This is just annoying. If you knew the basics of the history you would understand how many times the palace was changed or added to. This explains the differences in architecture from room to room. Same palace. Completely different architecture. It would also be nice to read a little more about the culture. Are castles and palaces art? It used to be Roman.
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To put it in perspective the old castles in Martos were built about years later. The Alhambra was built as just a little thing which was then forgotten about. Then it is forgotten. Marco Polo is out and about, Mesa Verde is at its peak, Genghis Khan is crushing it — and suddenly people are interested in the little forgotten fortress. Portugal, Castile Spain and Aragon also Spain are expanding their territories which is infringing on Moorish land. So Moorish king-guy sultan Ibn al-Ahmar rebels against his friends and takes the region we live in including our city of Jaen and probably Martos. He plans a 6-palace adventure-land of bathhouses, defense, gardens and beauty.
Ibn al-Ahmar aka Muhammad I dies falling off his horse. His son Muhammad II builds on it a little but mostly is busy fighting everyone then taking Tarifa then feeling cheated and giving it up again it would never be in Muslim hands again. He dies. Muhammad III builds the Alhambra up. He even builds the Generalife gardens.
Pronounced hen-er-al-lee-fuh. The gardens are massive and he starts them:. Or just standing back and lets them fight themselves. In fact no one was happy, so the people of Granada sacked the Alhambra and exiled him. Inside of these bits, probably:. People liked him more so they opened the city gates for him. He sieges the Alhambra for a while then kicked Nasr out. Ismail was a busy guy. He had 4 sons then went off to battle Castile he won then just started taking over every small fortification he could find including Martos. He came home to Granada, got in an argument over a slave and was killed.
It morphs into a huge complex with housing, barracks, and an irrigated water system. He established peace with the Christians for a while but that ended it always does. He lost Gibraltar and Algeciras. He also sat in a folding armchair you can actually still see in the Museum of the Alhambra.
The Conquest of Granada in Nineteenth-Century English and American Historiography
He was assassinated while praying in a mosque in Granada. Ismail II had a fun time for 10 months but then he and his brother were murdered by his brother in law in a dungeon in the Alhambra not open for the public. The brother in law was Muhammed VI he was technically royal — his great, great grandfather was Muhammad II indirectly.
He messed around and irked the Christians. He took a bunch of cities back Malaga was one then was murdered near Seville. Yusuf II died was one son, he took over for a while. He might have been controlled and poisoned by a Rasputin-like figure. He was pretty chill, he liked poetry and building.
He might have built onto this:. He built a huge palace which is gone now. When you walk around the Alhambra near this above palace there is a series of terraced gardens. This is where his palace had been. He spells his name differently ed not ad and is 8 years old.
This is the beginning of the end for peaceful transitions. I guess the Albencerrages family helps with this remember that random family from the beginning who was killed in that room, yup. Muhammed IX rules for 8 years then is then re-overthrown. Just kidding Muhammed IX is back and the now-nine-year old is put in jail. No one likes Muhammed IX so there are a lot of internal problems including Almeria revolting. Reel To Reel. Ernesto Hex.
Granada War | Revolvy
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Colorado Springs, Colorado. Columbus, Ohio. Dallas, Texas. Des Moines, Iowa. Denver, Colorado. Detroit, Michigan. Durham, North Carolina. El Paso, Texas. Fort Wayne, Indiana. Fort Worth, Texas. Fresno, California. Honolulu, Hawaii. It is wonderful to read about this laborious and consequential work, the very portrait and model of the convivencia at its best. See, for example, al-Khalili, The House of Wisdom , pp. Hasdai Shaprut: another legendary figure, very well-known. Peter Cole has brought the Jewish poetry of Al-Andalus to the world.
May the reader find her way into that house and stay a long while. See Recommended Reading for some. There are no words to convey the importance of what Professor Cole has accomplished: He has given to the world, in English, for the first time, some of the most powerful, insightful, and beautiful poetry of the whole Middle Ages.
For an overall sense of how his thought relates to evolving philosophy in the West, see Colish, Medieval Foundations of the Western Intellectual Tradition —, pp. To get a more expansive sense of the scientific work of the period, a scholarly and exceptionally useful survey is in Glick, Islamic and Christian Spain in the Early Middle Ages , pp. For an account in the context of Europe in the Middle Ages, see Lewis, ibid. For clear explanation with helpful drawings of the noria and qanat and other technologies, see Trillo San Jose, Agua y paisaje en Granada, pp. And in the same volume, for municipal agricultural technique and crops in specific regions in Al-Andalus, pp.
To have a look at the instruments themselves, see the illustrations in Musica y poesia al sur de Al-Andalus , pp. In the same volume, a general summary is on pp. The text is in Spanish, French, and English. For examples of the music itself as it has been recovered and interpreted, a number of CDs are available. Also Reynolds, ibid. For a sampling of verse written by women in this same tradition, see Bogin, The Women Troubadours , pp. Surpassingly useful.
See the Oxford Cantigas de Santa Maria database. The original work of the anonymous author is — The book sets this extraordinary essay in the context of Western theology and literature and specifically in the context of Spanish literature and erotic writing, such as it was. A scholarly, admirable, enlightening read. For explanation and commentary, see the shorter, earlier version of a small selection of the text, see Matt, Zohar: The Book of Enlightenment. Granada itself owes its origins to the Sufis: Harvey, Islamic Spain to , pp. Saint John of the Cross: Lopez-Baralt, ibid.
As to the poetry of Saint John of the Cross, a beautiful translation, with commentary and biographical information, is in Barnstone, The Poetics of Ecstasy , pp. In , a fourth edition was issued in On this subject, it is worth looking into illustrated texts of about the miraj. Looking at the book, anyone would think of Dante. For the details on Byssus, p. A magnificent book. They are a small sampling of the many examples of interfaith community in Al-Andalus.
For my own selection of books helpful for understanding this era, see the Recommended Reading list. For an account of conversions and interfaith marriages, see Fletcher, Moorish Spain , pp. For an account of the religious, judicial, and commercial evolution in Al-Andalus, with all its contradictions and difficulties, see Glick, Islamic and Christian Spain in the Early Middle Ages , pp. Though more is learned each year, the argument about the details and the significance can take on real venom, with all the complications of ideological or political motives a part of the For this writer, these debates are a tiresome and troublesome waste of life, a kind of conceptual tar pit.
I do not think that the historians of the period I quote in this book have an ideological or political agenda. I certainly do not. That being said, the notion that Jews and Arabs, together with Christians, did something magnificent in Iberia, to the benefit of Europe and the world, is to some scholars and readers somehow inconsequential, or even offensive. I certainly do not wish to give offense, though I may do so, despite my efforts to focus on the facts, as I have selected and gathered them.
I am, simple-mindedly enough, just trying to tell the story of one family living in Andalusia. I am saying what it meant to us. And to set forth that meaning, it is important to ask, among many other questions: What was accomplished in Al-Andalus? And why did it matter? In the same volume is a excellent chapter on Inquisitorial operations, pp. For an examination of Inquisitorial trials, tortures, and punishments, and their relation to modern totalitarianism, see Perez, The Spanish Inquisition, pp. In the same volume, for a concise review of the administrative organization, see pp.
And for the comparison to Stalinist trials and other forms of state terror, see his conclusion, pp. I am not aware of a what-if essay having been written of the course of Spanish history after , but it would be a most instructive and beneficial exercise, and I pray someone will take it on. Recently, the government of Spain has begun, over five centuries after the expulsion, a program to welcome back to Spain Sephardic descendants who are currently members of the Jewish community.
The program has attracted interest, criticism, and bewilderment. The most comprehensive treatment, incomparable in its scope of reference and in the riches of scholarly detail, are the three volumes by Stanley J. This achievement brings into focus the minutiae of the decline, the massive national corruption, and its disastrous cumulative effect. On the use of silver to support the empire, pay for military operations, and secure debt, see Silver, Trade, and War , pp. In the same volume, to review the decisive commercial concessions of the Treaty of Westphalia, see pp.
For the resultant flow of capital to fund the industrialization of Western Europe, and Spanish collusion in corruption that enriched other countries, see pp. For a concise portrait of the failure of Spain to establish a competitive textile manufacturing of woolen goods for domestic and colonial supply, see Apogee of Empire , pp. On the persistence of a rentier economy in Spain and the failure to develop manufacturing even in the late s, see pp. In the Edge of Crisis , to read about the dependence of Spain, as late as , on the silver production and minting in Mexico, see pp.
For debt financing of military operations in this later period, see pp. For the government use of the vast wealth of the church in Spain and the New World, see pp. On the conjunction of war and debt leading Spain to crisis, see pp. On the role that geography, poor roads, and above all, indirect and regressive taxation played in the painfully slow process of market integration in Spain, see Grafe, Distant Tyranny , pp. The commerce of Al-Andalus: Once again, this section draws upon a whole range of scholars.
For a summary and general conditions and evolution of trade, see pp. For a discussion of ports and trading activity, see pp. For the fame of the shipyards and markets of Andalusian cities, see pp. For the centrality of the dirham of Al-Andalus in North Africa, see p. For trade with the Christian north, see p. On the fascinating tradition of merchant-scholars, see pp. On the transition from Jewish and Muslim traders to Christian traders, especially the Genoese, see pp.
For some of the same goods and a sampling of agricultural exports, see Constable, ibid. For more specifics on the silk and furniture industries, see Constable, ibid. He writes, for instance, on p. On the debasement of economic affairs, see p. On the rise of wool to dominate the export economy of Spain, see Constable, ibid. On the peninsular reach of grazing herds and the participation of military orders in the south with extensive landholdings, see Fletcher, Moorish Spain, p. On the long-term ecological damage of such transhumant pastoralism, with its cumulative destruction of the once-verdant landscape of Andalusia and Castile, see Glick, Islamic and Christian Spain in the Early Middle Ages, pp.