The pull-out keyboard cover and stylish music stand [ The high quality [ Entering into an agreement with Web Studio Art Bureau, [ La conclusion d'un accord avec Web [ The elegant Revital Wellness Bed allows [ Characteristics: [ Enjoy your own individual audio and [ Our company vision and production process are focused on the customer's needs, through careful [ Thus a harmonious concept is born, [ Gold Pages of Luxury" represent to [ There are [ If you seek peace, quiet and splendid natural beauty combined with cutting-edge design, you can visit the [ A point to remember in this respect is the partnership agreement signed at the last Geneva [ At the time it was said that Science would lead to the improvement of the human race depending on its hereditary composition, through the preservation of purity and the reproduction of adequate human specimens, and by avoiding transmitting the legacy of unfit specimens [ 77 Stepan N.
A hora da Eugenia: As the social application of knowledge on inheritance developed to improve livestock production, these new social ideas and policies - initially applied in England - circulated along with other ideas in those nations which, since the mid th century, conformed to streamlined State models transiting from traditional forms of organization with a central role accorded to religion, dogmatic ways of thinking and kinship-based organizations to modern ones secular, with rational ways of thinking and an organization based on a scientific approach.
From its beginnings in Europe, among public health specialists, eugenics was considered a minority, specialist perspective that reinforced the biological view of health as opposed to the environmental view held by most social reformers.
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At the same time it was not a single homogeneous movement. Currents could be found that favored human improvement through modification of the environment social, cultural, and natural and others would suggest such improvement could be achieved through avoiding procreation by people considered inappropriate poor, alcoholic, mentally ill. Legions of immigrants from Europe would settle in Argentina. In this context some of the earlier eugenic ideas began to be part of the political agenda apparent in the work of the physician Emilio Coni, one of those promoting the legislation for procreation control.
Coni considered that such legislation would hasten the building of a modern progressive nation [ 77 Stepan N. A number of political events facilitated the proliferation of ideas of control and racial hierarchy through positive eugenics [ 78 Vallejo G. Vallejo G, Miranda M, Eds.
Siglo Veintiuno ; pp. The Residence Act and the Social Defense Act were passed with the aim of controlling immigration and identifying and expelling those foreigners whose ideology did not match the liberal discourse. Eugenics programs were developed more intensely between the s and s, when social issues like disorganized population growth, groups of foreigners that did not mix with the indigenous population, social upheaval caused by unionized workers began to worry the ruling classes.
One of its promoters, who considered physical education as a modifying rational agent, affirmed:. The above quotation indicates the importance of the environmentalist perspective; however, the hereditary perspective also has its place among the purposes of physical education when focused on developing the fitness of girls in order for them to adequately fulfill their role as mothers.
During the same period or just a little earlier, generally in Europe and specifically in France, eugenics had a huge impact on gymnastics and physical education. However, in France the distinction must be drawn between positive and negative eugenics. For Galton who was one of the first promoters of eugenics in Britain, it was essential to eliminate the weakest races and not mix the desirable lineage of the English upper class with that of lower social classes.
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In fact, for Galton, the degeneration of civilization is related to the mixing of social classes. Preservation of desirable lineage necessitates firstly preventing intermixing and if necessary eliminating disabled and inferior specimens. Such is negative eugenics. In Gymnastique utilitaire , in , he defended the position that some people are members of the superior race and others, the larger proportion, are members of inferior races.
According to him black people would be unable to win any event in the Olympic Games because they were physically inferior; white people were superior. Physical education, gymnastics and sports were a way to make a selection and also to change genetic heritage in a single generation. They thought that such activity would be good for the future of the French race.
Enrique Romero Brest was present at the Congress of Paris in , benefiting from conferences given at the Sorbonne by Nobel Prizewinning speakers.
Two such speakers, Alexis Carrel Nobel Prize for Physiology and Medicine in and Charles Richet Nobel Prize in , were defending positive eugenics and advocating physical education for all. Like Galton they believed that the second industrial revolution resulted in degeneration of the European race and that sport and physical education should be used to prevent such degeneration for the greater number. In the preface to the American edition in he wrote: And they may become highly destructive.
On the contrary, Asiatics and Africans such as the Russians, the Arabs, the Hindus, are increasing with marked rapidity. XI ] But following his early writing around , he became a strong supporter of positive eugenics. Charles Richet , author of an influential book on the subject of exercise: This is negative eugenics, but in the field of physical education in Europe and more precisely in France such theories were approved.
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The latter described the pitiful state of gymnastics instruction in French schools by comparison with those in Prussia and Scandinavia. The Circle taught infants and junior school teachers Instituteurs in the department of La Seine and in Paris. The Circle operated quite well until the death of Demenij in The Advanced Aptitude Certificate was the qualification required for teaching primary school children and older pupils to the age of 18, and for higher primary schools and the school leaving certificate the Aptitude Certificate was sufficient.
The Advanced level Certificate was required for training teachers and former military specialists in anatomy and physiology of effort.
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However, the first formal training for teachers transferring to the field of physical exercises occurred at the time a waiver training course was opened. The curriculum included anatomy, physiology, child psychology, pedagogy and bodily techniques neo-Swedish gymnastics, physical education, the natural method, sport, in brief: Generally speaking, the students for this course were already qualified primary school teachers. They were considered hotbeds of communism and Freemasonry.
The second manager of the ENEP , Ernest Loisel, was removed from his post and forced to retire from office in as a result of the Secret Societies decree 19 August and 27 February However, the French Method, largely imbued with the natural method, remained the official method.
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In Argentina during the period under consideration, the training of education instructors took place in two types of institution: It was closed in and reopened in The Higher Institute of Physical Education was the result of a gradual process of understanding the need to train schoolteachers to teach physical education at schools. Four more summer courses followed in , , and At the same time, three theoretical and practical courses of physical exercises were set up by decree in April to be undertaken by the teachers of the three Normal Schools in the city of Buenos Aires.
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Romero Brest, having completed his medical studies and during the time he ran the courses and delivered theoretical and practical classes, designed his system for the Argentine Method of Physical Education. The Normal School of Physical Education was the result of the converting the Summer Course into a regular physical education course addressed to those who had obtained their teaching degree.
Finally, the National Higher Institute of Physical Education, which was a further development of the aforementioned School, was also created through a National Executive decree. In addition to this Institute, the General Office of Shooting and Gymnastics should also be mentioned since many of its former students were key figures in the promotion and dissemination of military physical education, becoming fierce opponents of the Argentine System [ 86 Scharagrodsky P.
This paper shows how integrated primary education, a minima Western, was made available to all.
It also shows how the idea became Nomadic, spreading the availability of physical education and its institutional organization to many countries not only France and Argentina. It can be seen too that the Swedish and German methods and the English sports method, were discussed and debated as much in France as in Argentina. Many writers were involved in the heart of the deliberations on structuring the activities and the institutional organizations for training physical education teachers both in France and in Argentina. Grousset was also a political protagonist in France yet no trace of him is found in Argentina.
Aisenstein A ; In both cases it is considered that a method drawing benefits from other systems should be adapted to the national temperament and therefore cannot replicate in extenso the practical exercises of other countries. In both examples there was local adaptation and recontextualization of the Nomad theories and practices. There are numerous similarities in the way compulsory, free physical education was set up in primary school in France and Argentina.
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This full original version was written by Gerard Kemps in Many years ago, Father Gerard Kemps, after being appointed as priest for the Catholic Church of French St-Martin in , felt compelled to compose lyrics and a melody to sing of the sweetness, the grace, and the incomparable beauty of the land that was unfolding before his eyes. Because of the message the lyrics conveyed and the melody that carried the tune, it served the purpose of a national song. Although there are some now on St. Martin who are unaware of Father Kemps, his legacy lives on in the St.
Martin's song. Find me a pearl so dear, as the island of St. Martin in the sea, chain of hills and valleys; rich golden brown beaches giving peace, give the rest in its bleak and all its waters. Chorus : St. Martin, St.