Dickinson began writing as a teenager. In , Dickinson ventured outside of Amherst, as far as Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. There, she befriended a minister named Charles Wadsworth, who would also become a cherished correspondent. Among her peers, Dickinson's closest friend and adviser was a woman named Susan Gilbert, who may have been an amorous interest of Dickinson's as well. In , Gilbert married Dickinson's brother, William.
The Dickinson family lived on a large home known as the Homestead in Amherst. After their marriage, William and Susan settled in a property next to the Homestead known as the Evergreens. Emily and sister Lavinia served as chief caregivers for their ailing mother until she passed away in Neither Emily nor her sister ever married and lived together at the Homestead until their respective deaths. Dickinson's seclusion during her later years has been the object of much speculation.
Dickinson was also treated for a painful ailment of her eyes. After the mids, she rarely left the confines of the Homestead. It was also around this time, from the late s to mid-'60s, that Dickinson was most productive as a poet, creating small bundles of verse known as fascicles without any awareness on the part of her family members. In her spare time, Dickinson studied botany and produced a vast herbarium.
She also maintained correspondence with a variety of contacts. One of her friendships, with Judge Otis Phillips Lord, seems to have developed into a romance before Lord's death in The side effect of success in business and politics was a busy social life. Receiving and making social calls was required of an active 19 th century patriarch. The cleaning and cooking required to make hospitality happen was the responsibility of the wife and unmarried children.
She delighted in the sciences but faltered in religion, where she refused to conform to Christian expectations. She returned home after only one year at the seminary. She resisted gradually, learning to avoid visitors. Her Religion.
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When her class-mates were asked to stand if they wanted to be a good Christian, she remained seated. God alone chose whom he would save, but he would only choose those in attendance at church. She chose to remove herself from the company of the religious. Her Correspondence. She shared letters actively with family and friends.
Only her side of the correspondence survives.
A bomb in her bosom: Emily Dickinson's secret life
In , she sent a letter to famous literary writer Thomas Wentworth Higginson. Previously, he had asked his readers to submit pieces for review and criticism. They exchanged letters for two decades. Since it is now believed that the earliest draft to Master predates her friendship with Bowles, he cannot have been the person.
Who Was Emily Dickinson?
On balance, Charles Wadsworth and possibly Gould remain the most likely candidates. Though Dickinson wrote little about the American Civil War , which was then raging, her awareness of its multiplied tragedies seems to have empowered her poetic drive. Building on her earlier quest for human intimacy and obsession with heaven, she explored the tragic ironies of human desire, such as fulfillment denied, the frustrated search for the absolute within the mundane , and the terrors of internal dissolution.
She also articulated a profound sense of female subjectivity, expressing what it means to be subordinate, secondary, or not in control. Yet as the war proceeded, she also wrote with growing frequency about self-reliance, imperviousness, personal triumph, and hard-won liberty. The perfect transcendence she had formerly associated with heaven was now attached to a vision of supreme artistry. In addition to seeking an informed critique from a professional but not unsympathetic man of letters, she was reaching out at a time of accentuated loneliness.
She described her symptoms as an aching in her eyes and a painful sensitivity to light. Of the two posthumous diagnoses , exotropia a kind of strabismus , the inability of one eye to align with the other and anterior uveitis inflammation of the uvea, a part of the iris , the latter seems more likely. In Higginson invited the poet to Boston to attend a literary salon. In her last 15 years Dickinson averaged 35 poems a year and conducted her social life mainly through her chiselled and often sibylline written messages. She repaired an year breach with Samuel Bowles and made friends with Maria Whitney, a teacher of modern languages at Smith College , and Helen Hunt Jackson , poet and author of the novel Ramona Dickinson resumed contact with Wadsworth, and from about age 50 she conducted a passionate romance with Otis Phillips Lord, an elderly judge on the supreme court of Massachusetts.
The letters she apparently sent Lord reveal her at her most playful, alternately teasing and confiding. But the single most shattering death, occurring in , was that of her eight-year-old nephew next door, the gifted and charming Gilbert Dickinson. Her health broken by this culminating tragedy, she ceased seeing almost everyone, apparently including her sister-in-law. The poet died in , when she was 55 years old.
The immediate cause of death was a stroke. When Lavinia found the manuscript-books, she decided the poems should be made public and asked Susan to prepare an edition. Susan failed to move the project forward, however, and after two years Lavinia turned the manuscript-books over to Mabel Loomis Todd , a local family friend, who energetically transcribed and selected the poems and also enlisted the aid of Thomas Wentworth Higginson in editing.
When Poems by Emily Dickinson appeared in , it drew widespread interest and a warm welcome from the eminent American novelist and critic William Dean Howells , who saw the verse as a signal expression of a distinctively American sensibility. Johnson, did not appear until the s. A much improved edition of the complete poems was brought out in by R.
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The New Critics also played an important role in establishing her place in the modern canon. From the beginning, however, Dickinson has strongly appealed to many ordinary or unschooled readers. Who are you?
Brief Bio of Emily Dickinson: American Poet & Recluse
Readers respond, too, to the impression her poems convey of a haunting private life, one marked by extremes of deprivation and refined ecstasies. At the same time, her rich abundance—her great range of feeling, her supple expressiveness—testifies to an intrinsic poetic genius. The standard edition of the poems is the three-volume variorum edition, The Poems of Emily Dickinson: Variorum Edition , edited by R.
He also edited a two-volume work, The Manuscript Books of Emily Dickinson , which provides facsimiles of the poems in their original groupings. The Gorgeous Nothings , edited by Marta L. Buckingham, reprints all known reviews from the first decade of publication.
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