to his landlord.