Come di notte le voci delle cose (Versi di segale) (Italian Edition)

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Does it have any studies enabling it to assess the situation? If these delays, and particularly their extent, are confirmed, does the Commission plan to grant an extension for the full implementation of the directive? The Commission is monitoring regularly the state of implementation of group housing of sows in the Member States. The Commission has been working for several years with Member States and stakeholders to ensure a progressive implementation of group housing of sows.

For , an implementation plan is already in place. A long transitional period was granted to allow Member States to implement this measure. Postponing the legal deadline would create a situation of unfair competition for those producers who already invested to comply with EU animal welfare legislation on time. De afgelopen jaren is er veel te doen geweest over de achteruitgang van het bijenbestand in Europa en in andere delen van de wereld. In dit debat wordt vaak spontaan de link gelegd met de aanwezigheid van pesticiden in ons leefmilieu.

Recent is er een belangwekkende wetenschappelijke ontwikkeling wat dit betreft. Er wordt naar verluidt in nog niet gepubliceerd onderzoek van Dr. Zo is er bijvoorbeeld Imidacloprid, een nicotinederivaat door Bayer Crop Sciences op de markt gebracht onder namen zoals Gaucho, Admire, Merit, Advantage, Confidor, Provado en Winner waarnaar in de hierboven vermelde publicatie expliciet verwezen wordt. Gezien het belang van bijen voor het behoud van onze biodiversiteit, maar ook voor de economie — bijen bestuiven het overgrote deel van alle planten die we voor consumptie telen — is het noodzakelijk dat we de nodige maatregelen nemen tegen de achteruitgang van de bijen.

Voorziet de Commissie zelf nu al in financiering van onderzoek naar bijensterfte? De Commissie is op de hoogte van het door het geachte Parlementslid genoemde wetenschappelijke artikel. De goedkeuring van een stof kan worden herzien naar aanleiding van negatieve signalen uit de praktijk of wetenschappelijk onderzoek. Het project is specifiek gericht op subletale en chronische blootstelling aan bestrijdingsmiddelen, en onderzoekt welke invloed de bijenhouderspraktijken op de gezondheid van de bijenkolonies hebben.

There has been much ado in recent years about the decline in the bee population in Europe and other parts of the world. The European Commission has itself highlighted the possible consequences of this decline in its communication COM to the European Parliament and the Council. This debate often generates spontaneous references to the presence of pesticides in our environment.

Compelling scientific evidence has recently emerged in this connection. Thus, the aforesaid publication refers explicitly to a nicotine derivative called imidacloprid sold by Bayer Crop Sciences under such trade names as Gaucho, Admire, Merit, Advantage, Confidor, Provado and Winner. Given the importance of bees for the conservation of our biodiversity as well as for the economy — bees pollinate the majority of all the plants grown for our consumption — it is imperative that we take the necessary measures against the decline of the bee population.

Does the Commission intend to have the pesticides which are specifically described as being potentially harmful to bees, such as imidacloprid, clothianidin, thiamethoxam et al, removed from the market or to do this with regard to neonicotinoid pesticides in general? Is the Commission itself currently financing research into bee mortality? If so, can the Commission provide an overview of the research involved? The Commission is aware of the scientific article the Honourable Member refers to.

The Commission asked Germany, which was in charge of the original assessment of imidacloprid, to provide their views on the results listed in the published research and will raise it for discussion in a forthcoming meeting of the Standing Committee of the Food Chain and Animal Health. The approval of a substance may be reconsidered in the light of adverse evidence revealed by experience or scientific research. The Commission is providing financial support to several research projects on bees. The project specifically addresses sub lethal and chronic exposure to pesticides and screens how apicultural practices affect colony health.

  1. La philosophie de lart: « Que sais-je ? » n° 1887 (French Edition)?
  2. Sguardi Globali da una Finestra di Cucina al Ticinese!
  3. The New Spirituality.
  4. The Iran-Israel Crisis: Looking for a Way to Prevent a Nuclear War?

Varnost poleg varnega obratovanja jedrskih elektrarn pomeni tudi varno ravnanje z jedrskimi odpadki ter njihovo varno odlaganje in razgradnjo. Nuclear power is a low-carbon source of energy and one which is competitively priced. In addition to the safe operation of nuclear power plants, safety also means safe management of nuclear waste and its safe disposal and decommissioning.

In this context and within its powers under the Euratom Treaty, the Commission publishes annual reports on the earmarking of funds for the decommissioning of nuclear power plants and the management of nuclear spent fuel and nuclear waste. So far it has produced two such reports, the first in and the second in When it comes to the use of nuclear energy, people mostly stress the disposal of nuclear waste and decommissioning as the key problems.

When will it draw up a third report on the earmarking of financial resources for the decommissioning of nuclear power plants and management of nuclear spent fuel and nuclear waste? Does it intend, on the basis of information it has gathered previously, to undertake any new activities with a view to earmarking financial resources for the decommissioning of nuclear power plants and management of nuclear spent fuel and nuclear waste?

The outcome of the Commission's assessment will be the basis for further activities in this domain, with a view to making sure that adequate financial resources will be available when required. However, it does not seem to include equivalent exemptions for non-US sovereign debt. These rules, as they are currently being considered, could severely impact on EU sovereign debt markets, which could lead to a significant loss of liquidity, as both US and other international banks may no longer be able to invest.

These contacts have confirmed that the current draft regulation could raise a number of concerns related to its scope, to the narrowness of the exemptions as well as the discriminatory provisions on sovereign bonds and on foreign asset management funds. What EU budget appropriations were earmarked for measures to increase employment and growth in ? How much was utilised and how much remained unallocated? How will the unallocated amount be utilised? What are the take-up rates of funding for measures to promote employment and combat unemployment in the various Member States?

What are the reasons for the disparities between them? Given that some Member States, such as Greece, have particularly high unemployment rates, were the funds used appropriately and if not, for what reason? Which does it believe are the obstacles to effective and adequate use of these funds? Does it intend to help the Member States to improve their take-up rates and, if so, how? The Structural Funds are the main instruments for employment and growth, the European Social Fund ESF being the main tool to increase employability of workers.

Following the Informal European Council of The Funds have been used appropriately in increasing employability but the programmes were designed before the crisis and its resulting rise in unemployment. Member States have modified their programmes to adapt to the recent needs in employment policies. The main obstacles are administrative and financial difficulties at national level.

This means that the national contribution can be reduced at a time that national budgets are under extreme pressures. According to the study, this applies in particular to cereals, detergents, personal hygiene products and soft drinks. It should be noted that many of these products are traded by wholesale and retail chains with branches or registered offices in other EU Member States, which sell their products relatively cheaply in the other countries mentioned above. They could therefore supply these products to Greece at similar prices with the addition of reasonable transport costs.

Is the Commission aware of this study and what action does it intend to take to ensure compliance with EU competition rules? Given that the most expensive items are mass-market products, what measures does it intend to take to ensure greater pricing transparency to protect consumers and prevent their purchasing power from being eroded?

Sguardi Globali da una Finestra di Cucina al Ticinese

The Greek NCA is well-placed to carry out any follow-up actions. Indeed it launched in a sector inquiry in the fruit and vegetables sector on the basis of the results of that consultation. The Commission and NCAs will investigate any serious indications of anticompetitive behaviour such as intra-EU price discrimination and market segmentation in the above markets.

The Commission is preparing a detailed report of the most significant enforcement, advocacy and monitoring actions taken by NCAs and the Commission in recent years in the food sector. The Commission will inform the Parliament of this report when published this year. Price formation depends on external and internal factors, such as the cost of inputs, market structures and regulatory frameworks. A recent study shows a record fall in production and significant job losses in the Greek manufacturing sector.

Businesses are finding it difficult to gain access to working capital and companies are not managing to use their credit lines and usual methods of payment to conduct their operations normally. The decline in new orders has caused a dramatic decrease in production, as a result of which Greek businesses are continuing to shed their workforce. Given on the one hand, the unfortunate economic situation of Greece and on the other hand, the fact that similar problems can be seen in other sectors in the majority of Member States, this is a European problem which requires a European response.

In what specific ways does the Commission intend to increase investments in Member States, particularly for small and medium-sized undertakings, which are the backbone of EU economic growth and necessary for the development and competitiveness of the EU? Can it provide further information on what instruments it has at its disposal and if it intends to use them for financing the manufacturing sector and avoiding collective redundancies? The implementation of the. The Commission recently published a Green Paper. La sezione B della legge in materia di blasfemia prevede che la profanazione volontaria del Corano o l'utilizzo di un suo estratto in maniera offensiva siano punibili con l'ergastolo.


Secondo il rappresentante dell'UE in Pakistan, quali progressi, se ve ne sono stati, sono stati compiuti dal governo pakistano dall'assassinio di Shahbaz Bhatti e del governatore della provincia del Punjab, Salmaan Taseer, nella revisione delle leggi in materia di blasfemia vigenti in Pakistan, dal momento che molti segnalano che tali leggi vengono invocate per regolare questioni personali? Masih contends that he had been falsely accused in the case because he had had an argument with his landlord over the rent for his house.

According to EU representatives within Pakistan, what, if any, progress has been made within the Pakistani Government, since the assassination of. The EU has repeatedly raised the continued application of the blasphemy laws with the Government of Pakistan as part of the human rights dialogue and will continue to do so. The EU has encouraged the Government of Pakistan to amend the more controversial aspects of the blasphemy legislation.

The Commission closely monitors the progress as regards the implementation of the G20 commitments in terms of financial services legislation in other jurisdictions. To this end, and the Commission is engaged in financial regulatory dialogues with a number of third countries in order to exchange information about respective legislative plans. Given that financial markets and transactions are truly global, it is important that all G20 members implement the G20 commitments in a consistent way, avoiding regulatory arbitrage, overlaps and conflicting requirements.

Where possible adverse effects are identified, the Commission works closely with its partners to eliminate them or mitigate them as far as possible. Whilst fully sharing the objective of this rule, a number of potential adverse and unintended consequences were identified for EU institutions and EU markets. This issue has been raised in bilateral letters and contacts with American counterparts.

At the time, the benefits of cutting red tape were estimated at 1. Five years later, EU Member States are struggling to kick-start growth in times of austerity. Reducing the burden on businesses remains a costless and straightforward way to encourage investment and growth; however the aims of the High Level Group appear not to have been achieved. Does the Commission feel that the HLG's advice has been adequately acted upon, especially in the area of financial services.

Will a second extension of its mandate be necessary when the HLG's current mandate expires at the end of ? Can the Commission provide an updated assessment of the economic benefit that could be achieved by reducing bureaucracy further? It can therefore be considered that the Commission has exceeded its objective. The reduction of regulatory burden has become an integral part of the impact assessments that Commission initiatives undergo before being proposed to the Council and the Parliament.

The group could go further and focus more on small businesses and administrative reforms in the Member States. Secondo il servizio radio-televisivo Voice of America, vi sono circa 15 milioni di protestanti e 5 milioni di cattolici che frequentano le chiese registrate ufficialmente. Tuttavia, secondo gli esperti, a tale cifra occorre sommare altri 50 milioni di persone che si riuniscono nelle cosiddette chiese clandestine o nelle case-chiesa, le quali rifiutano di sottomettersi al controllo dello Stato. Sembra inoltre che alcuni membri abbiano perso la casa e il posto di lavoro a causa della campagna ufficiale diretta alla chiusura delle chiese.

L'UE ha espresso la propria preoccupazione, ancora una volta, durante l'ultimo incontro nell'ambito del dialogo sui diritti umani UE-Cina nel giugno In questa occasione ha nuovamente sollecitato la Cina ad agevolare l'esercizio del culto semplificando il sistema di registrazione delle case-chiesa e accelerando il processo decisionale in materia.

This relates to the number of Christians arrested, sentenced, abused and tortured. China's constitution allows for freedom of religion, but only in state sanctioned churches. Staff at the Cardinal Kung Foundation, which monitors the treatment of Roman Catholics in China, also report that Catholics constantly struggle to worship discretely in homes or in fields to avoid being discovered by the authorities.

It is alleged that some members lost their homes and jobs as part of an official campaign to shut down the church. If so, what have been some of the responses from the Chinese authorities? The EU attaches great importance to the human rights situation in China. It is particularly concerned by restrictions to the freedom of religion. On this occasion, it reiterated its call to China to facilitate the exercise of religion by simplifying the registration system of house churches and speeding up decision making in this respect.

The Chinese authorities replied that the national legislation allows house churches to obtain official registration, but that in each case a thorough examination is warranted to prevent abuses. The EU will continue to follow closely the situation of individual cases of concern and to urge the Chinese authorities to protect the freedom of religion or belief as guaranteed by the Chinese Constitution and in compliance with China's international commitments. The EU publishes an annual report on human rights and democracy in the world, which includes a section on freedom of thought, conscience and religion or belief.

Abu Teir. However, the State of Israel has never accepted this democratic election and has repeatedly arrested, seized and deported regularly elected Palestinian MPs, which goes against all international law and is punishable by the International Criminal Court. However the State of Israel is not concerned with international law. Not only is it using special courts to pass prison sentences on Palestinian MPs, but it continues to harass politicians living in East Jerusalem, a territory illegally occupied by Israel.

By what other means does the High Representative intend to prevail upon the State of Israel to respect international law? The EU has been following the cases of Palestinian legislators held in administrative detention in Israel for a number of years. The EU regularly raises its concerns about the practice of administrative detention without charge with the government of Israel. The EU has also continuously called on Israel to adhere to its obligations deriving from international law, such as the Fourth Geneva Convention.

Can the Commission estimate the impact of these restrictions on European producers? Does the Commission envisage restricting movements of animals in the EU? The main exports concerned live cattle from Germany and The Netherlands, while Belgium and the United Kingdom did not export any of those products.

The impact of these measures will of course depend on their duration. The Commission is working in close contact with the Russian Federation to ensure that the restrictive measures adopted are lifted as soon as possible. The EU does not apply any trade restrictions in relation to the SBV virus as well as any other similar virus Orthobunyavirus on live animals, their meat, milk or animal by-products.

EFSA will collect the epidemiological data from Member States and will assess the impact of the virus infection. Oggetto: Dati sulla vendita dei farmaci di fascia C in Europa. Pertanto, la Commissione non dispone del quadro di insieme e dei dati richiesti dall'onorevole deputato. In addition, a previous government decree, which was subsequently amended in parliament, had provided for Group C medicines to be sold in points of sale other than pharmacies. Group C medicines are used in the treatment of serious pathologies and include painkillers, anti-inflammatories, anxiolytics, antipsychotics, antidepressants and anorectics, which are only sold at present on prescription.

Currently, however, this type of drug can only be bought in a pharmacy. Could the Commission provide a general overview of the sale of Group C medicines in Europe, specifying in which Member States it is possible for them to be sold in points of sale other than pharmacies? Could it provide data on how the pharmacy system is organised in each European country and on the ratio between population and pharmacies in each Member State.

Therefore, the Commission is not in the possession of the overview and data requested by the Honourable Member. In Italia l'Agenzia per le erogazioni in agricoltura Agea , ente statale che riveste funzioni di organismo di coordinamento e di organismo pagatore nell'ambito dell'erogazione dei fondi dell'Unione Europea ai produttori agricoli, sta ritardando senza motivo i pagamenti per le domande PAC Sembra che questi ritardi siano dovuti a vicende interne all'ente.

Assieme agli incrementi fiscali introdotti dall'ultima manovra del Consiglio dei ministri, questi ritardi stanno mettendo in ginocchio tutto il comparto, tanto che le associazioni di categoria si stanno organizzando per azioni di protesta. L'agenzia statale avrebbe dovuto liquidare entro il novembre tutte le pratiche che, invece, restano bloccate.

In Italy, the Agenzia per le Erogazioni in Agricoltura AGEA — agricultural payments agency , a government coordination and payment body that handles disbursement of EU funds to farmers, is delaying payments for CAP claims for no reason. These delays appear to be due to internal problems at the agency. At this extremely difficult point in time, due to the global economic crisis, and with the price of agricultural products and oil in free fall, farmers are experiencing serious difficulties.

What measures does it intend to take to ensure farmers receive payment as soon as possible? The question of the Honourable Member would appear to refer to payments in relation to claims made in for direct aids. Should the Commission in the future be informed of any possible delays in this regard, it will investigate the issue closely and if necessary take appropriate measures according to the possibilities available in EU legislation. L'OMS ha stimato che ogni anno l'epidemia rischia di colpire circa milioni di persone in tutto il mondo. Il Centro europeo per la prevenzione e il controllo delle malattie ECDC assicura il monitoraggio della Dengue per identificare i cambiamenti significativi nell'epidemiologia di questa malattia e pubblica mappe delle aree dell'UE esposte al rischio di specie di zanzare invasive che possono veicolare la Dengue.

Nel e nel non sono stati segnalati casi autoctoni in Europa. La legislazione vigente sulle malattie trasmissibili copre la sorveglianza e il controllo delle febbri emorragiche virali, compresa la Dengue, e gli eventi legati alla Dengue vanno segnalati alla rete comunitaria per il tramite del Sistema di allarme rapido e di reazione SARR. Initially, the virus was confined to south-east Asia, but the rise in the number of cases is mainly due to the rapid urbanisation of certain areas and to the lack of adequate hygiene conditions in the outskirts of large cities and in areas close to sources of stagnant water, which may result in a dangerous proliferation of the Aedes Aegypti mosquito.

Today the fever is endemic in over countries, whereas before only nine countries had recorded a serious dengue fever epidemic. In view of this fact and of the seriousness of the spread of this disease, will the Commission introduce a programme designed to ensure appropriate preventive measures and to carry out health checks on people entering the European Union. The Commission is aware of the risks posed by contracting Dengue Fever. The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control ECDC monitors Dengue to identify significant changes in disease epidemiology, and publishes maps of EU areas at risk of invasive mosquito species which are potential vectors of Dengue.

Local transmission of Dengue in Europe was for the first time reported in France and Croatia in There have been no autochthonous cases in Europe in or in The current legislation on communicable diseases covers surveillance and control of viral haemorrhagic fevers, including Dengue, and events due to Dengue should be reported through the Early Warning and Response System EWRS to the Community Network. Oggetto: Celiaci pericolo glutine anche nei cosmetici.

L'industria cosmetica usa i derivati di grano, frumento, farro, segale, kamut e orzo, che possono contenere tracce della frazione lipoproteica del glutine. I requisiti generali di etichettatura contenuti nella direttiva Cosmetici sono volti ad assicurare che i consumatori vengano adeguatamente informati in relazione ai cosmetici che usano. La direttiva fa obbligo ai fabbricanti di indicare sui cosmetici l'elenco degli ingredienti.

L'indicazione dell'elenco degli ingredienti sull'etichetta del cosmetico, parti dei quali potrebbero essere ingerite, consente ai celiaci di venire a conoscenza della presenza di ingredienti che potrebbero nuocere loro e di evitare, all'occorrenza, il prodotto in questione. The American College of Gastroenterology meeting in Washington has raised the question that even cosmetics could pose a risk for coeliacs.

The main cause for concern would be lipsticks, lip balms, lip pencils, toothpastes and mouthwashes that come into contact with the mucous membranes of the mouth and can be ingested. The risk is mainly due to the lack of information provided by manufacturers. Although food labelling is comprehensive, the same cannot be said for cosmetics, even with regard to products that come into contact with the mucous membranes, lips and face. The cosmetics industry uses corn, wheat, spelt, rye, kamut khorasan wheat and barley derivatives that may contain traces of gluten lipoprotein fraction.

Given that coeliac disease is one of the more common food intolerances globally and that, in Europe, one in every hundred people is a coeliac and, for every coeliac diagnosed, there are four others who are not aware that they have the condition, does the Commission intend to introduce controls on cosmetic products in order to safeguard and protect consumers? The general labelling requirements contained in the Cosmetics Directive shall ensure that the consumers are appropriately informed in relation to the cosmetic products they use.

The directive requires the manufacturers to indicate on the cosmetic product the list of ingredients. The indication of the list of ingredients on the labelling of the cosmetic product, parts of which could be ingested, permit to the persons suffering of coeliac disease to be informed of the presence of ingredients that could harm them and to avoid, if need be, that product.

Attualmente, a livello internazionale, dieci pazienti sono in trattamento con la nuova molecola e due sono diventati totalmente indipendenti dalle iniezioni di insulina. Considerando l'importanza della ricerca, soprattutto in campo medico, si chiede alla Commissione se intenda attuare i programmi a sostegno della ricerca medico-scientifica, sensibilizzando i cittadini e garantendo nuove frontiere per la cura di questa patologia. This form of diabetes leads to rapid destruction of the insulin-producing pancreatic cells due to an abnormal reaction of the immune system, thus making external administration of insulin necessary in order for patients to be able to control blood glucose levels.

A new molecule Reparixin with the ability to improve the effectiveness of this transplant has been discovered. Today, thanks to this new molecule, it is possible to reduce significantly the frequent inflammatory reactions and the potential rejection of transplanted islets. On an international level, ten patients are currently being treated with this new molecule and two have become totally independent of insulin injections. Considering the importance of research, especially in the field of medicine, does the Commission intend to implement programmes in support of medical-scientific research, raising the awareness of citizens and ensuring new frontiers for the treatment of this disease?

The Commission is aware of the burden posed by diabetes 1 and the prospects offered by islet transplantation to revert the disease. Oggetto: Il Fondo monetario internazionale: un ostacolo alla regolamentazione dei mercati finanziari dell'UE. Il tutto nel quadro di una liberalizzazione eccessivamente rapida dei mercati finanziari e dei capitali, che ha portato quasi sempre a far crollare i prezzi delle materie prime e alle continue speculazioni finanziarie nei paesi in via di sviluppo. I paesi UE vulnerabili stanno adottando iniziative importanti in questa direzione, risanando le finanze pubbliche e attuando riforme strutturali cruciali, necessarie per una ripresa durevole.

All of these measures have been imposed in the context of excessively rapid liberalisation of the financial and capital markets, which in almost every instance has caused the price of raw materials to collapse and given rise to continual financial speculation in developing countries. As has been suggested by leading international economists, an analysis of capital flow data shows a pro-cyclical trend whereby capital flows out of a country in recession — just when that country needs it most — and into a country undergoing rapid expansion, thereby exacerbating inflationary pressures.

The EU is responding to the sovereign debt crisis with a twin strategy to create lasting financial stability and sustainable economic growth and employment. In the view of the Commission, further consolidation is necessary to restore confidence in public finances and sustained growth. It must be complemented by smart and growth-enhancing policies and reforms that underpin new growth.

Vulnerable EU countries are taking important steps in this direction, consolidating public finance and implementing crucial structural reforms needed for a lasting recovery. The approach of external financial assistance built on conditions to ensure such policies can and does work. Experience of our Member States has also confirmed that responsible and stability-oriented policies are a prerequisite for benefitting from liberalised financial markets, and that the absence of such a stable and stability-oriented policy framework can indeed transform that potential advantage of open capital markets into a possible mechanism of amplifying underlying imbalances.

Furthermore, since the onset of the crisis in , important lessons have been drawn regarding its causes, and the prevention and mitigation of future crises. The IMF has accordingly improved its surveillance activities and policy advice and adapted its tools and instruments in order to better meet the needs of its whole membership. Oggetto: Provider mobile britannico senza controllo. Migliaia di utenti di un provider mobile britannico sono stati vittime di una truffa.

L'interrogazione fa riferimento a un caso che ha interessato una rete di telefonia mobile britannica nel gennaio L'operatore mobile in questione ha riconosciuto la divulgazione accidentale di numeri telefonici di propri clienti a siti web cui gli stessi avevano avuto accesso utilizzando la connessione dati mobile. Alla Commissione risulta che, date le denunce ricevute, l'ICO stia esaminando la questione con l'operatore mobile coinvolto nel caso citato.

A tale relazione ha fatto seguito, nel novembre , la pubblicazione di orientamenti per la creazione di applicazioni sicure per gli smartphone destinati agli sviluppatori. Thousands of users of a UK mobile phone provider have been victims of fraud. A vulnerability allowed telephone numbers to be automatically sent to unverified websites by means of an easy-to-read text message.

Given that fraud attempts via false login are becoming ever more widespread, and that the number of users, including minors, accessing websites using smartphones or similar devices is on the increase, can the Commission say whether it intends to implement a Europe-wide control system network making it possible to select and filter information, in order to tackle the proliferation of phenomena such as scams and phishing and guarantee safety margins, particularly for the younger generation? In case of a personal data breach, the providers must notify the competent national authority and also the individuals affected, when the breach is likely to adversely affect their personal data or privacy.

The Commission understands that, in view of the complaints received, the ICO is examining the matter with the operator concerned. Subiect: Prima de instalare pentru tinerii fermieri. This year, the Government has decided that, in order to access measure , an obligatory condition for applicants is that they must have graduated from secondary school or an agricultural school.

Taking into consideration that a good number of young farmers have only graduated from a non-agricultural vocational school and that some of them started farming at a young age and have not had time to finish their studies,. Does the Commission consider that the introduction of this obligatory criterion for accessing measure is justified? The acceptance of projects submitted by graduates from non-agricultural vocational schools must be specially approved by the Commission. In this regard, what would be the basis for these special approvals?

The Romanian authorities have recently submitted to the Commission a proposed modification of the RDP aiming to make more flexible the minimum required educational level under measure According to the proposal, graduates from non-agricultural vocational schools will also be eligible under this measure. As this modification is currently under assessment by the Commission, the Romanian authorities have announced that the approval of projects submitted by those graduates will be subject to the acceptance of the RDP modification by the Commission.

As regards the last point of your written question, please note that rural development programmes are implemented under shared management with the Member States, who have the fully responsibility for approving individual projects. Does the Commission consider this compatible with European law? The Commission is not aware of any issue relating to the diplomatic status of these vessels or whether diplomatic immunity has been claimed or granted in respect of these vessels, in any event the issue of diplomatic immunity is a question of national competence upon which the Commission is unable to comment.

On the basis of the information provided by the Honourable Member it would appear that the vessels she refers to, civilian vessels chartered by the United States Military, could fall within the category of either naval auxiliary or government ships used for non-commercial purposes and for this reason may not be subject to Port State Control. Aus beihilferechtlicher Sicht ist sicherzustellen, dass der Erwerb nicht mit Beihilfen an den Erwerber verbunden ist. To what extent can the Commission enforce or significantly determine conditions for the sale?

Would it be possible for the Bavarian State to purchase the shareholding or acquire it by means of a transfer at no cost, or would this infringe the aid guidelines? If the Bavarian State is not permitted to acquire the shareholding, why is it thus placed in a worse position than any other interested party? The procedure in the BayernLB state aid case is still ongoing and no final decision has yet been made. The Commission cannot pronounce on these matters while proceedings are under way.

In any case, it should be noted that the Commission cannot impose disposal or other obligations on a Member State before a final decision is taken. Under the state aid rules, it must be ensured that the purchase does not involve state aid to the buyer. The specific arrangements for the bidding procedure depend on the individual case. Seit dem Damit werden Luxusautos, Boote und Luftfahrzeuge besteuert.

Ausgenommen von der Abgabe sind Staatsluftfahrzeuge oder gleichgestellte Luftfahrzeuge in deren Auftrag, die Flugrettung und Flugschulen. Fraglich ist, ob diese Abgabenbefreiung der italienischen Sportluftfahrt — bzw. This tax applies to luxury cars, boats and aircraft.

It is open to question whether the exemption for Italian flying clubs, or rather the non-exemption for foreign flying clubs, contravenes the principle of equality, because foreign clubs are clearly placed at a disadvantage in comparison with domestic clubs. This levy thus only affects private and foreign aircraft operators and will hit small, non-profit-making clubs particularly hard. This would have a negative impact on Italian tourism, thus making the introduction of this levy counterproductive.

Does the Commission also consider that this provision infringes the ban on discrimination? The Honourable Member of the European Parliament is therefore informed that the Commission is aware of the situation outlined in his enquiry and is currently investigating the matter. The intruders caused serious damage to the premises. The Ntiso affair is the latest episode in a series of anti-minority actions by the Albanian authorities, in line with similar incidents that occurred during the recent census, following the clearly politically-motivated decision by the Albanian Constitutional Court not to record the ethnicity of citizens.

This, together with the systematic intimidation of minorities, has prevented them from freely exercising their individual right of self-determination. Of special significance is the fact that these tactics by the Albanian authorities are being used mainly in areas where the Albanian State refuses to recognise the existence of an ethnic Greek minority e. Does the Commission intend once more to point out to the Albanian authorities their obligations with regard to the ethnic Greek minority under the international conventions and agreements to which Albania is a signatory? The Commission cannot comment on individual cases and court decisions.

Should the person concerned have any grievances regarding his treatment by the law enforcement authorities, he is encouraged to address the relevant Albanian institutions such as the People's Advocate Office. The Albanian Constitution provides for the protection of the civil, economic, social and political rights of minorities.

The Albanian legal and policy framework regulating human rights and the respect for and protection of minorities is largely in place and broadly corresponds to European and international standards. The Commission follows closely developments in the situation of minority protection and presents its assessment in its annual Progress Report. The country is encouraged to upgrade its efforts to implement commitments in this field in line with the recommendations of the Advisory Committee of Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities.

Concern has been caused by the recent findings of a research company regarding the private property sector in Greece, according to which:. Half the property owners Given that eight out of ten Greeks have some form of property flat, one-family house or office and almost half Is information available regarding average national property tax by Member State? How much is it? The structure of property taxation varies widely across EU Member States, as does the revenue from this area, as shown in the table sent directly to the Honourable Member and to Parliament's Secretariat.

While some countries rely more on transaction taxes, in the majority of Member States the bulk of the tax taken from property comes from recurrent taxes. As the latter are often administered by the local authorities e. Provided they observe their Treaty obligations, Member States may design their tax systems including property taxation to meet their policy objectives as they see fit.

It should be noted that several Member States e. At a time when Greek citizens are in general struggling to pay heavy property taxes, an amendment has been tabled by the Greek Parliament to the effect that, on the expiry of four months from the deadline for payment of the first instalment of the temporary special property charge imposed by the Government, the amount outstanding will be collected by the competent tax office, thus being enforceable by measures such as the confiscation of assets of those taxpayers who have failed to make payment. The specific amendment follows the recent instructions by DEI, the Greek Public Power Corporation, which has undertaken to collect the property charge by including it on its bills, to cut off the electricity supply to thousands of consumers on expiry of the statutory day deadline for payment of the charge.

This is grossly unfair, removing as it does the safety net provided under European and Greek law to safeguard vulnerable consumers, while infringing the specific ministerial decision regarding exemptions from power cutoffs. Given the genuine difficulties encountered by Greek households in paying a multitude of special taxes, what view does the Commission take of the implementation of this amendment which is the direct opposite of what is needed to protect the assets of hundreds of thousands of citizens threatened with poverty?

In the absence of any clear definition of which taxpayers fall into categories acknowledged as vulnerable or genuinely unable to afford the charge, how can the assets of these groups be protected? Have any other Member States imposed similar compulsory tax collection measures enforceable by confiscation of assets?

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If so, subject to what conditions amounts owed, payment deadlines? Fiscal consolidation measures may lead in the short term to a contraction in economic activity. Experience points nonetheless to effective ways of reducing the public deficit. Firstly, expenditure based consolidation has longer lasting effects, relative to revenue based consolidation. Secondly, property taxes are less distortionary than income taxes. Failing to curb the high public deficit will only aggravate the medium-term prospects of the Greek people, including the most vulnerable. The EU energy market legislation contains provisions on consumer protection and guarantees for vulnerable customers.

Member States MS. In addition, the special levy is not applied to a property that is owner-occupied and belongs, inter alia , to a long-term unemployed, while leaving the details of its regulations to a ministerial decision. Utility bills have been used in some European countries for the collection of municipal taxes or broadcast reception fees. The arrangements for collection of taxes, including the recourse to confiscation, are a matter of MS' competence. The Commission does not object to this tax collection and enforcement mechanisms as long as they comply with applicable regulations.

Lastly, the economic adjustment programme aims at strengthening Greece's fiscal institutions through a restructuring of its revenue administration and public financial management system. According to press articles corroborated by testimonies, statements and observations from teachers and associations of parents and guardians, the number of Greek school pupils showing signs of malnutrition and fainting from hunger is increasing dramatically.

The Ministry for Education, Lifelong Learning and Religious Affairs has recently announced that it intends to launch a pilot project for the provision of free meal coupons for all pupils at 18 schools located in districts of Athens facing severe social and economic problems. Despite such good intentions, the unprecedented economic problems afflicting Greek society call for a comprehensive rather than a piecemeal approach by the competent authorities so as to deal with the problem as a whole in a direct and effective manner.

Is the Commission aware of the problem? Which other Member States are facing similar difficulties? What financing instruments are available for this purpose? Are there any examples of good practices followed in Member States in terms of social support, educational assistance and welfare benefits in areas where an increased number of families are facing poverty? This is illustrated by indicators such as those measuring the rate of children at risk of poverty, living in severely materially deprived households or in households with low work intensity, available from Eurostat.

EU financial support is eligible for actions aimed at improving children's situation, among others through the European Regional Development Fund and the European Social Fund. Regarding food deprivation more specifically, t. The Commission promotes the improvement of evidence-based policies on the situation of vulnerable children, among others through the Social Open Method of Coordination and its peer review programme and the European Alliance for Families. Besides, the Commission intends to present a recommendation on child poverty this year, which will aim at providing guidance in areas such as support to families, access to services including childcare, housing, health and education and children's participation.

Is the Commission aware of the serious problem of metal and cable theft taking place on UK and European railways, which is not only endangering life but costing the industry millions of euros? Can the Commission indicate what steps it intends to take with Member States to stop not only the thefts but also the fact of the stolen goods being transferred across national borders and sold to scrap metal dealers over whom there is no control or regulation?

A coalition of some organisations, led by the European Brain Council, has called on the European institutions to make the European Year of the Brain. This call has been backed up by the Polish Council presidency. The post-conference conclusions contained a recommendation on the part of the Polish presidency that be designated the European Year of the Brain. In view of the above, can the Commission state whether it supports this initiative for a European Year of the Brain? What concrete steps is it taking to deal with the issues that such a year would address?

It is highly probable — if not certain — that current investments in effective alcohol policy will save lives in the future. Could the Commission therefore tell Parliament how much money it has invested in alcohol policy in the past, and how much it plans to invest in the future?

As alcohol policy remains a prerogative of the Member States, the Commission's role is to support the development and exchange of knowledge and good practice. To fulfil this role, EU is using various funding instruments. One of the priorities of the Youth in Action Programme for is to support projects promoting healthy behaviours. Recent secret video footage released by the animal rights charity Animal Aid graphically shows the extreme mistreatment of animals in six out of seven UK abattoirs.

The footage shows cows, pigs and sheep being kicked and beaten before they are slaughtered. It also raises concerns that animals are not being correctly stunned before slaughter. Following this footage, momentum is growing to have all abattoirs fitted with CCTV cameras, in order to improve standards of animal welfare and to hold those guilty of malpractice to account.

Alla nascita della terza bambina, tre mesi fa, Sher ha cominciato seriamente a pensare a come liberarsi della moglie per la mancata venuta al mondo di un erede maschio. La tutela dei diritti umani e dei diritti delle donne va migliorando in Afghanistan, soprattutto dal , e questi progressi vanno riconosciuti e consolidati.

La Commissione continua a incentrare i programmi di assistenza sulla governance e sulla riforma del sistema e delle istituzioni giudiziarie, fattore essenziale per una reale tutela dei diritti delle donne vittime di atti di violenza. Estorai, a year-old Afghan woman, was found dead at her home by a neighbour last week in a remote village in the northern province of Kunduz. The woman was killed by her husband, Sher Mohammad, 30, because she was guilty of having given birth to three daughters. Following the birth of the third daughter three months ago, Sher began seriously thinking about how to get rid of his wife due to her not having given birth to a male heir.

He was helped in his terrible plan by his mother. What policies does she intend to implement to ensure freedom and respect for human dignity in Afghanistan? The EU Delegation in Afghanistan monitors the human rights situation on the ground in consultation with EU Ambassadors, also with respect to the deplorable and continued violence against women. The incident referred to in question is terrible, only one of many and not all of these are reported.

It remains particularly important to safeguard and build upon the progress Afghanistan has made in protecting human rights and rights of women in particular since Assistance programmes of the Commission continue to focus on governance, including reform of the justice sector and its institutions, which is indispensable to uphold the rights of victims of violence against women.

I bracconieri sono attratti anche dalla pelle, utilizzata per borsette e scarpe, e dalle cartilagini che vengono spacciate per quelle di squalo. Lo stesso divieto si applicherebbe ai pescherecci di paesi terzi operanti nelle acque dell'UE. Poachers are also attracted by the skin, used for handbags and shoes, and the cartilage, which is passed off as shark cartilage. What policies does it intend to implement to safeguard manta rays and prevent their extinction? This proposal was adopted.

In order to implement at EU level such listings, the Commission is working on a draft proposal to the Council in the framework of the modification of the Fishing opportunities Regulations to establish a prohibition for EU vessels to fish for, or retain on board, to tranship or to land the giant manta ray in all waters.

The same prohibition would apply to third-country vessels fishing in EU waters. Zij werken dan in Nederland maar zijn formeel in dienst van een bedrijf gevestigd in het land van herkomst, waar belastingen en premies vaak veel lager zijn. Zo maken zij gebruik van het Europese vrije verkeer van personen en diensten. Deze detacheringsconstructie is populair aan het worden, zo blijkt uit cijfers van uitkeringsinstantie UWV. In de champignonteelt in Nederland is de zogenaamde Polenconstructie populair.

Die houdt het volgende in: een Nederlandse champignonteler verkoopt zijn nog niet geplukte champignons aan een onderneming in een MOE-land. Deze onderneming stuurt haar arbeiders vervolgens naar Nederland om de champignons te plukken. Omdat de champignons al verkocht zijn, voeren de betreffende arbeiders hun werkzaamheden in Nederland uit in dienst van de onderneming in het land van herkomst.

De Commissie heeft geen weet van de berichten die de geachte Parlementsleden noemen. Hoewel Bulgaarse en Roemeense burgers wegens de uitgestelde toepassing van het in de toetredingsverdragen vastgelegde vrije verkeer van werknemers nog niet het recht hebben om vrij in Nederland te werken, kunnen Bulgaarse en Roemeense ondernemingen reeds ten volle van de vrijheid van dienstverrichting en de vrijheid van vestiging profiteren.

Meer in het bijzonder dient de buitenlandse dienstverrichter zich te houden aan de Nederlandse voorschriften betreffende minimumlonen, arbeidstijd en gezondheid en veiligheid op het werk. Zelfs in tijden van economische achteruitgang moeten lidstaten immers nog altijd mobiele werknemers aantrekken om te voldoen aan de vraag naar arbeidskrachten in bepaalde sectoren waar een tekort aan lokale werknemers bestaat.

De eengemaakte markt is een van de grootste successen van de Europese integratie. Citizens of CEE countries can work legally in the Netherlands without a work permit if they are seconded from their home country. They are then working in the Netherlands but are officially employed by a company based in their country of origin, where taxes and social security contributions are often much lower.

In this way they benefit from the free movement of persons and services between EU Member States. This form of secondment is becoming popular, according to figures from the UWV social benefits agency. The so-called Polish method is popular in the Dutch mushroom-growing sector. This is how it works: a Dutch mushroom grower sells its not yet harvested mushrooms to a company in a CEE country.

That company then sends its labourers to the Netherlands to harvest the mushrooms. Since the mushrooms have already been sold, the labourers in question work in the Netherlands in the service of their company in the country of origin. Does the Commission agree with the PVV that if citizens of CEE countries do not obtain a work permit for the Netherlands but are still allowed to work legally in the Netherlands under the secondment or Polish scheme, there is something wrong with the relevant European legislation and the free movement of persons and services which make this possible?

If not, why not? Does the Commission agree with the PVV that with the arrival of citizens of CEE countries the Dutch are being squeezed out of the labour market and does it consider this an unwelcome development? Does the Commission agree with the PVV that citizens of CEE countries will tend to attract others to the Netherlands, and does it consider this an unwelcome development?

Louisiana Voices from which this extract has been taken. The first section the exposition divides into a first group in the tonic and, after transitional material, a 'second group' in another key usually the dominant in major movements, the relative major in minor ones , often with a codetta to round the section off. Both groups may include a number of different themes and the 'second subject' is the principal theme of the second group.

Proposed by George Secor in a Xenharmonikon article as a generator for scales which are nearly limit just. Logarithmic Interval Measures. French or 'secretary' English , a writing desk with small drawers and pigeon-holes, enclosed by a vertical front which can be let down to form a writing surface, often very similar in design to a cheveret French.

Examples of structures like these include:. Section music. English in relation to clergy, priests living in the world, not under a rule, who are bound by no vows and may possess property, working under the authority of a bishop. It was composed of the priests, bishops, archbishops, and cardinals.

There was very little difference from opera, except that it employed a chorus. The best known examples are by Handel: Semele , Samson and Hercules. Examples of this kind of papers are those used for documents and certificates, such as birth certificates and different types of academic certificates. Latin, literally 'they sat a sitting of a court, ecclesiastical assembly, company of people for any purpose, etc.

Latin the chair carried on the shoulders of bearers, used by the Pope on certain ceremonial occasions. Latin a series of three seats usually recessed in the wall on the south side of the chancel of a church for the use of the clergy at mass. French to be said, to say that one is tired, etc. French to act as if one is important when he isn't, to act as if one is important when she isn't. Commonly used for the territorial unit of administration in the church, governed by a bishop; also known as a diocese.

In its modern form, sega is also combined with genres like soukous , zouk and reggae. Sega music from which this extract has been taken. Italian, literally 'it follows' or 'it comes after' go on to the next section without a break. Italian simile, for example, used in piano music above chords placed after an arpeggio-like pattern to show that the following chords should also be argeggiated. Spanish f.

Italian m. French f. However anything of value could be held in fief, such as an office, a right of exploitation e. The song, the melody of which is recorded, alongside its lyrics, in the ancient Greek musical notation, was found engraved on a tombstone, near Aidin, Turkey not far from Ephesus. The find has been dated variously from around BC to around AD While older music with notation exists for example the Delphic Hymns , all of it is in fragments; the Seikilos epitaph is unique in that it is a complete, though short, composition.

Seikilos epitaph from which this extract has been taken. Probably originating from Egypt where it was used for religious ceremonies for the goddess Isis. It was held in the right hand and shaken, from which it derived its name. Minteki or Seiteki Transverse Flute. German m. Catalan m. Javanese, literally 'flowering' a type of elaboration used in the Javanese gamelan, especially on the bonang barung.

Sekaran from which this extract has been taken. West Africa metal rattle or ears that are used on a jembe , also known as ksink-ksink. Danish a semiquaver sixteenth note a note one sixteenth the time value of a whole note or semibreve. Danish a semiquaver rest sixteenth rest a rest one sixteenth the time value of a whole rest or semibreve rest.

Composers such as Bach and Handel did not stop thinking about musical material once it was committed to paper; rather, they continued to revise and expand on it. In Handel's case, expansion and elaboration of a theme can be seen in manuscript sketches. Musical Borrowings from which this extract has been taken. Critics also call this being self-referential. Self-reflexivity calls attention to its own artifice, violates verisimilitude, or breaks the boundaries between sign, signifier and signified.

Literary Terms and Definitions from which this extract has been taken. Selingup, selingut, keringut - Kayan. Portuguese f. Historically, the Week marked the start of Modernismo Brazilian Modernism ; though a number of individual Brazilian artists were doing modernist work before the Week, it coalesced and defined the movement and introduced it to Brazilian society at large. For Brazil, it was as important as the International Exhibition of Modern Art also known as the Armory Show , held in New York City in , which became a legendary watershed date in the history of American art.

Week of Modern Art from which this extract has been taken. Greek, literally 'signal' a wooden board or metal bar, struck with a heavy wooden mallet, used instead of a bell in Orthodox churches and monasteries. It is used under different names in China, Japan, the Balkan countries, the Ukraine and elsewhere. Because the words are so similar, often the meaning of one becomes attached to the other. This is especially likely with foreign loan words. For example, the Old English word dream originally meant 'joy'.

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However, the Scandinavian loan word draumr meant 'vision while asleep' and it is this meaning that has 'contaminated' the English word. Latin, literally 'half-short' semibreve; in early mensural music a note that is half or third the value of a breve. Portuguese a semiquaver sixteenth note , a note one sixteenth the time value of a whole note or semibreve. Catalan f. Italian a crotchet quarter note , a note one quarter the time value of a whole note or semibreve.

The arched harp became dominant in pharaonic Egypt. It was made with a sound box which was joined smoothly to a curved rod encircled by tuning collars one for each strings. The strings were stretched between their collars and a rib in contact with the skin over the box. When the collars were rotated, the tension and thus the tuning of the attached strings changed.

The second type of harp was angular, with a rod that was stuck through a hole in an oblong box. This arrangement resulted in a sharp angle between the rod and box. Arched harps in a shovel shape were used exclusively during the Old and Middle Kingdom's, though their size and the position in which they were played varied. However, the New Kingdom a variety of new shapes and sizes of harps appear. They seem to all have been more or less equally popular. Some of these were considerably different than the earlier shovel harps shaped like a hunting bow, though all had the smooth curve characteristic of arched harps.

During the Late Period, Egyptians sought the glory of their former empire and looked reflected this desire in archaized designs in architecture, as well as in harp design. The basic shovel harps were reintroduced, but by the Greco-Roman period, the variety of shapes was much reduced.

Though angular harps appear to have been invented in Mesopotamia around BC, and there they replaced arched harps very quickly, in Egypt their adoption took and complete replacement of the arched harp took more than a millennium. However, when the Egyptian finally did embrace the instrument, they did so with enthusiasm and also with considerable talent. Surviving angular harps differ from their earlier counterparts in having many more strings. Most of the arched harps have fewer than ten strings, and some as few as three. On the other hand, angular harps typically have twenty-one and as many as twenty-nine strings.

Perhaps the Egyptian reluctance of adopting the angular harp implies a reluctance to expand the pitch range of their harp music, but that seems to have changed by the end of the first millennium BC. This also implies an early conservatism in Egyptian music, which was an observation confirmed by Plato's assertion that Egyptians were forbidden to introduce any innovations in music. Semisemias from which this material has been taken.

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Semitones of these specific sizes occur in the equal note division of the octave advocated by the French composer Guillaume Costeley in , or the almost identical meantone temperament with pure minor thirds described by the Spanish theorist Francisco Salinas in [quoted from What is microtonality? What is paucitonality? Spanish m. Examples include [w] and [y]. In some languages such as Welsh, these can function as graphemes for pure vowels. Senegalese hip hop. Two half hemispheres make one set. A cord is passed through a hole in the centre.

Sengkheng from which this extract has been taken. The upper piece is grooved to produce a rasping sound when rubbed by a small stick, and the lower piece is struck against the upper as in a clapper. Small bells and jingles are attached. The playing technique is complex, alternating rapidly between rasping, clasping, and jingling sounds. The seni rabab is virtually extinct today and should not be confused with the kabuli rabab which is still common. The name seni rabab is a reference to Tansen, a great musician in the court of Akbar.

This instrument was held in great esteem in the past. The first Guru of the Sikhs, Guru Nanak, is said to have had a tremendous love for the instrument. It is said that he was accompanied by his friend and musical accompanist Mirdana while he sang the Gurbani. Bernstein's Divertimento for Orchestra begins with a movement entitled Sennets and Tuckets , where a 'tucket' is a trumpet fanfare.

Giordano Bruno quotations. Japanese a type of Japanese satirical verse, similar to haiku in construction, the name deriving from the pseudonym of a famous satirical poet. Senryu Literary Terms and Definitions. This literature tends to perceive feelings as more reliable guides to morality and truth than abstract principles, and thus it tends to view human beings as essentially benevolent - a sharp contrast with the idea of Original Sin and total depravity in Calvinist writings.

The Weber test, in which a tuning fork is touched to the head, localizes to the normal ear in people with this condition. The Rinne test, which tests air conduction vs.

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Sudden sensorineural hearing loss is an otologic emergency, and must be treated with a high dose of steroids. Sensorineural hearing loss from which this short extract has been taken. Latin where a word, phrase or passage may have several meanings, the meaning that would be considered obscene. Latin where a word, phrase or passage may have several meanings, the meaning that would be considered most strict or literal. Sentence music. English, French opinion or feeling as distinct from its expression, for example, 'the sentiment is good' , emotional or irrational view, mental feeling, mawkish or exaggerated emotion or display of the same.

Also known as sintir , hejhuj , gogo , gnbri , guembri and guimbri. Italian unmuted, on the piano without dampers by using the sustaining or loud pedal, on a stringed instrument by removing the mute, on a brass instrument by removing the leather covered pad, paste-board cone or wooden cylinder called a mute from the bell, sans sourdine French. Italian not in strict time, in no definite tempo , senza misura , a piacere. These melanin secretions produce a dark red-brown color when used in inks and paints. Sepia is not lightfast and has been replaced by more stable synthetic dyes of similar hue.

It is best known as brown tint used in photography. Se-piri Se-piri. Italian performance similar to the oratorio, except that the sepolcro makes use of scenery, costumes, and acting, a sacred, dramatic work performed during Holy Week which was popular in the late 17th-century. Septimal Comma. Septimal meantone temperament from which this extract has been taken. The Septuagint is still used in the Eastern Orthodox Church as the basis of its liturgy.

It is a new story that extends or develops characters and situations found in an earlier work. Two sequels following an original work together are called a trilogy.

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Three sequels following an original work together are called a tetralogy. In the late twentieth century, it became common retroactively to write "prequels," a later book with the same geographic setting or characters, but which takes place in an earlier time. Notker Balbulus c. Gall claimed to have invented the sequence by putting words to long untexted melismas as a memory aid. Most sequences were banned by the Council of Trent and only five survive in modern-day use including the Dies irae which forms part of the Requiem and the Victimae paschali , Lauda Sion salvatorem , Veni Sancte Spiritus and Stabat Mater from the Mass Proper.

They were called prosae not because they lacked a rhythmical element in fact the words flowed from the structure of each musical phrase , but in order to distinguish them from the classical metrical style of poetry. There are three types of sequence:. Most sequencers also allow the data to be edited in various ways, and stored on disk.

Music sequencer Electronic Music Dictionary from which this extract has been taken. Latin, 'the following' a Medieval term, first noted before the year by Amalar of Metz in his Liber officialis , referring to a melody without text, such as the melismatic alleluia , used in opposition to the term prosa , signifying a melody with a text.