In a series of studies available only as abstracts or in abbreviated form, Ghoneum et al showed an improvement in NK activity following treatment with MGN-3 in a group of 32 cancer patients, all of whom exhibited lower than normal NK cell function at study outset. NK activity was enhanced at all concentrations used and acted in a dose-dependent fashion to increase NK cell activity significantly over the duration of the study.
Ghoneum et al also found baseline NK cell activity to be low in patients with varied advanced cancers: MGN-3 led to a significant increase in NK cell activity after weeks and was reportedly sustained for up to five years with continued administration. MGN-3 has been shown to decrease the toxicity of standard chemotherapy in animal studies. Rats receiving MGN-3 in addition to chemotherapy doxorubicin or cisplatin showed significant weight gain and decreased gastrointestinal pathology, and even a decreased death rate, as compared to those receiving the chemotherapy alone.
IP6 is found in cereals and legumes, particularly in the bran of mature seeds. Inositol hexaphosphate has shown anticancer activity in breast, colon, liver, and prostate cells and experimental tumors. IP6 is available as a supplement in combination with inositol. Studies in humans using IP6 in cancer treatment are ongoing; however, no clinical trials in humans showing anticancer activity of IP6 have been published to date. Astralgus may lower blood pressure or cause diuresis and potentially may cause an interaction with opiates.
Therefore, it is difficult to separate out any untoward effects from astralgus in clinical use. There were no reports of side effects or interactions with other medications used. A review of the literature on MGN-3 reveals no published adverse effects. IP6 may interfere with absorption of minerals in the stomach; therefore, it should be taken on an empty stomach. There is a concern that use of IP6 with drugs that affect platelet aggregation may increase the risk of bleeding because in vitro IP6 can inhibit platelet aggregation.
This effect has not been demonstrated in humans. Because of a lack of human clinical trials, the possible adverse effects of IP6 have not been fully presented. However there have been no reports of any side effects. Substances that can augment innate immunity involving NK cells hold much promise. The substances discussed here have been shown to modulate the immune system, primarily through improving NK cell activity, which is closely related to control of malignancies. Improved control helps to decrease tumor burden, which theoretically may improve local control, survival, and cancer- and treatment-related toxicity.
Minimal side effects have been associated, thus far, with these substances. The greatest weight of evidence, although largely in vitro, seems to favor the use of MGN-3 as adjunctive treatment for malignancy and the use of astralgus as immune support during chemotherapy when the patient has leukopenia.
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Although the evidence for clinical use of the immunomodulators discussed here is still scant, there seems to be growing support for their use as an adjunct to cancer treatment. Astralgus would be beneficial in those undergoing chemotherapy who develop leukopenia. MGN-3 would be recommended as an adjunct to traditional cancer therapy, especially for those with lymphomas and leukemia, given the importance of natural killer cells in these malignancies.
The immune system and how immunotherapy works
IP6 would not be recommended currently given the lack of clinical evidence in combination with its potential impact on coagulation. Udani and Dr. Human natural killer cells in health and disease. Clin Immunotherapeutics ; Cotran RS, et al. Natural Killer Cells. In: Cotran RS, et al, eds. Robbins Pathologic Basis of Disease. Vodjani A et al.
The Case of the Immunotherapy Inquiry
Possible role of natural killer cells in host resistance against tumors and diseases. Clin Immunol Allergy ; Ghoneum M, Jewett A. Production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma from human peripheral blood lymphocytes by MGN-3, a modified arabinoxylan from rice bran, and its synergy with interleukin-2 in vitro. Cancer Detect Prev ; Lee GR, et al.
NK Cells and Malignancies. Vodjani A. Reid A. A Handbook of Chinese Healing Herbs. Boston, MA: Shambhala Publications; Lau BH, et al. Chinese medicinal herbs inhibit growth of murine renal cell carcinoma. Cancer Biother ; Cha RJ, et al.
Non-specific cancer immunotherapies and adjuvants
Non-surgical treatment of small cell lung cancer with chemo-radio-immunotherapy and traditional chinese medicine. Weng XS. Treatment of leukopenia with pure astralgus preparation—an analysis of leukopenic cases [in Chinese]. Ghoneum M, et al. Accessed Sept. Ghoneum M. Enhancement of human natural killer cell activity by modified arabinoxylane rice bran MGN Int J Immunother ;IV Ghoneum M, Manatalla G.
NK immunomodulatory function in 27 patients by MGN-3, a modified arabinoxylane from rice bran. Jacoby HI, et al. The effect of MGN-3 on cisplatin and adriamycin induced cytotoxicity in the rat. Gastroenterology ;April Suppl Uyemura, Koichi et al. MGN-3, a novel antitumor agent. Available at: www. Graf E, Eaton JW. Antioxidant functions of phytic acid. Free Radic Biol Med ; They are a diverse array of recombinant, synthetic, and natural preparations.
Cancer immunotherapy attempts to stimulate the immune system to destroy tumors. A variety of strategies are in use or are undergoing research and testing. One of the oldest forms of cancer immunotherapy is the use of BCG vaccine , which was originally to vaccinate against tuberculosis and later was found to be useful in the treatment of bladder cancer. The extraction of G-CSF lymphocytes from the blood and expanding in vitro against a tumour antigen before reinjecting the cells with appropriate stimulatory cytokines.
The cells then destroy the tumor cells that express the antigen. Topical immunotherapy utilizes an immune enhancement cream imiquimod which produces interferon , causing the recipient's killer T cells to destroy warts ,  actinic keratoses , basal cell cancer , vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia ,  squamous cell cancer,   cutaneous lymphoma,  and superficial malignant melanoma. Injection immunotherapy "intralesional" or "intratumoral" uses mumps, candida, the HPV vaccine   or trichophytin antigen injections to treat warts HPV induced tumors.
Adoptive cell transfer has been tested on lung  and other cancers, with greatest success achieved in melanoma.
Immunotherapy - Wikipedia
Dendritic cells can be stimulated to activate a cytotoxic response towards an antigen. Dendritic cells, a type of antigen presenting cell , are harvested from the person needing the immunotherapy.
These cells are then either pulsed with an antigen or tumor lysate or transfected with a viral vector , causing them to display the antigen. This initiates a cytotoxic response against tumor cells expressing the antigen against which the adaptive response has now been primed. The cancer vaccine Sipuleucel-T is one example of this approach. Adoptive cell transfer in vitro cultivates autologous, extracted T cells for later transfusion. Alternatively, Genetically engineered T cells are created by harvesting T cells and then infecting the T cells with a retrovirus that contains a copy of a T cell receptor TCR gene that is specialised to recognise tumour antigens.
The virus integrates the receptor into the T cells' genome. The cells are then reinfused and produce an immune response against the tumour cells. Whether T cells are genetically engineered or not, before reinfusion, lymphodepletion of the recipient is required to eliminate regulatory T cells as well as unmodified, endogenous lymphocytes that compete with the transferred cells for homeostatic cytokines.
Autologous immune enhancement therapy use a person's own peripheral blood-derived natural killer cells , cytotoxic T lymphocytes and other relevant immune cells are expanded in vitro and then reinfused. Immune suppression dampens an abnormal immune response in autoimmune diseases or reduces a normal immune response to prevent rejection of transplanted organs or cells. Immunosuppressive drugs help manage organ transplantation and autoimmune disease.
Immune responses depend on lymphocyte proliferation.
Cytostatic drugs are immunosuppressive. Glucocorticoids are somewhat more specific inhibitors of lymphocyte activation, whereas inhibitors of immunophilins more specifically target T lymphocyte activation. Immunosuppressive antibodies target steps in the immune response. Other drugs modulate immune responses. The body naturally does not launch an immune system attack on its own tissues.
- Immunotherapy - Canadian Cancer Society.
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Immune tolerance therapies seek to reset the immune system so that the body stops mistakenly attacking its own organs or cells in autoimmune disease or accepts foreign tissue in organ transplantation. It has been tested on transplantations, and type 1 diabetes or other autoimmune disorders. Immunotherapy is used to treat allergies. While allergy treatments such as antihistamines or corticosteroids treat allergic symptoms, immunotherapy can reduce sensitivity to allergens , lessening its severity.
Immunotherapy may produce long-term benefits. The therapy is indicated for people who are extremely allergic or who cannot avoid specific allergens. Immunotherapy is generally not indicated for food or medicinal allergies. This therapy is particularly useful for people with allergic rhinitis or asthma.
The first dose contain tiny amounts of the allergen or antigen.
Dosages increase over time, as the person becomes desensitized. This technique has been tested on infants to prevent peanut allergies. Whipworm ova Trichuris suis and Hookworm Necator americanus have been tested for immunological diseases and allergies. Co-evolution with helminths has shaped some of the genes associated with Interleukin expression and immunological disorders, such Crohn's , ulcerative colitis and celiac disease. Helminth's relationship to humans as hosts should be classified as mutualistic or symbiotic. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
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