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Mark Schrad rated it really liked it Aug 13, Sophia rated it really liked it Feb 22, Riley rated it really liked it Oct 23, Isaac Patterson rated it really liked it May 24, Jessica marked it as to-read Mar 28, Joe Wisniewski marked it as to-read Jan 18, Samantha Martinez added it Feb 04, Nikita Jayswal marked it as to-read Apr 05, S Hinchcliffe marked it as to-read May 12, Emily marked it as to-read Feb 17, Stanislav Secrieru added it Apr 19, Hany marked it as to-read Sep 15, Temy Chonos is currently reading it Jan 25, Jerome marked it as to-read Jul 31, In the nineteenth century political un-rest, economic problems, population pressure, and famine joined religious persecution in prompting two phases of large-scale migration, first from the s to the early s and then from the late s to the mids.
Approximately 5 million Germans arrived in the United States through Nativist sentiment in the s and s encouraged community leaders to preserve their cultural identity through a German-language press and associations Vereine , creating a strong ethnic subculture that lasted until World War I. On the whole, though, German immigrants had a good reputation due to their education and industry. In the New York Times described them as "undoubtedly the healthiest element of our foreign immigration.
Russia and Germany Reborn: Unification, the Soviet Collapse, and the New Europe
Until the late nineteenth century the United States enjoyed amiable official relations with the various German states. Geographic distance helped assure that the governments had few competing interests. In addition the United States had a tradition of noninterference in European affairs, and neither of the central European great powers, Prussia nor Austria, had substantial overseas concerns.
Americans intensely followed the process of German unification and greeted the foundation of the German Reich in Chancellor Otto von Bismarck tried to minimize the few political disputes between the two countries and respected American predominance in the Western Hemisphere. Meanwhile, German classical music, painting, and literature, especially works by Friedrich Schiller, all found admirers in the United States by the s.
Angela Stent - Wikipedia
The German university system also attracted increasing numbers of American students in all disciplines—an estimated ten thousand through —and was a model for the modern research university in the United States. However, starting in the s German-American relations gradually underwent a "great transformation," in the words of Manfred Jonas, from amity to hostility that culminated in World War I. Expanding industrial economies and newfound imperial ambitions drove this process. In a new German protective tariff, instituted in response to the depression, initiated a lengthy controversy about American agricultural products having access to the German market.
Relations began to deteriorate seriously, however, only after William II ascended the throne in Germany's decision to build a large battleship fleet starting in gave rise to fears that it someday would try to challenge the Monroe Doctrine. Between and German activities in the Philippines and Venezuela nurtured such suspicions and alienated the American public. So too did the kaiser's occasional bellicose outbursts and inept attempts at personal diplomacy, which did little to further the German government's aspirations for American cooperation against its great naval and imperial rival Great Britain.
These developments help explain why most political and business elites in the United States favored Britain when World War I broke out in August The flow of civilian goods and loans to Europe in support of the Allied war effort through demonstrated the partisan nature of American neutrality. Woodrow Wilson 's protests against the Reich's campaign of unrestricted submarine warfare led to its temporary suspension by March , but with few exceptions Germany's wartime leaders did not take the United States seriously as a potential opponent.
Not only did the German Foreign Office try to secure an anti-American alliance with Mexico by promising it Texas, Arizona, and New Mexico , a risky policy that backfired with the publication of the "Zimmermann telegram," but the German government resumed its submarine campaign in January , knowing it would almost certainly lead to American entry in the war, which occurred on 6 April.
Alongside the effort to crush Prussian militarism in Europe, a crusade against German culture began in the United States that in some regions lasted through the early s. In its wake hundreds of German-language newspapers closed, many German-American churches started conducting their services in English, German cultural associations suffered declining memberships, and countless individuals, companies, and organizations anglicized their German-sounding names.
German ethnic life in the United States never recovered. In late the Reich's military and political leadership hoped for a lenient peace based on Wilson's Fourteen Points and in October even instituted a parliamentary form of government to encourage one. The kaiser's abdication on 9 November , two days before the armistice, helped pave the way for the establishment of a full-fledged republic.
Germany's expectations concerning Wilson were unrealistic, and Germans were bitterly disappointed with the terms of the Versailles Peace Treaty announced on 7 May , especially its "war guilt clause," Article , which was inserted to establish Germany's obligation to pay reparations. Nonetheless during the Weimar Republic — German—American relations improved markedly. The republic became the focus of Washington's stabilization policy for Europe.
In the Dawes Plan ended the Ruhr crisis by providing a new schedule for reparations payments and initiated a five-year period in which American loans and investments contributed to a brief return to prosperity in Europe, especially in Germany. Foreign Minister Gustav Stresemann , who held that position from to , believed a revitalized German economy would be the most powerful tool for revising the Versailles Treaty peacefully, and he therefore placed priority on good political relations with the United States to secure capital for German reconstruction.
In the s American mass culture for example, Hollywood movies also flooded into Germany for the first time, and intense debates ensued there over "Americanization" and "Fordism. National Socialist attempts to establish autarky through bilateral trade treaties and aggressive export drives in Latin America and eastern Europe presented a direct threat to the open international economy deemed indispensable by the Roosevelt administration for the survival of the American way of life.
Despite increasing evidence that Germany, along with Japan and Italy, was rearming for war, the American government remained inactive diplomatically before November , when Franklin D. Roosevelt, already sobered by the Munich Conference, issued a sharp condemnation of Nazi anti-Semitic policies and recalled his ambassador following Kristallnacht.
New York: Russia and the West: What’s Next?
Strong isolationist sentiment at home, as expressed in the Neutrality Laws, left few weapons available other than trade policies and attempts to mobilize the Western Hemisphere against the threat of Nazi infiltration at the Lima Conference. Only the shock of France's defeat in allowed the American government to take more vigorous measures to contain German expansion, including the bases-fordestroyers deal with the United Kingdom in September ; the lend-lease program in March ; and an undeclared naval war against Uboats in the North Atlantic in the summer of Germany formally declared war on the United States on 11 December in the wake of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor , initiating what also became an ideological conflict.
National Socialism saw "Americanism" as its enemy, while the United Sates, in Roosevelt's words, found itself locked in a struggle with a "monstrous nation. Although the Roosevelt administration adopted a "Germany first" strategy for military campaigning during World War II , it pursued a policy of postponement in terms of postwar planning in order to hold together the wartime alliance with the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union. By the Allies had agreed to keep Germany unified, minus territorial revisions in the east, but temporarily divided into occupation zones.
Starting around the Cold War led to another "great transformation" in the German-American relationship. Marshall Plan aid in , relief for Berlin during the Soviet blockade of —, CARE packages, and the daily experience with American soldiers left a generally positive view of the United States in the western zones, which in were united politically as the Federal Republic of Germany. Konrad Adenauer , chancellor from to ,.
Angela E. Stent is Professor of Government at Georgetown University.
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Many of our ebooks are available through library electronic resources including these platforms:. Home Russia and Germany Reborn. Add to Cart. More about this book. The prose and tale are highly readable, not least because the gap between the scale of the stakes involved and the drift and lameness of Soviet foreign policy is so stunning. But Stent does not stop here. She traces the Russian-German relationship since unification and ponders the place of both countries in a very different Europe.
She has made the most of all these strengths to produce a fine, readable, concise yet comprehensive history