Grandeur and Grace in the Ohio Country; Building America from the Ground Up, 1784-1860

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In he was a member of the Louisville convention, which organized the Methodist Church South, and was the author of its report; and he was chairman of the commission appointed to settle the differences between the two branches of the church. Bascom was a powerful speaker, but was fond of strong epithets and rather extravagant metaphors. Ralston Nashville, Tenn. Henkle Nashville, Vice-President, American Colonization Society, He was the fourth son of Col. John Bayard, and was graduated at Princeton in , delivering the valedictory oration.

He studied law with William Bradford, whose law-partner he became, and practised for seven years in Philadelphia. In he was appointed Clerk of the U. After the ratification of Jay's treaty with Great Britain, signed 19 Nov. After his return he resided several years at New Rochelle, N. Jay presiding judge of Westchester co.

In be removed to New York city, and resumed the practice of law. He was one of the founders of the New York historical society, organized in In he purchased an estate at Princeton, N. For several years he was a member of the New Jersey legislature, and for a long period presiding judge of the court of common pleas of Somerset co. He was interested in religious enterprises, was one of the founders of Princeton theological seminary, and joined with Elias Boudinot in establishing the American Bible society and the New Jersey Bible society.

In he was nominated by the federalists for congress, but was defeated. He published a funeral oration on Gen. Jas Grant Wilson Newark, 5. Beaman, Charles C. Publicly defended the American Colonization Society. He was a nephew of the Rev. John B. Romeyn, in whose house he was educated. He was graduated at Columbia in , and began the practice of medicine in He assisted T. Beecher, Lyman , , abolitionist leader, clergyman, educator, writer. Co-founder, American Temperance Society. President, Lane Theological Seminary. Major spokesman for the anti-slavery cause in the United States.

His ancestor in the fifth ascent emigrated to New England, and settled at New Haven in His father, David Beecher, was a blacksmith. His mother died shortly after his birth, and he was committed to the care of his uncle Lot Benton, by whom he was adopted as a son, and with whom his early life was spent between blacksmithing and farming. But it was soon found that he preferred study. He was fitted for college by the Rev.

Thomas W. Bray, and at the age of eighteen entered Yale, where, besides the usual classical course, he studied theology under President Dwight and was graduated in After this he continued his studies until September, , when he was licensed to preach by the New Haven West Association, entered upon his clerical duties by supplying the pulpit in the Presbyterian church at East Hampton, Long Island, and was ordained in Here he married his first wife, Roxana Foote.

To eke out his scanty income, his wife opened a private school, in which the husband also gave instruction. Beecher soon became one of the foremost preachers of his day. A sermon that he delivered in , on the death of Alexander Hamilton, excited great attention. Finding his salary wholly inadequate to support his increasing family, he resigned the charge, and in was installed pastor of the Congregational church in Litchfield, Conn. Here he remained for sixteen years, during which he took rank as the foremost clergyman of his denomination.


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Beecher resolved to take a stand against it. About he delivered and published six sermons on intemperance, which contain eloquent pas sages hardly exceeded by anything in the English language. They were sent broadcast through the United States, ran rapidly through many editions in England, and were translated into several languages on the continent, and have had a large sale even after the lapse of fifty years. His eloquence, zeal, and courage as a preacher, and his leading the way in the organization of the Bible, missionary, and educational societies, gave him a high reputation throughout New England.

During his residence in Litchfield arose the Unitarian controversy, in which he took a prominent part. Litchfield was at this time the seat of a famous law school and several other institutions of learning, and Mr. Beecher now a doctor of divinity and his wife undertook to supervise the training of several young women, who were received into their family. The rapid and extensive defection of the Congregational churches in Boston and vicinity, under the lead of Dr. Channing and others in sympathy with him, had excited much anxiety throughout New England; and in Mr.

Beecher received a call to become pastor of the Hanover street church in Boston. At the urgent request of his clerical brethren, he took the charge for the purpose of upholding the doctrines of Puritanism, and remained in this church six years and a half. His sermons at this time were largely controversial; he flung himself into the thickest of the fray, and was sustained by an immense following. About this time the religious public had become impressed with the growing importance of the great west; a theological seminary had been founded at Walnut Bills, near Cincinnati, O. Beecher accept the presidency, which he did in He retained the place for twenty years, and his name was continued in the seminary catalogue, as president, until his death.

He was also, during the first ten years of his presidency, pastor of the Second Presbyterian church in Cincinnati. Soon after his removal thither he startled the religious public in the east by a tract calling attention to the danger of Roman Catholic supremacy in the west. The French revolution of , the agitation in England for reform and against colonial slavery, and the punishment by American courts of citizens who had dared to attack the slave-trade carried on under the American flag, had begun to direct the attention of American philanthropists to the evils of American slavery, and an abolition convention met in Philadelphia in Its president, Arthur Tappan, through whose liberal donations Dr.

Beecher had been secured to Lane seminary, forwarded to the students a copy of the address issued by the convention, and the whole subject was soon under discussion. Many of the students were from the south; an effort was made to stop the discussions and the meetings; slaveholders went over from Kentucky and incited mob violence; and for several weeks Dr. Beecher lived in a turmoil, not knowing how soon the rabble might destroy the seminary and the houses of the professors. The board of trustees interfered during the absence of Dr. Beecher, and allayed the excitement of the mob by forbidding all further discussion of slavery in the seminary, whereupon the students withdrew en masse.

A very few were persuaded to return and remain, while the seceders laid the foundation of Oberlin College. For seventeen years after this, Dr. Beecher and his able coworker, Prof. Stowe, remained and tried to revive the prosperity of the seminary, but at last abandoned it. The great project of their lives was defeated, and they returned to the eastern states. In Dr. The trial took place in his own church; and he defended himself, while burdened with the cares of his seminary, his church, and his wife at home on her death-bed.

The trial resulted in acquittal, and, on an appeal to the general synod, he was again acquitted; but the controversy engendered by the action went on until the Presbyterian church was rent in twain. In the theological controversies that led to the excision of a portion of the general assembly of the Presbyterian church in '8, Dr. Beecher took an active part, adhering to the new school branch.

In he resigned the presidency of Lane Seminary, and returned to Boston, purposing to devote himself mainly to the revisal and publication of his works. But his intellectual powers began to decline, while his physical strength was unabated. About his eightieth year he suffered a stroke of paralysis, and thenceforth his mental powers only gleamed out occasionally with some indications of their former splendor.

The last ten years of his life were passed in Brooklyn, N. Beecher was a man of great intellectual power, though not a profound scholar. His sermons were usually extemporaneous, as far as form was concerned, but were carefully thought out, often while he was engaged in active physical exercise; but his writings were elaborated with the utmost care. He stood unequalled among living divines for dialectic keenness, pungent appeal, lambent wit, vigor of thought, and concentrated power of expression.

He possessed intense personal magnetism, and an indomitable will, and was thoroughly devoted to his chosen work. The sincerity and spirituality of his preaching were generally acknowledged, and were attended by tangible results. He was bold to the point of audacity, and it was this feature of his character, probably more than any positive errors, that made him a subject of anxiety to the more conservative class of the theologians of his own denomination.

His great boldness in denouncing laxity in regard to the standard of the Christian orthodoxy made a deep impress on the public mind. The degree of A. When he became president of Lane Seminary, he took also the chair of sacred theology. He was the author of a great number of printed sermons and addresses. He was three times married—in , , and —and had thirteen children. Most of his children have attained literary or theological distinction.

All his sons became Congregational clergymen, viz. His autobiography and correspondence was edited by the Rev. Charles Beecher New York, Allen Cincinnati, His parents were distinguished for devout Christianity and for charitable deeds. His father, Divie Bethune, was an eminent merchant, well known as a philanthropist. He was graduated at Dickinson college, Carlisle, Pa. He accepted an appointment as chaplain to seamen in the port of Savannah, but in returned to the north and transferred his ecclesiastical allegiance to the Reformed Dutch church, settling soon after at Rhinebeck, N.

In his reputation as an eloquent preacher and an efficient pastor led to an invitation from a Reformed Dutch church in Philadelphia. For eleven years he continued in the pastorate of this church, but in impaired health led him to resign and visit Italy. In Rome he sometimes preached in the American chapel, at that time the only Protestant place of worship in the city. Bethune, though best remembered by his literary work, exercised a wide influence as a clergyman and a citizen. One of his latest public efforts before leaving his native city for his last voyage to Europe was an address delivered at the great mass meeting in Union square, New York, 20 April, , in which with extraordinary fire and eloquence he urged the duty of patriotism in the trying crisis that then threatened the nation.

A memoir by A. Van Nest, D. Bethune was an accomplished student of English literature, and distinguished himself as a writer and editor. Binney, Horace , , Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, constitutional lawyer, member of the Philadelphia auxiliary of the American Colonization Society. Burin, , pp. He was of English and Scotch descent.

His father was a surgeon in the revolutionary army. In , the year after his father's death, he was placed in a classical school at Bordentown, N. In July, , he entered the freshman class of Harvard, and at graduation in he divided the highest honor with a single classmate. He had acquired the art and habit of study, and a love for it which never abated until the close of his life. This art he ever regarded as his most valued acquisition. He began the study of law in November, , in the office of Jared Ingersoll, and was called to the bar in March, , when he was little more than twenty years of age.

His clientage for some years was meagre, but his industry continued unflagging, and gradually, in the face of a competition with eminent lawyers, such as no other bar in the country then exhibited, he became an acknowledged leader. In he was sent to the legislature of the state, in which he served one year, declining a re-election. So early as his professional engagements had become extremely large, and before he was in the enjoyment of all that the legal profession could give, whether of reputation or emolument.

Between and he prepared and published the six volumes of reported decisions of the supreme court of Pennsylvania that bear his name.


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They are among the earliest of American reports, and are regarded as almost perfect models of legal reporting. Soon after Mr. Binney's health began to be impaired, and he de sired to withdraw from the courts and throw off the business that oppressed him. It was this, in part, that made him willing to accept a nomination for congress; but there was doubtless another reason that influenced him—the hostility of President Jackson to the United States bank.

The veto of the bill for its recharter aroused the deep est feeling of almost the entire business community of Philadelphia, and with that community Mr. Binney was closely associated, while his ability, combined with his well-known knowledge of the condition and operations of the bank, pointed him out as the fittest man to defend the institution in congress. He accepted a nomination, and was elected to the 23d congress.

In the consideration of great subjects, notably that of the removal of the public deposits from the United States bank, he proved himself to be a statesman of high rank and an accomplished debater. But official life was distasteful to him, and he declined a re-election. On his return to Philadelphia he refused all professional engagements in the courts, though he continued to give written opinions upon legal questions until Many of these opinions are still preserved.

They relate to titles to real estate, to commercial questions, to trusts, and to the most abstruse subjects in every department of the law. They are model exhibitions of profound and accurate knowledge, of extensive research, of nice discrimination, and wise conclusion, and they were generally accepted as of almost equal authority with judicial decision. Once only after did Mr. Binney appear in the courts. In , by appointment of the city councils of Philadelphia, he argued in the supreme court of the United States the case of Bidal vs. Girard's executors, in which was involved the validity of the trust created by Mr.

Girard's will for the establishment and maintenance of a college for orphans. The argument is in print, and it is still the subject of admiration by the legal profession in this country, and almost equally so by the profession in Great Britain. It lifted the law of charities out of the depths of confusion and obscurity that had covered it, and while the fulness of its research and the vigor of its reasoning were masterly, it was clothed with a precision and a beauty of language never surpassed. The argument was a fitting close to a long and illustrious professional life.

Binney had a fine, commanding person, an uncommonly handsome face, a dignified and graceful manner, and a most melodious voice, perfectly under his control, and modulated with unusual skill. In fine, he was in all particulars a most accomplished lawyer. In , by invitation of the bar of Philadelphia, he delivered an address on the life and character of Chief-Justice Tilghman; and in , complying with a request of the select and common councils of the city, an address on the life and character of Chief-Justice Marshall.

Until the close of his life he was a constant reader and an indefatigable student. He kept himself well informed of current events, and in regard to all public questions he not only sought information, but matured settled opinions. In he published a sketch of the life and character of Justice Bushrod Washington, in which he delineated the qualities that make up a perfect nisi prius judge, with singular acuteness.

In the same year he published sketches of three leaders of the old Philadelphia bar, which were greatly admired. And in and in he published three pamphlets in support of the power claimed by President Lincoln to suspend the writ of habeas corpus. His argument was not less remarkable than the best of his earlier efforts. Throughout his life Mr. Binney manifested a deep interest in many literary, scientific, and art institutions of Philadelphia, and in many of the noblest charities.

He was also an earnest Christian, a devout member of the Protestant Episcopal church, and often a leading member of its conventions. The activity of his mind remained undiminished until his death. This occurred forty years after the age when most men are at the zenith of their reputation, forty years after he had substantially retired from public view and from participation in all matters that attract public notice, and at the end of a period when public recollection of most lawyers has faded into indistinctness.

Birney, James Gillespie , , abolitionist leader, statesman, orator, writer, lawyer, jurist, newspaper publisher. On two occasions, mobs in Cincinnati attacked and wrecked his newspaper office. Beginning in , Birney was an agent for the American colonization Society, representing the states of Alabama, Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi and Tennessee.

In , he transferred to agent in Kentucky. Wrote pro-colonization articles for Alabama Democrat. Editor of the Philanthropist , founded Founder and president of the Liberty Party in Third party presidential candidate, , Founder University of Alabama. Native American rights advocate. Member of the American Colonization Society. Birney, ; Blue, , pp. Wilson Biographical Dictionary , New York, , pp. New York: James T. White, , pp. His ancestors were Protestants of the province of Ulster, Ireland.

His father, migrating to the United States at sixteen years of age, settled in Kentucky, became a wealthy merchant, manufacturer, and farmer, and for many years was president of the Danville bank. His mother died when he was three years old, and his early boyhood was passed under the care of a pious aunt. Giving promise of talent and force of character, he was liberally educated with a view to his becoming a lawyer and statesman.

After preparation at good schools and at Transylvania university he was sent to Princeton, where he was graduated with honors in Having studied law for three years, chiefly under Alexander J. Dallas, of Philadelphia, he returned to his native place in and began practice. In he married a daughter of William McDowell, judge of the U.

In the same year he was elected to the legislature, in which body he opposed and defeated in its original form a proposition to demand of the states of Ohio and Indiana the enactment of laws for the seizure, imprisonment, and delivery to owners of slaves escaping into their limits. His education in New Jersey and Pennsylvania at the time when the gradual emancipation laws of those states were in operation had led him to favor that solution of the slavery problem. In the year he removed to Alabama, bought a cotton plantation near Huntsville, and served as a member of the first legislature that assembled under the constitution of Though he was not a member of the convention that framed the instrument, it was chiefly through his influence that a provision of the Kentucky constitution, empowering the general assembly to emancipate slaves on making compensation to the owners, and to prohibit the bringing of slaves into the state for sale, was copied into it, with amendments designed to secure humane treatment for that unfortunate class.

In the legislature he voted against a resolution of honor to Gen. Jackson, assigning his reasons in a forcible speech. This placed him politically in a small minority. In , having found planting unprofitable, partly because of his refusal to permit his overseer to use the lash, he resumed at Huntsville the practice of his profession, was appointed solicitor of the northern circuit, and soon gained a large and lucrative practice. In he made a public profession of religion, united with the Presbyterian church, and was ever afterward a devout Christian.

About the same time he began to contribute to the American colonization society, regarding it as preparing the way for gradual emancipation. In he procured the enactment by the Alabama legislature of a statute "to prohibit the importation of slaves into this state for sale or hire. He was repeatedly elected mayor of Huntsville, and was recognized as the leader in educational movements and local improvements. In he was deputed by the trustees of the state university to select and recommend to them five persons as president and professors of that institution, also by the trustees of the Huntsville female seminary to select and employ three teachers.

In the performance of these trusts he spent several months in the Atlantic states, extending his tour as far north as Massachusetts. His selections were approved. Returning home by way of Kentucky, he called on Henry Clay, with whom he had been on terms of friendship and political sympathy, and urged that statesman to place himself at the head of the gradual emancipation movement in Kentucky. The result of the interview was the final alienation in public matters and politics of the parties to it, though their friendly personal relations remained unchanged.

Birney did not support Mr. Clay politically after or vote for him in For several years he was the confidential adviser and counsel of the Cherokee nation, an experience that led him to sympathize with bodies of men who were wronged under color of law. In he had become so sensible of the evil influences of slavery that he determined to remove his large family to a free state, and in the winter of that year visited Illinois and selected Jacksonville as the place of his future residence.

Returning to Alabama, he was winding up his law business and selling his property with a view to removal, when he received, most unexpectedly, an appointment from the American colonization society as its agent for the southwest. From motives of duty he accepted and devoted himself for one year to the promotion of the objects of that society.

Having become convinced that the slave-holders of the gulf states, with few exceptions, were hostile to the idea of emancipation in the future, he lost faith in the efficacy of colonization in that region. In his conversations about that time with southern politicians and men of influence he learned enough to satisfy him that, although the secret negotiations in of the Jackson administration for the purchase of Texas had failed, the project of annexing that province to the United States and forming several slave states out of its territory had not been abandoned; that a powerful combination existed at the south for the purpose of sending armed adventurers to Texas; and that southern politicians were united in the design to secure for the south a majority in the U.

The situation seemed to him to portend the permanence of slavery, with grave danger of civil war and disunion of the states. Resigning his agency and relinquishing his Illinois project, he removed, in November, , to Kentucky for the purpose of separating it from the slave states by effecting the adoption of a system of gradual emancipation.

He thought its example might be followed by Virginia and Tennessee, and that thus the slave states would be placed in a hopeless minority, and slavery in process of extinction. But public opinion in his native state had greatly changed since he had left it; the once powerful emancipation element had been weakened by the opposition of political leaders, and especially of Henry Clay.

His efforts were sustained by very few. In June, , he set free his own slaves and severed his connection with the colonization society, the practical effect of which, he had found, was to afford a pretext for postponing emancipation indefinitely. From this time he devoted himself with untiring zeal to the advocacy in Kentucky of the abolition of slavery.

On 19 March, , he formed the Kentucky anti-slavery society, consisting of forty members, several of whom had freed their slaves. In May, at New York, he made the principal speech at the meeting of the American anti-slavery society, and thenceforward he was identified with the Tappans, Judge William Jay, Theodore D. Weld, Alvan Stewart, Thomas Morris, and other northern abolitionists, who pursued their object by constitutional methods.

In June, , he issued a prospectus for the publication, beginning in August, of an anti-slavery weekly paper, at Danville, Ky. This was contemporaneous with the renewed organization of revolts in Texas; the beginning of the war for breaking up the refuge for fugitive slaves, waged for years against the Florida Seminoles; and the exclusion, by connivance of the postmaster-general, of anti-slavery papers from the U. Birney found it impossible to obtain a publisher or printer; and as his own residence in Kentucky had become disagreeable and dangerous, he removed to Cincinnati, where he established his paper.

His press was repeatedly destroyed by mobs; but he met all opposition with courage and succeeded finally in maintaining the freedom of the press in Cincinnati, exhibiting great personal courage, firmness, and judgment. On 22 Jan. As an editor, he was distinguished by a thorough knowledge of his subject, courtesy, candor, and large attainments as a jurist and statesman. Having associated with him as editor Dr. Gamaliel Bailey, he devoted most of his own time to public speaking, visiting in this work most of the cities and towns in the free states and addressing committees of legislative bodies.

His object was to awaken the people of the north to the danger menacing the freedom of speech and of the press, the trial by jury, the system of free labor, and the national constitution, from the encroachments of the slave-power and the plotted annexation of new slave states in the southwest. In recognition of his prominence as an anti-slavery leader, the executive committee of the American anti-slavery society unanimously elected him, in the summer of , to the office of secretary. Having accepted, he removed to New York city, 20 Sept. In his new position he was the executive officer of the society, conducted its correspondence, selected and employed lecturers, directed the organization of auxiliaries, and prepared its reports.

He attended the principal anti-slavery conventions, and his wise and conservative counsel had a marked influence on their action. He was faithful to the church, while he exposed and rebuked the ecclesiastical bodies that sustained slavery; and true to the constitution, while he denounced the constructions that severed it from the principles contained in its preamble and in the declaration of independence.

To secession, whether of the north or south, he was inflexibly opposed. The toleration or establishment of slavery in any district or territory belonging to the United States, and its abolition in the slave states, except under the war power, he held was not within the legal power of congress; slavery was local, and freedom national. To vote he considered the duty of every citizen, and more especially of every member of the American anti-slavery society, the constitution of which recognized the duty of using both moral and political action for the removal of slavery.

In the beginning of the agitation the abolitionists voted for such anti-slavery candidates as were nominated by the leading parties; but as the issues grew, under the aggressive action of the slave power, to include the right of petition, the freedom of speech and of the press, the trial by jury, the equality of all men before the law, the right of the free states to legislate for their own territory, and the right of congress to exclude slavery from the territories, the old parties ceased to nominate anti-slavery candidates, and the abolitionists were forced to make independent nominations for state officers and congress, and finally to form a national and constitutional party.

Birney was their first and only choice as candidate for the presidency. During his absence in England, in , and again in , he was unanimously nominated by national conventions of the liberty party. At the former election he received 7, votes; and at the latter, 62, This number, it was claimed by his friends, would have been much larger if the electioneering agents of the whig party had not circulated, three days before the election and too late for denial and exposure, a forged letter purporting to be from Mr.

Birney, announcing his withdrawal from the canvass, and advising anti-slavery men to vote for Mr. Clay, and greatly diminished Mr. Birney's vote in the latter. In its essential doctrines the platform of the liberty party in and was identical with those that were subsequently adopted by the free-soil and republican parties.

In the summer of Mr. Birney was disabled physically by partial paralysis, caused by a fall from a horse, and from that time he withdrew from active participation in politics, though he continued his contributions to the press. In Mr. Birney lost his wife, and in the autumn of he married Miss Fitzhugh, sister of Mrs. Gerrit Smith, of New York. In he took up his residence in Bay City, Mich. In person he was of medium height, robust build, and handsome countenance.

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His manners were those of a polished man of the world, free from eccentricities, and marked with dignity. He had neither vices nor bad habits. As a presiding officer in a public meeting he was said to have no superior. As a public speaker he was generally calm and judicial in tone; but when under strong excitement he rose to eloquence. Gurley the first dated 12 July, , the last 11 Dec. Graham He was appointed by President Grant, in , minister at the Hague, and held that office until While pursuing his studies in Paris, in February, , he took an active part in the revolution, and he was appointed on public competition professor of English literature in the college at Bourges.

He entered the U. He participated in the principal battles in Virginia, and, being sent for a short time to Florida after the battle of Olustee, regained possession of the principal parts of the state and of several of the confederate strongholds. In this work he opened all the slave-prisons in Baltimore, and freed their inmates, including many slaves belonging to men in the confederate armies. The result of his operations was to hasten the abolition of slavery in Maryland.

He passed four years in Florida after the war, and in removed to Washington, D. He entered the army as lieutenant-colonel at the beginning of the civil war, and was made colonel of the 23d Pennsylvania volunteers, which regiment he raised, principally at his own expense, in the summer of He was promoted successively to brigadier and major-general of volunteers, and distinguished himself in the battles of Yorktown, Williamsburg, the second battle of Bull Run, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, and Gettysburg.

After the death of Gen. Berry he commanded the division, receiving his commission as major-general, 23 May, He commanded the 3d corps at Gettysburg, after Gen.

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Sickles was wounded, and on 23 July, , was given the command of the 10th corps. He died of disease contracted in the service. Blackburn, Gideon , , Kentucky, Virginia, clergyman, abolitionist, strong supporter of the American colonization Society. Went to Illinois in Assisted Elijah P. Lovejoy in organizing Illinois Anti-Slavery Society. Founded Blackburn College at Carlinville, Illinois. Established school for Cherokee Indians. Dumond, , pp. He was educated at Martin academy, W ashington co. He was minister of Franklin, Tenn.

He passed the last forty years of his life in the western states, in preaching, organizing churches, and, from to , during a part of each year, in his mission to the Cherokees, establishing a school at Hywassee. He established a school in Tennessee in , and from till was president of Center college, Kentucky. Blackburn, William Jasper , b. Congressman, printer, opponent of slavery. Published pro-Union paper in the South during the Civil War. He was early left an orphan, and received his education in public schools, also studying during the years '9 in Jackson College, Columbia, Tenn.

Later he settled in Homer, La. Brooks, being the only southern editor that denounced that action. Although born in a slave state, he was always opposed to slavery, and his office was twice mobbed therefor. He was a member of the constitutional convention of Louisiana convened in , and was elected as a republican to congress, serving from 17 July, , till 3 March, From till he was a member of the Louisiana state senate.

Subsequently he removed to Little Rock, Ark. Blackburn is known as an occasional writer of verse. Active supporter of the American Colonization Society, along with her husband, newspaper publisher William Blackford. Freed some of her slaves for colonization to Africa. Blackford, William Maxwell , Fredericksburg, Virginia, newspaper publisher. Blagdon, George W. Supporter of the American Colonization Society. Raised funds for the Society in Boston. Blake, James H. Founder and officer of the Albany auxiliary of the American Colonization Society. He studied at Union, but before the completion of his course was admitted to the bar in Albany, where he practised many years as a partner of Theodore Sedgwick.

Afterward he was elected to congress as a federalist, serving from 4 Nov. His career in congress was memorable for his opposition to the war of From till he was a regent of the University of the State of New York. Bond, Thomas E. Founder of the University of Maryland Medical School. Boorman, James , , New York, merchant, philanthropist.

Vice President, , of the American Colonization Society. I, Pt. He accompanied his parents to the United States when about twelve years of age, was apprenticed to Divie Bethune, of New York, and entered into partnership with him in Boorman was one of the pioneers in the construction of the Hudson river railroad, and was for many years its president. He was also one of the founders of the Bank of Commerce. He retired from active business in The institution for the blind, the Protestant half-orphan asylum, the southern aid society, and the union theological seminary were among the recipients of his bounty.

Bowers, Carr, Dr. Supported American Colonization Society and became a life member. Strong advocate of colonization. Agent for the American Colonization Society. Successful in founding auxiliaries and recruiting members. President, Raleight auxiliary of the American Colonization Society. After graduation at the university of North Carolina in , he studied law, became judge of the superior court, and was a state senator from till , in , and again in He was elected governor of his state in , and from till was U.

He held this office till , when the cabinet broke up, more on account of social than political dissensions, as was commonly thought. A letter from Sec. Judge Branch was elected to congress as a democrat in In he was defeated as democratic candidate for governor of his state, and in '5 was governor of the territory of Florida, serving until the election of a governor under the state constitution. Brand, Benjamin , Richmond, Virginia. Treasurer of the Richmond auxiliary of the American Colonization Society.

Strong supporter of the American Colonization Society, and of colonization. He removed with his father to Kentucky in , was a surveyor and teacher, studied law, and was admitted to the bar in He was an earnest Jacksonian democrat, and for several years was a member of the legislature. He was lieutenant-governor of Kentucky in '32, and governor in '4. Breckinridge, James , , lawyer, founding officer and charter member of the American Colonization Society in Washington, DC, in He was a grandson of a Scottish covenanter, who escaped to America on the restoration of the Stuarts.

James served, in , in Col. He was for several years a member of the general assembly of Virginia, and a leader of the old federal party in that body, and from 22 May, , till 3 March, , represented the Botetourt district in congress. He was a candidate for governor against James Monroe. He co-operated with Thomas Jefferson in founding the university of Virginia, and was one of the most active promoters of the Chesapeake and Ohio canal.

Breckinridge, John, Reverend , , Maryland, clergyman. He was licensed to preach in by the presbytery of New Brunswick, and in '3 served as chaplain to congress. On 10 Sept. Glendy, and in he removed to Philadelphia, having been appointed secretary and general agent of the Presbyterian board of education. This place he resigned in , to become professor of theology in the Princeton seminary. Breckenridge took a prominent part in the controversies in the Presbyterian church, upholding, in the discussions in presbyteries, synods, and general assemblies, the principles of old-school Presbyterianism, and published a number of polemical writings.

He was a keen debater, and was noted for his concise, accurate, and logical extempore speeches and sermons. He became secretary and general agent of the Presbyterian board of foreign missions upon its organization in , and devoted his energies to superintending its operations until he broke down under his exhaustive labors, and died while on a visit to his early home. Just before his death he received a call to the presidency of Oglethorpe university in Georgia. Breckinridge, Robert Jefferson , , Kentucky, lawyer, clergyman, state legislator, anti-slavery activist. Supported gradual emancipation.

He argued emancipation was the goal of African colonization and it was justified. Finley to establish auxiliaries. Brice, Nicholas , Baltimore, Maryland, jurist. Broadnax, William H. Brown, Obadiah B. Brownell, Thomas Church, Bishop , , Connecticut, clergyman, college president, author. Member and supporter or the Connecticut Society of the American Colonization society. His early education was in a common school, in which he himself served as teacher at the age of fifteen. Preparing for college at Bristol academy, Taunton, he entered Brown just before attaining his majority.

At the close of his sophomore year he followed President Maxcy to Union, where he was graduated with the honors of the valedictory in In the following year he was appointed tutor in Greek and Latin, and in professor of logic and belles-lettres; then, after three years, having spent a year in Great Britain and Ireland in the study of chemistry and kindred sciences and in pedestrian excursions, he entered upon new duties as lecturer on chemistry, and in was elected professor of rhetoric and chemistry.

Having become convinced of the historical and scriptural grounds of Episcopacy, as opposed to the Calvinistic Congregationalism in which he had been educated and to the ministry of which he had meant to devote himself, he was baptized and confirmed in , and, after pursuing the study of theology in connection with his academic duties, was ordained deacon by Bishop Hobart in New York, 11 April, In he was elected assistant minister of Trinity church, New York, and in the following June the convention of the diocese of Connecticut chose him to the episcopate, which had been vacant for six years.

He was consecrated, 27 Oct. Bishop Brownell entered upon his duties in Connecticut at a very important time. The new bishop made good use of his learning and his quiet, practical wisdom, and laid hold of his opportunities. The efforts to establish a church college in Connecticut were renewed, and in the charter of Washington college now Trinity , Hartford, was granted by the legislature, and Bishop Brownell was elected its first president.

In the winter of '30, at the request of the general missionary society of the church, he visited the south, travelling down the Ohio and Mississippi rivers from Pittsburgh to New Orleans. He officiated as bishop in Kentucky, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Alabama, and assisted in organizing the church in the two last-named states. A second visit to the church in the south was paid in In , at the request of the convention of the diocese, Bishop Brownell withdrew from the presidency of the college, and was given the honorary office of chancellor, the active duties of the episcopate demanding all his time.

These duties called for no little amount of literary labor, and his publications were of much use to his people. In , on account of growing infirmities, Bishop Brownell asked for an assistant, and the Rev.

Troopies in session

John Williams, D. The senior bishop officiated from time to time as he was able, his last public service being in During the forty-five years of his episcopate, for the last twelve of which he had been, by seniority, residing bishop of the Episcopal church in the United States, he had seen the number of the clergy of his diocese increase fivefold, and he himself had ordained deacons and confirmed over 15, persons; and the small number of parishes that he found in , of which but seven could support full services, had increased to A colossal statue of him, the gift of his son-in-law, Gordon W.

Burnham, stands on the campus of Trinity college. Bishop Brownell was for many years president of the corporation of the retreat for the insane at Hartford. Brune, Frederick W. Leader, Maryland State Colonization Society. Campbell,, p. First Governor of the Commonwealth of Liberia.


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  • Burgess, Ebenezer , Burlington, Vermont, educator. Went to Africa with Samuel J. Ohio Supreme Court Justice. The same year he removed to Ohio, where he became distinguished as a lawyer and was a leading citizen in the new settlement of Cincinnati. In he was appointed to the legislative council of the territory, continuing a member of that body, in which he took the most prominent part in the preparation of legislative measures, until the formation of a state government.

    In he was a member of the state legislature, a judge of the supreme court of Ohio in '8, and in '31 U. He was chosen by the legislature of Kentucky a commissioner to adjust certain territorial disputes with Virginia. He took part in the establishment of the Lancastrian academy in Cincinnati, and was one of the founders of the Cincinnati college, and its first president, and was active in reorganizing the Medical college of Ohio.

    He was a delegate to the Harrisburg convention in , and was mainly instrumental in securing the nomination of Harrison to the presidency. He was the first president of the Colonization society of Cincinnati. His efforts to alleviate the distress felt by purchasers of western lands, on account of indebtedness to the government which they were unable to discharge, resulted in an act of congress granting relief to the entire west, extricating the settlers from serious financial distress.

    The people of the southwest were in the same situation; all the banks had suspended payment, and forcible resistance was threatened if the government should attempt to dispossess the settlers. Judge Burnett drew up a memorial to congress, proposing a release of back interest and permission to settlers to relinquish as much of the land entered as they were unable to pay for. The memorial was generally approved by the inhabitants of the Ohio and Mississippi valleys, and in congress granted relief in the form desired. In Judge Burnett secured the revocation of the forfeiture of the congressional land-grant to the state of Ohio for the extension of the Miami canal, and an additional grant that emboldened the legislature of Ohio to carry out the work.

    Burr, David I. Member and active supporter of the Richmond auxiliary of the American Colonization Society. Founding member and officer of the Albany auxiliary of the American Colonization Society. This led to a federal policy of calling enslaved individuals who fled to Union lines contraband of war. Burin, , p. He is the son of Capt. John Butler, who served under Jackson at New Orleans. He was graduated at Waterville college now Colby university , Maine, in , was admitted to the bar in , began practice at Lowell, Mass.

    He early took a prominent part in politics on the democratic side, and was elected a member of the Massachusetts house of representatives in , and of the state senate in In he was a delegate to the democratic national convention that met at Charleston. When a portion of the delegates reassembled at Baltimore, Mr.

    At the time of President Lincoln's call for troops in April, , he held the commission of brigadier-general of militia. On the 17th of that month he marched to Annapolis with the 8th Massachusetts regiment, and was placed in command of the district of Annapolis, in which the city of Baltimore was included. On 13 May, , he entered Baltimore at the head of men, occupied the city without opposition, and on 16 May was made a major-general, and assigned to the command of Fort Monroe and the department of eastern Virginia. He then re turned to Massa chusetts to recruit an expedition for the gulf of Mexico and the Mississippi.

    On 23 March, , the expedition reached Ship island, and on 17 April went up the Mississippi. Butler took possession of the city on 1 May. His administration of affairs was marked by great vigor. He instituted strict sanitary regulations, armed the free colored men, and compelled rich secessionists to contribute toward the support of the poor of the city. His course in hanging William Mumford for hauling down the U. On 10 May, , Gen.

    This action was protested against by all the foreign consuls, and the government at Washington, after an investigation, ordered the return of the money. On 16 Dec. Butler was recalled, as he believes, at the instigation of Louis Napoleon, who supposed the general to be hostile to his Mexican schemes. Near the close of he was placed in command of the department of Virginia and North Carolina, and his force was afterward designated as the Army of the James.

    In October, , there being apprehensions of trouble in New York during the election, Gen. Butler was sent there with a force to insure quiet. He then returned to his residence in Massachusetts. In he was elected by the republicans a member of congress, where he remained till , with the exception of the term for '7. He was the most active of the managers appointed in by the house of representatives to conduct the impeachment of President Johnson. He was the unsuccessful republican nominee for governor of Massachusetts in ; and in and , having changed his politics, was the candidate of the independent greenback party and of one wing of the democrats for the same office, but was again defeated.

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    In the democrats united upon him as their candidate, and he was elected, though the rest of the state ticket was defeated. During his administration he made a charge of gross mismanagement against the authorities of the Tewksbury almshouse; but, after a long investigation, a committee of the legislature decided that it was not sustained. In he was renominated, but was defeated. In he was the candidate of the greenback and anti-monopolist parties for the presidency, and received , votes.

    Israel Hildreth, of Lowell, b. Butler and retired. Their daughter married Gen. Adelbert Ames, of the U.

    Streets in Camden

    Caldwell, Joseph, Dr. He was graduated at Princeton in , delivering the Latin salutatory, and then taught school in Lammington and Elizabethtown, where he began the study of divinity. He became tutor at P r i n cet o n in April, , and in was appointed professor of mathematics in the University of North Carolina. He found the institution, t hen only five years old, in a feeble state, nearly destitute of buildings, library, and apparatus, and to him is ascribed the merit of having saved it from ruin.

    He was made its president in , and held the office till his death, with the exception of the years from till Princeton gave him the degree of D. In he visited Europe to purchase apparatus and select books for the libra ry of the university. A monument to his memory has been erected in the grove surrounding the university buildings. The latter had previously appeared in a newspaper in Raleigh, and were designed to awaken an interest in internal improvements. Campbell, George W. Toured northern New York and Vermont. Campbell, Robert , Georgia, Vice-President, Supporter of the American Colonization society.

    Carey, Mathew , , Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, publisher, philanthropist. Strong advocate for colonization and the American Colonization Society.



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