Accord- ing to some accounts he returned in chains, and indeed the imprisonments now- showered upon the unfortunate poet by his biographers are as numerous as were the alleged exiles of the earlier period of his life. Pedro de Mariz declared that he was thrown into prison by the Governor, Francisco Barreto, and returned under arrest to Portugal Storck considered that the captain of the silk and silver ship, who held juris- diction over Macao during his stay there, sided with the settlers and carried the poet under arrest on the return voyage to Goa.
It is possible that these conjectures are now confirmed and that we even know the name of the author of the injusto ma? If it was so, Camoes was only set free by being shipwrecked in the dangerous shallows off the coast of Tongking. Until recently the river Mekong has been maligned, since Camoes in the celebrated shipwreck stanza Lus. But recently the discovery of the new Couto MS. Jordao de Freitas, have thrown new light on the shipwreck and on his departure from Macao. It appears that Captain Leonel de Sousa was annoyed at having been deprived of jurisdiction as Provedor, usually vested 'in the captain of the silk and silver ship.
Sousa left Japan on his return voyage to Goa at the end of Touching Macao he may well have vented his annoyance by ordering Camoes' arrest. A letter addressed to Pedro de Alcacova Carneiro, dated January 16, , attri- buted with much probability to Leonel de Sousa, says that its author was shipwrecked on shallows in the middle of the Gulf of China, ' and I alone in a small boat with twenty-three others was saved and suffered thirst and hunger in an unknown and dis- tant land ' The Couto MS.
Was the author of ' the unjust order ' Francisco Barreto, in or , or the captain of the silk and silver ship, presumably Leonel de Sousa? It is possible to believe in neither explanation. Camoes may pass in this stanza from the particular his escape from a shipwreck to the more general injusto mando, the injusticas daquelles que o confuso regimento do mundo, antigo abuso, faz sobre os outros homens poderosos ' ii.
The date of the prophecies of the tenth canto must be remembered: from that distance of time it would be possible to embrace in a single stanza events separated by five years. If he went to Macao as Provedor early in his term of three years would be virtually ended in the winter of We do not know how long Camoes lived among the Buddhists of Cambodia on the Mekong's banks before he and the other survivors were picked up by a passing ship and taken to Malacca and Goa He seems only imperfectly to have grasped the religious tenets of the natives, since he interprets belief in trans- migration as belief in a hell and heaven for all animals after death We do not know if there was further delay at Malacca when Camoes arrived there with theZztsiads as his sole earthly possession.
If so, he must have found a congenial companion in the experienced and talented Correa ; more congenial, we may be sure, than the rich Captain Miguel Rodriguez Coutinho, nicknamed Fios-Secos, or the Skinflint, who is supposed to have lent Camoes money in order to enable him to return to Goa. All that we know for certain is that before September 7, , when the viceroyalty of D.
Constantino de Braganza son of James, Duke of Braganza, who had conquered Azamor in ended, Camoes addressed him in oitavas Oit. Although it casts some reflections on the rule of his pre- decessor, the poem was clearly not written at the beginning of Braganza's term of office, since he is deep in ' tantos negocios arduos e importantes '. Some of the biographers believe that Camoes was not only in Goa but in chains. The confused early biographers say that he was imprisoned at the bidding of Governor Barreto, against whom, as we have noticed, he shows a certain resentment in the poem addressed to his successor, and this has led others to state that Barreto sent orders for his arrest at Macao.
According to Juromenha he was thrown into prison on his arrival at Goa and released, re-arrested under Redondo, tried, and acquitted, but re-arrested for debt Of still more recent biographers, Dr. Braga gives him two imprisonments; Burton, following Juromenha, three. Storckis in favour of one only, placing it in , the year usually assigned to the second or third imprison- ment for debt , and believing that Camoes' appeal to the Conde de Redondo saved him from actual imprisonment on the charge of debt.
It is not surprising that the biographers should have disagreed, for if we inquire into the sources of all these shades of the prison-house we find that they are merely the words injusto mando for the first arrest on some charge connected with the post of Provedor at Macao , and for the second debt the words na infernal cadeia, which occur in lines addressed to the Viceroy, Conde de Redondo, beseeching him to save the author from the tender mercies of his creditor Miguel Roiz, Fios-Secos d'alcunha.
The rubric to these lines, declaring them to have been addressed to the Viceroy from prison, was evidently derived from the poem itself. It is quite legitimate to hold with Storck that Camoes' meaning is that he would be imprisoned if he could not pay up The line me tem ao remo atado and the fact that he wrote a long elegy Saiao d'esta alma on the death of a friend, the young D. Tello de Meneses, killed in a brawl at Cochin in , during the same expedition, make an affirmative answer highly probable.
At any rate Redondo's viceroyalty seems to have been one of Camoes' happier times in India. He was on familiar, if respectful, terms with the merry and witty Viceroy, to whom he addressed the redondilhas beginning Conde, cujo ilustre fieito, and who sent him verses to gloss It was perhaps during these years that he fell under the charms of the slave-girl Barbara, who inspired him with one of his loveliest lyrics 81 , and that he invited five young fidalgos, his intimate friends, to a dinner of empty dishes, a really blank feast of blanc-mange, as the accompanying verses described it 82 , soon followed, no doubt, by more substantial fare, since by the Viceroy's favour he was now probably better off, and there is no reason to think him incapable IV HISPANIC N OT.
So high in favour was he with Redondo that the aged and wealthy Garcia da Orta did not dis- dain to ask him for an introductory ode Aquelle unico exempld , beseeching the Viceroy's condescension on behalf of Orta and science, to the Coloquios printed at Goa by Joannes de Emden in Camoes does not elsewhere mention Orta, and Orta nowhere mentions Camoes Orta was some thirty years his senior, but one would like to think that Camoes was able to make use of his well-stocked library at Goa. The Conde de Redondo died at Goa on February 19, , before the end of his viceroyalty.
The new Viceroy, D. Antao de Noronha, arrived in September. To the gems of verse he seems to have preferred more solid jewels. If Camoes held any official post under Redondo he may have lost it now, and the complete silence which surrounds the next three years of his life is in itself significant. It has been supposed that Camoes accom- panied expeditions sent out yearly from Goa during these years , or that it was during these years that he went to the Moluccas, to Malacca, and even to Japan.
He may have stayed on in India waiting for the post of factor at Chaul, to which he held the reversion 84 , to become vacant, although Castello Branco con- tended that this post was only granted him by King Sebastian after his return to Por- tugal, and Storck is of the same opinion. It was easier to leave Portugal than to re- turn. Home-bound ships were crammed with spices and other merchandise; a passage was difficult to obtain and expensive. Camoes was once more penniless, but Pedro, or Pero, Barreto Rolim, who was going as captain to Sofala, offered to take him with him as far as Mozambique, and they left Goa in September Even in Dr.
Braga declares that Barreto 'behaved infamously'. According to the Couto MS. Pass- ing ships brought no friends willing to pay for the poet's keep during the long home- ward voyage. He supported life as best he could in this unhealthy region with the help of charitable friends, and cheered his spirits by making ready for the press his only but not unworthy treasure from India : the ten cantos of the Lusiads.
Fortune was more favourable in As if to remind Camoes that ' ca como la mas fadas ha ', his old friend Heitor da Silveira died in sight of the Rock of Sintra 86 , while Lisbon was a stricken city, only beginning to recover from the fearful pestilence of The poet Antonio Ferreira had perished in it, another man of letters, Trancoso, had lost his wife and children. Fer- nam Mendez Pinto was living in a splendid obscurity at Almada across the Tagus, Diogo Bernardez preferred the quiet of his Minho home ; Barros was spending his last years in a country-house near Pombal. Manuel de Portugal, friendly, although not an intimate friend, was still at Court, as was perhaps the author of Palmeirim, and Goes, much aged, was also at Lisbon, as no doubt were Chiado, Prestes, and Falcao de Resende, the two former eager to renew and the latter to make the acquaintance of the poet.
Im- mediately before or immediately after the procession of April 20, , to give thanks for the cessation of the plague, the poet entered Lisbon.
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His long wanderings were at length over. For seventeen years he had lived an exile, seeing new customs, nations, and languages, unfamiliar condi- tions under alien skies His mother was alive, perhaps already living in the poor Mouraria quarter of the town. His cousin Simao Vaz was still at Coimbra.
Manuel de Portugal 88 , he received permission to print it In the work appeared To our confusion we are. But the case was not unknown 91 ; there were, for instance, two 'editions' of Goes' Chronicle of King Manuel. It appeared early in the year, and in July Camoes was granted a pension of 15, reis, to date from March 12 the date of the publication of the Lusiads?
Camoes felt that his work was done : Esta 6 a ditosa patria minha amada, A qual, se ceo me da que eu sem perigo Torne com esta empresa ja acabada, Acabe-se esta luz ali comigo. It is very improbable that he would have returned to India even if offered the post of Factor of Chaul. But there are so many things inexplicable in Camoes' life. There may have been some special reason for not wishing him to live at Coimbra. It is difficult or.
Severim de Faria 94 considered the pension insignificant. On June 2, , the pension was again renewed for three years from August 2, but Camoes must have protested, and the date was changed to March 12 In the Pope sent King Sebastian an arrow stained with the lifeblood of St. In King Sebastian, whom Camoes had addressed as ' terror of the Moors ' and certissima esperanga De aumento da pequena Cristandade, sailed for the second time to Africa.
Not the vigorous singer of the Lusiads, but the gentle poet of the river Lima, was chosen to accompany him and his magnificent train of nobles. Camoes' temper may have grown difficult with advancing age, he may have incurred disfavour by too outspoken remarks about the bureaucrats ; but the more probable explanation is that he was weak and ill.
His ill-fortune pursued him to the end : ' sempre foram engenhos pere- grinos da fortuna invejados.
Nas duas margens – blogue de Vamberto Freitas
At the end of the plague again began to ravage Lisbon. As Camoes lay ill, weary and ill, for the ruin of his country at Alcacer-Kebir had left no spirit in him, he wrote to D. No doubt it was during his last illness that the Pamasso, the book of his lyrics mentioned by Couto, was mis- laid or stolen. I saw him die in a hospital at Lisbon, without so much as a sheet to cover him, after having won success in India and sailed 5, leagues of sea [the voyage from Lisbon to Goa]. What a warning for those who night and day wear themselves out by profitless study, like spiders spinning webs to catch flies!
Camoes may have died in a hospital or in the poor house of the Mouraria, where he lived with his mother, who after his death, on June 10, , continued to receive his pension For his tomb there D. Goncalo Coutinho later wrote an in- scription, and thence in what were presumed to be his bones were transferred to the national pantheon at Belem and placed near the remains of King Sebastian and Vasco da Gama.
The real resting place of Camoes' bones will now never be known, and it is perhaps fitting that he who in his life and character and genius is so truly representative of the Portuguese people should have no fixed grave, but should live in the hearts of all Portuguese, and of all lovers of poetry, Con segno di vittoria incoronato. His per- sonality is far less shadowy than Shake- speare's, because, being a subjective poet, there is a strong personal element in the majority of his poems, and even from his epic poem we derive a clearer idea of Camoes than of, say, Vasco da Gama.
No one has ever doubted his patriotism and courage; and he had that persis- tency which characterizes the Portuguese, and which may lead a nation to great- ness or ruin according as it is well or ill directed. But he only faced a soldier's life as a dire necessity. By nature he was rather contemplative than martial.
His echo of Virgil is sincere : 6 lavradores bem-aventurados, Se conhecessem seu contentamento, Como vivem no campo sossegados! Dislike for war did not of course mean that he did not fight well and with spirit. One thinks of Gaspar Correa's words, 1 1 ever saw those who fight least call loudly for war' , and Camoes could laugh at. He had pliancy as well as endurance, and soon accepted his new life of disquiet and adventure with a kind of fatalism and also with a reverent submission to decrees in- scrutable and unintelligible to poor minds of men The life of a penniless sensitive gentleman was not a path of roses in Portugal in the sixteenth century, any more than in any other place or time.
Camoes had neither persistent assertive- ness nor the power given by money and high position. He satirizes, too, among others, the dandies and censorious critics anddo emendando mundo e ncto se emendao a si. He himself possessed all the conditions for ideal happiness. He was an intense lover of Nature, and con- tent with little, asking only for books and quiet study. Witty and melancholy, like so many of his countrymen, his impres- sionable nature made him a prince of lovers.
If we may believe his biographers he was passionately in love with the lady of the gold hair at Coimbra, three, or at least two, D. Camoes with money and happiness might have continued to live quietly in the florida terra, but he would not have written his incomparable lyrics. A cruel fate drove him from the crystal streams, the lovely woods and hills of Coimbra, first to the intrigues of Lisbon, then to the hardships of Africa, and finally to the Babel beyond the seas, exiled from Sion : Ca nesta Babylonia donde mana Materia a quanto mal o mundo cria.
Ca neste escuro caos de confusao Cumprindo o curso estou da natureza. Ve se me esquecerei de ti, Siao! He must have found that his new life had its compensations and that for so ardent a lover of his country a career of action and hard blows and broadening acquaint- ance with the far-flung empire was not without value. Otherwise he could scarcely have preserved his keenness and turned his experience to such marvellous account in his verse. The depth of his learning, shown so lightly and gracefully in his poems, has struck all his readers, and, although no doubt acquired early in life, it could only have been kept alive by an eager mind and a wonderful memory.
But it was natural that he should sing of the instability and injustices of fortune and the constant change and decay of all mortal things. Camoes, by nature very human, sensitive, contemplative, as it were quietly passion- ate, could adapt himself to circumstance. His lyric gift could turn to satire, and he preserved his gaiety in Lisbon and India in order not to appear ' an owl among sparrows ', although all the while he might be 'thirty or forty leagues away in the wilderness of thought' In his youth in Lisbon he was prompt enough with word or sword, so that his friends could call him the Swashbuckler.
He was, one might say, overdoing his part, and the increasing sense of instability might tempt him to recklessness. But he probably had that disinterested love of plain speaking which is the terror of officials, and although he could write to a great nobleman like the Count of Cascaes, asking for the rest of his promised gift, since he had only received the half of one stuffed chicken out of six iv.
If Mariz' account of his liberality and extravagance is not a mere phrase of the kind considered indispensable by early biographers or eulogists, Camoes did not methodically build up his fortune, or, when he did, ship- wreck intervened. But indeed the example of Galvao before he sailed, or of Mendez Pinto and Caspar Correa later, might have told him all that he could wish to know about the prospects of a penniless Portu- guese beyond the seas, and Camoes was not the first man of exceptional gifts who returned broken from India. The great prizes went not to talent, but to the great fidalgos.
There is no more pathetic line in his works than that of the ninth stanza of the last canto of the Lusiads : A fortuna me faz o engenho frio. Yet in the sixteenth century, in Portugal's new glory, a great national epic had become an aspiration among the more serious Portuguese poets. Garcia de Resende had regretted in that the Portuguese were so careless in recording their deeds, and his collection of verse in the Can- cioneiro Geral proved that his complaint was not unfounded.
Sa de Miranda was the first to revolt against these frivolous Court verses. While the poets of Sa de Miranda's school were thus debating as to who should confer immortal glory on the name of Portugal, a greater than Sa de Miranda was among them, preparing himself for the task. When were the Lusiads written? Faria e Sousa alleges that Joao Pinto Ribeiro told him that Camoes awoke one morning at Sofala or Mozambique with the idea of the epic in his mind, a story which probably originated in the fact that Couto had found Camoes revising the Lusiads at Mozambique in Storck considers that the wish to celebrate his country in song first came to him on his journey which he places in from Coimbra to Lisbon, during which he would see Batalha, Alcobaca, and other famous monuments of Portugal's earlier greatness.
It is ex- tremely probable that he was at work on the Lusiads for twenty years , but the period of concentrated work on the poem may perhaps be narrowed to Critics who do not think it very proper for any literary masterpiece to be begun elsewhere than in prison hold that Barros' first Decad, published twelve days after Camoes' arrest in the Rocio, inspired him to begin his epic; but in very truth Camoes was probably thinking more of Borges than of Barros at that time.
He drew from the antiquarian Resende, from the early chronicles of Portugal, contemporary historians of India, and many other sources The first eighteen stanzas of the first canto were added late, probably at Lisbon in , as were the last stanzas of the poem x. It is very interesting to compare the dedicatory stanzas in Canto I with those addressed to King Sebastian at the end of Canto X Others may believe that the words ' Eu estes canto e a vos nao posso' i. At length the poem on which Camoes had for so many years staked his hopes of glory and advancement, which had been drenched in the South China Sea and solaced his weary sojourn at Mozambique, appeared in print.
Offi- cially it appears to have been regarded as a rhymed chronicle of the deeds of the Portuguese in India, which perhaps explains the subsequent appearance of histories in the form of rhymed epics. Camoes, when he went to the Orlando Furioso for his metre, had promised himself to write of no fables but of the true heroic deeds of the Portuguese A few years later came -Luis Pereira Brandao's lament- able Elegiada and the historian Francisco de Andrade's pedestrian epic on the first siege of Diu.
Thus Camoes suffered from his imitators, as from the biographers, critics, translators, and portrait-painters. EvcNa's La Arauca- na was published three years before the L? Cervantes spoke of ' the most excellent Camoes ' , Lope de Vega called him 'divine'.
Calderon, Tirso de Molina, and Herxera appreciated his work, Gracian referred to him as 'immortal' In England he was not translated till the middle of the seventeenth century, but in the eighteenth century, which might have been expected to be hostile to so lyrical a genius, he seems to have been the subject of considerable study in both France and England. The Lusiads was gradually translated into many languages, including Latin and Hebrew a Greek version has been men- tioned but never seen. In Portugal Camoes effected a revolution. The early Portuguese poetry, delightful and remark- able as it is, became as though it were not for the next three centuries.
Besides a Long line of tedious epics lasting into the nineteenth century, he inspired hundreds of lyric poets, the most prominent of whom in the field of the eclogue were Fernam Alvarez do Oriente and Francisco Rodriguez Lobo. Luis Franco Correa, who professed to have been Camoes' 'friend and com- panion ' in India, collected some of his poems in a still unpublished Cancioneiro, and Fernam Rodriguez Lobo Soropita edited the first edition of the lyrics in In , according to Alvaro Ferreira de Vera, there were twelve editions of the Lusiads Clearly there was criticism also.
In , in his ode on Gandavo's book on Brazil, Camoes refers significantly to the critics : algimi zoilo que ladrasse. At the beginning of the seventeenth cen- tury his poetry is ' calumniada de muytos ', says Manuel Correa, and sixty years after his death a Portuguese critic, Joao Soares de Brito, thought it worth while to publish an Apologia of Camoes' poetry. Canto I begins by declaring the author's purpose i. Then, as in the Aeneid, and in modern novels of the realistic school, the reader is plunged in medias res.
The deities of Olympus look down on the Portuguese adventurers approaching Mo- zambique, and Jupiter addresses the other gods, of whom Venus and Mars favour the enterprise of the Portuguese and Bacchus is hostile i. Vasco da Gama, of proud and lofty heart, reaches the island of Mozambique, where he explains his mission and asks for pilots for India, but the natives attack the Portuguese and only after being constrained to sue for peace send them a pilot, although still with treacherous intent.
At Mombasa the wiles of Bacchus, the pilot, and the natives are defeated by the forethought of Venus i. Jupiter answers by foretelling the great deeds of the Portu- guese, which shall throw into the shade those of Greek and Roman : victories over the Turks and kings of India, triumphs in the Red Sea, at Ormuz, Diu, Goa, Cannanore, Calicut, Cochin, and Malacca, even to the far confines of China ii. He then sends down Mercury to guide the Portuguese to the harbour of Melinde, where they are hospitably received by the King, who visits Gama on board and inquires about the past history of his country ii.
Gama describes Europe and its head, Spain, and the crown of its head, Portugal iii. The heroic deeds of Viriatus and the early Portuguese kings are then chronicled, the victory of Ourique iii. King Joao II sends messengers to the East iv. He entrusts Gama with the command of the expedition iv. Gama's voyage to Mozambique is now related v. With a reliable pilot Gama leaves Melinde for India, but Bacchus goes down to visit the gods of the sea and stirs them up against the audacious navi- gators vi.
The story of Magrico vi.
He then turns to the deeds of the Portuguese, their arrival at Calicut, where they rejoice to find a friendly Spanish-speaking Mahometan Berber, and Gama's reception by the Governor Catuai and King Samori vii. Camoes here breaks off to lament his own ill-fortune vii. The Catuai, while Vasco da Gama is ashore, visits his brother Paulo on board.
The visit is not historical, but it gave Paulo occasion to explain the figures and the battle-scenes on the flags and awnings, from Luso and Ulysses to the Meneses who won fame in North Africa viii. Meanwhile the Mahometans or Moors incite the King against the new-comers, and Gama has some difficulty in getting back to the ships viii. Venus prepares for them an island of delight in the Azores? The marriage of mariners and sea-nymphs symbolizes Portugal's glory and lordship over the ocean.
Tethys sings x. Francisco de Almeida x. Joao de Castro t She then shows them a magic globe and explains the world and the system of the universe, in which she and the other gods have no part — somosfabulosos : mere poet's toys x. She shows them the various regions of the Earth and prophesies yet further achievements of the Portuguese x.
The Portuguese then leave the island and return to Lisbon x. It is a bundle of episodes, and on the central theme, Gama's voyage of discovery, is hung with great skill the whole of Portugal's glorious history. Gama is present throughout, and the time of the action is eighteen months March to September Although present throughout, Gama is, however, not pro- minent.
Camoes could sum up a character or a situation in a concentrated phrase, and if the critics, as Burton remarked , c find him poor in character painting', that is partly because it was not his object to sing of one hero but of a thousand, while the time of the poem really covers many centuries. With a fine audacity Camoes begins his poem with the words As annas e os baroes : arms and the men I sing, as compared with Virgil's Anna virnmque On such lines it required true genius to compose a spirited and living poem.
The voyage of Gama gives a faint unity of action and the sense of proportion is as a rule maintained. Exception has been taken to the long story of Magrico, but it should be noted that the action is not interrupted, the ships are sailing on o'er seas before untraversed while the story is being told. On the other hand the eighth canto is stationary, and in Paulo da Gama's narrative we go back to the third canto. No doubt Camoes had found that there was too much material to be included in that canto if the proportion of the poem was to be preserved ; patriotism forbade its omission, aesthetic sense reserved it for a later place.
Others find fault with the artificial presentment of the globe in the last canto as a piece of dead matter in the living flow of the poem. To us the artistic lapse in this respect is the passage in which the poet goes out of his way to explain that these gods are fabulous and have no existence outside the poet's mind. Yet to Camoes' pagan Renaissance sense of beauty they were very real, and but for the intervention of Venus the Portuguese would have ended their enterprise at Mombasa.
We must, however, excuse what was evidently an afterthought, intended to win the good graces of the Censor. It has been objected, again, that Camoes' poem is imitative. For the general plan as well as for many details of the execution he went to Virgil, for the matter to many contemporary literary sources.
The style in which the Lusiads is composed has been praised and blamed. Portuguese critics often hold that real poetic diction in Portugal begins with Camoes, and it is true that Portuguese poets had hitherto written for a narrower circle. Writers who wished to be more widely read used Latin or Spanish. When the Bishop of Silves published his Latin chronicle of King Manuel's reign in it did not cover different ground from that of Goes' Portuguese chronicle, but being in Latin it aspired to penetrate 'per omnes Rei- publicae Christianae regiones'.
Camoes was a universal poet, and, writing in Portuguese, he enlarged the language to make it an instrument capable and worthy of its higher responsibilities and the new place of Portugal in the world. His introduction of latinisms did not impair the vigour of his own verse, but it led to abuses later. More serious than these alleged defects are the prosaic lines and passages and slovenly rhymes in the Litsiads.
Often three successive rhymes are formed by the past tense of a verb : -avam, -avam, -avam ; but Camoes was too natural a poet to set great store by the rhyme, and the transparent flow of his verse does not in fact depend on any such artificial aid. And whatever blemishes the poem may have, it will always remain one of the world's greatest poems by reason of its magnificent lyric flights praises of Portugal, the account of D. Inds de Castro's murder, the battle of Aljubarrota, Gama's departure from Belem, the vision of Adamastor, the island of Venus , and passages in which thought and experience and wisdom are condensed into phrases of that pregnant force and brevity for which the Portuguese language is famous, often into a single memorable line.
A large part of the poem is a personal experience. The comparatively little notice given in the Lusiads to Prince Henry the Navigator yet he is praised in viii. But without Camoes' own voyage the Lusiads would have lacked its abiding fascination. In passage after passage he earns Humboldt's praise as a great painter of the sea The singular vividness of the descriptions goes hand in hand with the living construction of history.
With an inexhaustible lyric vein Camoes combined great power of concentration, and the result is that the Lusiads is crowded with unfading pictures— who could forget that of D. Lianor de Sousa inset in the vision of Adamastor? Would he have risen to Shakespearian heights in the drama had he been given some encouragement, had he been able to gather the fruits of the three E's, of which he was reasonably proud , and to develop his genius at leisure?
But Camoes' genius was not really dramatic, although, had he not left Lisbon in , he would probably have produced a few more such lively comedies, with action more complicated and closely woven than any devised by Gil Vicente, with whose plays he was of course familiar before he sailed to India, although they were not published in a collected edition until nine years later.
It is as a great lyric poet that Camoes stands supreme. Writ- ing probably in , he tells us that misfortune had dulled his senses, and if — it is extremely improbable — the Couto MS. Henceforth his muse was only to be stirred to fresh magnificence by the thought of his country and his country's last hope, the young King Sebastian. The opening stanzas of the Lusiads were no doubt added just before its publication one need not infer from stanzas seven and nine that Sebastian was still an infant.
He may have written, also, one or two fine sonnets, such as that beginning O quanto melhor e o supremo dia no. But he could no longer write those wonderful lyrics which flowed up out of the abun- dance of his heart : ' eu nao a escrevo, d'alma a trasladei ' Were Camoes in his lyrics merely a successful imitator of Petrarca or brando e doce Lasso, why should we read him?
We look for some- thing new in a literature unknown to us ; we do not go to Lisbon to gaze into shop- windows which we can see in Paris. They have a peculiar glow and magic which one seeks in vain elsewhere. There is in this poetry something more than una dolcezza inusitata e nova ; there is also a new experience. In some of the sonnets and cangoes especially, and in the oitavas and elegies, there is a fascination which can, perhaps, best be explained by saying that they are the work of a Celtic bard in an orange grove.
The spontane- ous musical cry of the heart is there, but it is no longer uttered amongst the grey mists and heather of Galicia, but has an added richness of harmony, transparency, and light rather than colour. It is wedded to the now thoroughly acclimatized Italian metres, but has a vigour and limpidity to be found in few even of the poets of Italy. Glowing and crystalline are indeed the adjectives which best characterize Camoes' verse at its best. There is nothing which his poetry cannot then express musically and with transparent clearness.
And it is so natural and abundant that it flows like a river in flood, 'liquidus puroque simil- limus amni,' with a rapidity which makes great poetry even of those poems which are marred by ugliness of detail. Take the first stanza of the eclogue which he considered the best of all those that he had then written : Que grande variedade vao fazendo, Frondelio amigo, as horas apressadas!
Como se vao as cousas convertendo Em outras cousas varias e inesperadas! Um dia a outro dia vai trazendo Por suas mesmas horas ja ordenadas ; Mas quam conformes sao na quantidade Tarn diferentes sao na qualidade. Here the rhyme adds nothing, rather it detracts from the beauty, but there is thought, feeling, and deep sincerity. Camoes is so rich in thought and experience and in suffering that he can afford to express himself with a singular simplicity.
It is this sincerity and naturalness, combined with vigorous thought and a haunting melancholy and expressed in pure music of a peerlessly pellucid strain, that make of Camoes' poetry a new and individual thing. We may say that his ccuigoes are moulded on those of Petrarca, that in the sonnet Aquella trisie e leda madrugada he is merely translating Virgil through Petrarca, and in the sonnet Ahna minha gentil copying Petrarca and Guido Guidiccioni ; but that does not explain Camoes : no one who has read these poems will assert that they are imitative, they are too evidently sprung from a deep individual experience — puras verdades ja por mimpassadas.
Strangford considered Camoes one of the most original poets of modern times : ' to that character [originality] he [Camoes] has perhaps a juster claim than any of the moderns, Dante alone excepted. During those quiet months at Goa, especially, soon after his arrival, he had preserved his exquisite sensibility, while loss and suffering lent a peculiar quality to his verse. Rarely has poetry had reason to be more thankful than for the destiny which drove Camoes across the seas, filling his lyrics with music born of his grief and the Lusiads with vivid personal description.
Because Camoes is so spontaneous and natural, because his lyric vein is so abundant — que irei falla7ido sem o sentir mil annos — it is sometimes thought that he is an example of a poet born, not made. Camoes would have said : nascitur et fit. Some of the years at Coimbra, before he went or returned to Lisbon, must have been years of intense study, and of study in many fields — history, philosophy, classical mythology, as well as the poetry of four or five different lan- guages : Portuguese, Spanish, Italian, Latin, perhaps Greek. In his studious humanism he was, in fact, well qualified to distinguish with Dante between goose and eagle Camoes' poetry is by no means confined to the new Italian metres.
His plays were written in redondilhas, the native octo- syllabic metre of Spain and Portugal, suggested by cantigas tnuito velhas iv. Gil Vicente had plunged both hands into the Middle Ages and given us marvels of lyric song. Sa de Miranda laboured hard to acclimatize the verso largo which he had introduced from Italy ; Camoes in his lyrics, a true child of the Renaissance, combined the natural ease of the old school with the mellow harmonies of the new. In their lightness and substance, impassioned ecstasy linked with thought and clearness, and charged with light and music, he showed what force and vigour the Portuguese language can unite with its melodious softness in the hands of a master.
Six years before Wordsworth's death Elizabeth Barrett Browning referred to Camoes as follows in her ' Vision of Poets ' i : And Camoens with that look he had Compelling India's genius sad From the wave through the Lusiad, The murmurs of the storm-cape ocean Indrawn with vibrative emotion Along the verse. Come7itadas, torn, i, Madrid, , and Rimas Varias. Comen- tadas, vol. Many letters by Camoes are said to have been preserved in the library of the Conde de Vimieiro until the Lisbon earthquake of 1 75 5.
We know nothing of their contents and nothing as to their authenticity. The letter Esta vat was printed and annotated by D. Carolina Michaelis de Vasconcellos in Zeitschrift fiir 7'omafiische Philologie, vol. Perhaps on the strength of a passage in Camoes' lyrics iv. Agostinho two vols, , vol.
Pedro de Azevedo in Boleti? The passage from the MS. Catarina as 11 horas da noute levou o Senhor ao padre D. Bento sacerdote professo deste mosteiro de Santa Cruz e pouco lhe faltava para ter 60 anos de habito ; faleceu de velho com todos os sacramentos e mais bons usos da Religiao. Era natural desta cidade de Coimbra, da mais honrada gente della, e teve hum irmao muito privado doprincipe pay del Rey D.
Sebastiao que chamavam Simao Vaz de Camoes ' ibid. Severim de Faria f. Braga, support the Lisbon attribution. Storck strongly favours Coimbra. Fernandez' early statement certainly carries weight, and we know independently that he was correct in saying that Camoes lived at Coimbra. E de Anna de Macedo, molher nobre de Sanctarem. E bisneto de Joao Vaz de Camoes, morador em Coimbra' ed. Michaelis de Vasconcellos' note in Storck, Vtda, p. He divides man's life into periods of seven years : ' quinta de xxxv, em que se percalca perfeito esforco, conselho e natural entender ; e dalli avante per semelhante de sete em sete annos entendo que vaao decendo per outros degraaos naturalmente.
Severim de Faria, Discvrsos Varios, f. The phrase materna septtltura, although used literally by Calder6n, is often metaphorical. Ode 10 ii. Braga considers that Camoes is referring not to his mother but to his mother country, already in crisis, an interpretation even more far-fetched than that of Dr. Ali se me mostraram Neste lugar ameno Em que inda agora mouro Testa de neve e de ouro, Riso brando e suave, olhar sereno, Um gesto delicado Que sempre na alma m'estara pintado.
Nesta florida terra, Leda, fresca e serena, Ledo e contente para mi vivia.
Portugal - avijihybihyl.ga
Pimentel, p. Paris: Gallimard, , 3 p. Paris: Gallimard, , p. Rio de Janeiro, , p. Freud, S. Obras Completas, Madrid: Biblioteca Nueva, Rio de Janeiro: Sette Letras. Hegel, G. Rio de Janeiro: Martins Fontes, Heidegger, M. Kierkegaard, S. Temor e tremor. Lacoue-Labarthe, P. Lebrun, JP. Provence et al: novembro Mieguelez, L. Jugar la palabra — Presencias de la transferencia. Buenos Aires: Letra Viva, , p.
Negri, A. Hardt, M.. Nietzsche, F. Encre Marine, Paris: Gallimard, Paris; Gallimard, Oeuvres philosophiques completes, vol. Curitiba: Hemus, Pelbart, P. Rosset, C. Perspectiva, Forense, Et pourquoi? Ce double statut de science moderne et de savoir tragique est responsable de nombreux paradoxes que nous ne trouvons pas seulement dans les formations mais aussi dans la clinique. La psychanalyse est la passion du symbolique, la passion du vide autour duquel on parle. Negri et Hardt, , p. Blanchot, Maurice. In: Blanchot, Maurice.
Bogochvol, Ariel. Rome sent numerous legions and its best generals to Lusitania to quell the rebellion, but to no avail — the Lusitanians kept conquering territory. The Roman leaders decided to change their strategy. They bribed Viriathus's ambassador to kill his own leader. Viriathus was assassinated, and the resistance was soon over. Rome installed a colonial regime. During this period, Lusitania grew in prosperity and many of modern day Portugal's cities and towns were founded. The complete Romanization of Portugal, intensified during the rule of Augustus, took three centuries and was stronger in Southern Portugal, most of which were administrative dependencies of the Roman city of Pax Julia, currently known as Beja.
Augustus renamed it Pax Augusta, but the early name prevailed. In 27 BC, Lusitania gained the status of Roman province. Later, a northern province of Lusitania was formed, known as Gallaecia, with capital in Bracara Augusta, today's Braga. Numerous Roman sites are scattered around present-day Portugal, some urban remains are quite large, like Conimbriga and Mirobriga. Several works of engineering, such as baths, temples, bridges, roads, circus, theatres and layman's homes are preserved throughout the country.
Coins, some of which coined in Portuguese land, sarcophagus and ceramics are numerous. Contemporary historians include Paulus Orosius c. In the early 5th century, Germanic tribes invaded the peninsula, namely the Suevi, the Vandals Silingi and Hasdingi and their allies, the Sarmatian Alans.
Only the kingdom of the Suevi Quadi and Marcomanni endured after the arrival of another wave of Germanic invaders, the Visigoths, who conquered all of the Iberian Peninsula and expelled or partially integrated the Vandals and the Alans. The Visigoths eventually conquered the Suevi kingdom and its capital city Bracara in — The Germanic tribe of the Buri also accompanied the Suevi in their invasion of the Iberian Peninsula and colonization of Gallaecia modern northern Portugal and Galicia. Many of the ousted Gothic nobles took refuge in the unconquered north Asturian highlands.
From there they aimed to reconquer their lands from the Moors: this war of reconquest is known in Portuguese and Spanish as the Reconquista. The county was then known as Portucale i. Portugal gained its first de jure independence as the Kingdom of Galicia and Portugal in under the rule of Garcia II. Because of feudal power struggles, Portuguese and Galician nobles rebelled.
The Reconquista, In , Portugal separated almost completely from the Kingdom of Galicia. Its territories consisting largely of mountain, moorland and forest were bounded on the north by the Minho, on the south by the Mondego River. At the end of the 11th century, the Burgundian knight Henry became count of Portugal and defended his independence, merging the County of Portucale and the County of Coimbra.
Henry died without achieving his aims. His son, Afonso Henriques, took control of the county. The city of Braga, the unofficial Catholic centre of the Iberian Peninsula, faced new competition from other regions. Lords of the cities of Coimbra and Porto then Portucale with Braga's clergy demanded the independence of the renewed county. Afonso proclaimed himself first Prince of Portugal and in the first King of Portugal. By , with the assistance of a representative of the Holy See at the conference of Zamora, Portugal was formally recognized as independent, with the prince recognized as Dux Portucalensis.
In Afonso I was declared, by the Pope, as king. Later, when Portugal was already officially independent, he ruled from Coimbra. In the capital shifted to Lisbon. The border with Spain has remained almost unchanged since the 13th century. The Treaty of Windsor created an alliance between Portugal and England that remains in effect to this day. Since early times, fishing and overseas commerce have been the main economic activities.
Henry the Navigator's interest in exploration together with some technological developments in navigation made Portugal's expansion possible and led to great advances in geographic, mathematical, scientific knowledge and technology, more specifically naval technology. The disputed discovery of Australia is not shown. During the 15th and 16th centuries, Portugal was a leading European power, ranking with England, France and Spain in terms of economic, political, and cultural influence. Though not predominant in European affairs, Portugal did have an extensive colonial trading empire throughout the world backed by a powerful thalassocracy.
Uninhabited Madeira Island was colonized by the Portuguese in A Portuguese expedition may have attempted to colonize the Canary Islands as early as , but Castile objected to any claim by the Portuguese to the Canary Islands. Castile began its conquest of the Canaries in Castile expelled the last Portuguese from the Canary islands The Canary Islands would eventually be part of the Spanish Empire. The trip marked the beginning of the Portuguese exploration of Africa. Before the turn, very little information was known in Europe about what lay around the cape.
At the end of the 13th century and the beginning of the 14th, those who tried to venture there became lost, which gave birth to legends of sea monsters. Some setbacks occurred: in the Canaries were officially recognized as Castilian by the Pope; earlier they were recognized as Portuguese. Also, in in a military expedition to Tangier, the Portuguese were defeated. However, the Portuguese did not give up their exploratory efforts. In , on a small island known as Arguim off the coast of Mauritania, an important castle was built, working as a feitoria, a trading post, for commerce with inland Africa.
Some years before the first African gold was brought to Portugal, circumventing the Arab caravans that crossed the Sahara. Immediately following Henry's death, there was a lapse of further exploration. Henry's patronage of explorations had shown that profits could be made in trade which followed the exploration of new lands. Accordingly when exploration was commenced again private merchants led the way in attempting to stretch trade routes further down the African coast.
Setting sail aboard the fleet of ships taking the materials and building crews to Elmina on this trip in December was Christopher Columbus. Some historians have claimed that the Portuguese had already performed fairly accurate calculations concerning the size of the world and therefore knew that sailing west to reach the Indies would require a far longer journey than navigating to the east. However, this continues to be debated.
Thus began a long-lasting dispute which eventually resulted in the signing of the Treaty of Tordesillas with Spain in Map of Brazil issued by the Portuguese explorers in Indeed the name of the cape stems from this promise of rich trade with the east. In , the King of Bemobi gave his realms to the Portuguese king and became Christian. Vasco da Gama sailed for India, and arrived at Calicut on 20 May , returning in glory to Portugal the next year. On April 22, , they caught sight of land in the distance.
This was the coast of what would later become the Portuguese colony of Brazil. Trade with the east had effectively been cut off since the fall of Constantinople in Accordingly, Cabral turned from exploring the coasts of the new land of Brazil and sailed to the southeast back across the Atlantic and around the Cape of Good Hope. Cabral reached Sofala on the east coast of Africa in July No longer would the Islamic occupation of Constantinople form a barrier between Europe and the east. Ten years later in , Afonso de Albuquerque after attempting and failing to capture and occupy Zamorin's Calicut militarily, conquered Goa on the west coast of India.
In , Francisco de Almeida was engaged to improve the Portuguese trade with the far east.
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Accordingly, he sailed to East Africa. Several small Islamic states along the coast of Mozambique, Kilwa, Brava and Mombasa were destroyed or became subjects or allies of Portugal. The two million Portuguese people ruled a vast empire with many millions of inhabitants in the Americas, Africa, the Middle East and Asia. From , the Portuguese had reached China and Japan. Hormuz, in the Persian Gulf, was seized by Afonso de Albuquerque in , who also entered into diplomatic relations with Persia.
In , a force under Antonio Correia conquered Bahrain ushering in a period of almost 80 years of Portuguese rule of the Persian Gulf archipelago for further information see Bahrain as a Portuguese dominion. East of Malacca Albuquerque sent Duarte Fernandes as envoy to Siam now Thailand in , and dispatched to the Moluccas two expeditions , , which founded the Portuguese dominion in Maritime Southeast Asia. Japan, accidentally reached by three Portuguese traders in , soon attracted large numbers of merchants and missionaries.
In one of the ships in the expedition that Ferdinand Magellan organized in the Spanish service completed the first voyage around the world. By the end of the 15th century, Portugal expelled some local Jews, along with those refugees that came from Castile and Aragon after In addition, many Jews were forcibly converted to Catholicism and remained as Conversos. Many Jews remained secretly Jewish, in danger of persecution by the Portuguese Inquisition. In , 3, "New Christians" were massacred in Lisbon. The late king's elderly granduncle, Cardinal Henry, became king. The Spanish and Portuguese Empires came under a single rule.
This did not, however, end resistance to Spanish rule. The Prior of Crato held out in the Azores until , and continued to actively seek to recover the throne until his death in Impostors claimed to be King Sebastian in , , and After the 16th century, Portugal gradually saw its wealth decreasing. Portugal was officially an autonomous state, but, in actuality, the country was under the rule of the Spanish from to England had been an ally of Portugal since the Treaty of Windsor in War between Spain and England led to a deterioration of the relations with Portugal's oldest ally, and the loss of Hormuz.
In , the Dutch seized Salvador, the capital of Brazil. The Dutch intrusion into Brazil was long lasting and troublesome to Portugal. This was reversed, beginning with a major Spanish-Portuguese military operation in This laid the foundations for the recovery of remaining Dutch controlled areas. The other smaller, less developed areas were recovered in stages and relieved of Dutch piracy in the next two decades by local resistance and Portuguese expeditions. After the dissolution of the Iberian Union in , Portugal would reestablish its authority over some lost territories of the Portuguese Empire.
It was even proposed to move the Spanish capital to Lisbon. Because of this, as well as the general strain on the finances of the Spanish throne as a result of the Thirty Years War, on 1 December , the Duke of Braganza, one of the great native noblemen and a descendant of King Manuel I, was proclaimed king as John IV, and a war of independence against Spain was launched. Ceuta governors did not accept the new king; they maintained their allegiance to Spain. Although Portugal had substantially attained its independence in , the Spanish continued to try to reassert their control for the next twenty-eight years, only accepting Portuguese independence in In the 17th century the Portuguese emigrated in large numbers to Brazil.
By , John V prohibited emigration, since Portugal had lost a sizable fraction of its population. Brazil was elevated to a vice-kingdom. This copper engraving shows the ruins of Lisbon in flames and a tsunami overwhelming the ships in the harbor. We bury the dead and feed the living. The buildings and big squares of the Pombaline Downtown of Lisbon still remain as one of Lisbon's tourist attractions: They represent the world's first quake-proof buildings.
Joseph refused to accept this and protested that his alliance with Britain was no threat. In spring Spanish troops invaded Portugal from the north as far as the Douro, while a second column captured Almeida and threatened to advance on Lisbon. British intervention in the Peninsular War restored Portuguese independence, the last French troops being expelled in Rio de Janeiro in Brazil, was the Portuguese capital between and In constitutionalist insurrections took place at Oporto 24 August and Lisbon 15 September.
Lisbon regained its status as the capital of Portugal when Brazil declared its independence from Portugal in The death of John VI in led to a crisis of royal succession. Dissatisfaction at Pedro's constitutional reforms led the "absolutist" faction of landowners and the church to proclaim Miguel as king in February This led to the Liberal Wars in which Pedro, eventually forced Miguel to abdicate and go into exile in , and placed his daughter on throne as Queen Maria II. In the British government made an ultimatum delivered on 11 January , to Portugal, forcing the retreat of Portuguese military forces in the land between the Portuguese colonies of Mozambique and Angola most of present-day Zimbabwe and Zambia.
The area had been claimed by Portugal, which had included it in its "Pink Map", but this clashed with British aspirations to create a railroad link between Cairo and Cape Town, thereby linking its colonies from the north of Africa to the very south. This diplomatic clash leading to several waves of protest, prompted the downfall of the Portuguese government. The British Ultimatum was considered by Portuguese historians and politics at that time, the most outrageous and infamous action of the British against her oldest ally.
As a result, it is difficult to attempt a global synthesis of the republican period in view of the important gaps that still persist in our knowledge of its political history. This historian posited the Jacobin and urban nature of the revolution carried out by the Portuguese Republican Party PRP and claimed that the PRP had turned the republican regime into a de facto dictatorship. Scarcely had the provisional government been installed when it began devoting its entire attention to an anti-religious policy, in spite of a disastrous economic situation.
On 10 October — five days after the inauguration of the Republic — the new government decreed that all convents, monasteries and all religious orders were to be suppressed. All religious were expelled and their goods confiscated. The Jesuits were forced to forfeit their Portuguese citizenship. A series of anti-Catholic laws and decrees followed each other in rapid succession. On 3 November, a law legalizing divorce was passed; then laws recognizing the legitimacy of children born outside wedlock, authorizing cremation, secularizing cemeteries, suppressing religious teaching in the schools and prohibiting the wearing of the cassock, were passed.
In addition, the ringing of church bells and times of worship were subjected to certain restraints, and the public celebration of religious feasts was suppressed. The government even interfered with the seminaries, reserving the right to name the professors and determine the programs. This whole series of laws authored by Afonso Costa culminated in the law of Separation of Church and State, which was passed on 20 April A republican constitution was approved in , inaugurating a parliamentary regime with reduced presidential powers and two chambers of parliament.
Even the PRP had to endure the secession of its more moderate elements, who formed conservative republican parties like the Evolutionist party and the Republican Union. In spite of these splits, the PRP, led by Afonso Costa, preserved its dominance, largely due to a brand of clientelist politics inherited from the monarchy. Nevertheless, an essay by Vasco Pulido Valente should be consulted a , as should the attempt to establish the political, social, and economic context made by M. Villaverde Cabral The PRP viewed the outbreak of the First World War as a unique opportunity to achieve a number of goals: putting an end to the twin threats of a Spanish invasion of Portugal and of foreign occupation of the African colonies and, at the internal level, creating a national consensus around the regime and even around the party.
Sidonismo, also known as Dezembrismo English "Decemberism" , aroused a strong interest among historians, largely as a result of the elements of modernity that it contained. The state carved out an economically interventionist role for itself while, at the same time, repressing working-class movements and leftist republicans. After a series of clashes the monarchists were definitively chased from Oporto on 13 February This military victory allowed the PRP to return to government and to emerge triumphant from the elections held later that year, having won the usual absolute majority.
The president used his new power to resolve a crisis of government in May , naming a liberal[disambiguation needed] government the Liberal party being the result of the postwar fusion of Evolutionists and Unionists to prepare the forthcoming elections. These were held on 10 July , with victory going, as was usually the case, to the party in power.
However, liberal government did not last long. A new round of elections on 29 January inaugurated a fresh period of stability: the PRP once again emerged from the contest with an absolute majority. Discontent with this situation had not, however, disappeared. At the same time, moreover, all political parties suffered from growing internal factionalism, especially the PRP itself. The party system was fractured and discredited. Between and there were forty-five governments. Many different formulas were attempted, including singleparty governments, coalitions, and presidential executives, but none succeeded.
Force was clearly the sole means open to the opposition if the PRP wanted to enjoy the fruits of power. By the mids the domestic and international scenes began to favour another authoritarian solution, wherein a strengthened executive might restore political and social order.
The political awareness of the armed forces had grown during the war, and many of whose leaders had not forgiven the PRP for sending it to a war it did not want to fight. Links were established between conservative figures and military officers, who added their own political and corporative demands to the already complex equation. The pronunciamento of 28 May enjoyed the support of most army units and even of most political parties. As had been the case in December , the population of Lisbon did not rise to defend the Republic, leaving it at the mercy of the army.
A recent historiographical balance sheet, elaborated by Armando Malheiro da Silva , is a good introduction into this debate. Three main interpretations can be identified. For some historians the First Republic was a progressive and increasingly democratic regime. For others it was essentially a prolongation of the liberal and elitist regimes of the 19th century. This later evolved into some mixture of single-party corporative regime. In the Portuguese army was involved in armed action in its colony in Goa against an Indian invasion See Operation Vijay.
The operations resulted in a humiliating Portuguese defeat and the loss of the colonies in India. After the death of Salazar in , his replacement by Marcelo Caetano offered a certain hope that the regime would open up, the primavera marcelista Marcelist spring. However the colonial wars in Africa continued, political prisoners remained incarcerated, freedom of association was not restored, censorship was only slightly eased and the elections remained tightly controlled.
The regime retained its characteristic traits: censorship, corporativeness, with a market economy dominated by a handful of economical groups, continuous surveillance and intimidation of several sectors of society through the use of a political police and techniques instilling fear such as arbitrary imprisonment, systematic political persecution and even assassination of anti-regime insurgents. Broad democratic reforms were implemented.
Nearly 1 million Portuguese or persons of Portuguese descent left these former colonies as refugees. The massive exodus of the Portuguese military and citizens from Portuguese Angola and Mozambique, would prompt an era of chaos and severe destruction in those territories after independence from Portugal in From May to the end of the s, over a million Portuguese citizens from Portugal's African territories mostly from Portuguese Angola and Mozambique left those territories as destitute refugees - the retornados. The Asian dependency of Macau, after an agreement in , was returned to Chinese sovereignty in Portugal applied international pressure to secure East Timor's independence from Indonesia, as East Timor was still legally a Portuguese dependency, and recognized as such by the United Nations.
After a referendum in , East Timor voted for independence and Portugal recognized its independence in With the —76 independence of its colonies, other than Macau, the year old Portuguese Empire effectively ended. Simultaneously 15 years of war effort also came to an end; many Portuguese returned from the colonies the retornados and came to comprise a sizeable number of the population: approximately , of Portugal's 9,8 million citizens in The country joined the Euro in The Portuguese empire ended de facto in when Macau was returned to China, and de jure in when East Timor was independent.
Please improve this article by replacing them with named references quick guide , or an abbreviated title. May 1. ISSN Oxbow Books and Celtic Studies Publications. Retrieved 24 May In Hinrichs, Uwe in German. Das Handbuch der Eurolinguistik 1st ed. Wiesbaden, Germany: Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. Rohrbacher bases the date of birth on Augustine's description of Orosius as a "young priest" and a "son by age" in the period —, which would place his age at 30 or younger. Livermore, A New History of Portugal, p. Livermore, A New History of Portugal, pp. Imperial Spain Repr.
London [u. Smith August 1, Europe's Invisible Migrants. It has its roots prior to nationality, when Roman occupation developed a thriving economy in Hispania, in the provinces of Lusitania and Gallaecia, as producers and exporters to the Roman Empire. This continued under the Visigoths and then Al-Andalus Moorish rule, until the Kingdom of Portugal was established in With the end of Portuguese reconquista and integration in the European Middle Age economy, the Portuguese were at the forefront of maritime exploration of the age of discovery, expanding to become the first global empire.
Portugal then became the world's main economic power during the Renaissance, introducing most of Africa and the East to European society, and establishing a multi-continental trading system extending from Japan to Brazil. Portuguese territorial claims in Africa were challenged during the Scramble for Africa. Political chaos and economic problems endured from the last years of the monarchy to the first Republic of — , which led to the installing of a national dictatorship in The country underwent a regime change in , the Carnation Revolution, a leftist military coup, culminating with the end of one of its most notable periods of economic growth, which had started in the s.
The European Union's structural and cohesion funds and the growth of many of Portugal's main exporting companies were leading forces in the development of the Portuguese economy, and the resultant increase in the standard of living and quality of life. Similarly, for several years Portuguese subsidiaries of large multinational companies ranked among the most productive in the world. The country adopted the euro in Iberians and Celts were some of the first groups present in the territory, with the Celtic economy centered on cattle raising, agriculture, and metal working.
The territory's mineral wealth made it an important strategic region during the early metal ages, and one of the first objectives of the Romans when invading the peninsula was to access the mines and other resources. Indigenous peoples paid tribute to Rome through an intricate web of alliances and allegiances. The economy experienced a major production expansion, profiting from some of the best agricultural lands under Roman hegemony and fueled by roads, trade routes, and the minting of coins, which eased commercial transactions.
All mines belonged to the Roman Senate, and were operated by slaves. Subsistence agriculture was replaced by large farming units Roman villas producing olive oil, cereals, and wine, and rearing livestock. This farming activity was located mainly in the region to the south of the Tagus River, the third largest grain-producing area in the Roman Empire. There was also development in fishing activity, producing the valued garum or liquamen, a condiment obtained from the maceration of fish, preferably tuna and mackerel, exported throughout the entire empire.
At the same time, specialized industries also developed. The fish salting and canning in turn required the development of salt, shipbuilding, and ceramic industries, to facilitate the manufacture of amphorae and other containers that allowed the storage and transport of commodities such as oil, wine, cereals, and preserves.
With the decline of the Roman Empire, circa —, Suebi and Visigoths took over the power vacuum left by Roman administrators and established themselves as nobility, with some degree of centralized power at their capitals in Braga and Toledo. Although it suffered some decline, Roman law remained in the Visigothic Code, and infrastructure, such as roads, bridges, aqueducts, and irrigation systems, was maintained to varying degrees. While trade dwindled in most of the former Roman lands in Europe, it survived to some degree in Visigothic Hispania. They maintained much of the Roman legacy; they repaired and extended Roman infrastructure, using it for irrigation, while introducing new agricultural practices and novel crops, such as sugar cane, rice, citrus fruit, apricots, and cotton.
Trade flourished with effective systems of contract relied upon by merchants, who would buy and sell on commission, with money lent to them by wealthy investors, or a joint investment of several merchants, who were often Muslim, Christian, and Jewish. Little is directly known from the economic structures of the region due to the paucity of Arab sources.
It is however possible to advance a few assertions. The constant warfare between Muslims and Christians and among Muslims certainly costed the region dearly and must have participated to the rampant problems of underpopulation experienced by the Gharb al-Andalus. As a matter of example, several attempts to repopulate the regions north of Coimbra to guarantee a line of defense against the Christian kingdom failed.
The economy was heavily influenced both by structural Islamic habits creation of cities and the direction chosen by the dominating Muslim ruler of the Maghrib and al-Andalus. For instance, the great interest paid by the Almohad dynasty to the Atlantic helped develop the military and civilian trade, fishery activities of the western Iberian ports such as Sevilla, Lisbon, etc.
Despite a general impression of sustained development, specially during the 10th and 11th centuries when the area witnessed a noticeable demographic expansion, the Gharb al- Andalus also underwent some dramatic episodes such as the great famine of which decimated the Berber colonists of the Douro region. Muslims were involved in trade extending into Asia, and Muslim merchants traveled long distances for commercial activities. In the case of the Kingdom of Portugal it happened in the 13th century; in the Algarve. The combined forces of Portugal, Aragon and Castile defeated the last Iberian Muslim strongholds in the 15th century.
His successor, Sancho I, accumulated the first national treasury, and supported new industries and the middle class of merchants. Moreover, he created several new towns, such as Guarda in , and took great care in populating remote areas. These were mainly concerned with private property, civil justice, and minting. He sent ambassadors to European kingdoms outside the Iberian Peninsula to begin commercial relations.
The earliest references of commercial relations between Portugal and the County of Flanders document Portuguese attendance at Lille's fair in He ordered the exploration of mines of copper, silver, tin, and iron, and organized for the export of surplus production to other European countries.
In , he signed Portugal's first commercial agreement with England. In , he made a pact with the Genoese merchant sailor Manuel Pessanha Pesagno , appointing him Admiral and giving him trade privileges with his homeland, in return for twenty warships and crews. The intention was the defense of the country against pirates, and it laid the basis for the Portuguese Navy and the establishment of a Genoese merchant community in Portugal.
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Industry was minimal, and Portugal imported armor and munitions, fine clothes, and several manufactured products from Flanders and Italy. Since the 13th century, a monetary economy had been stimulated, but barter still dominated trade, and coinage was limited; foreign currency was also used until the beginning of the 15th century. Only the sea offered alternatives, with most populations settling in fishing and trading coastal areas. Forced to reduce their activities in the Black Sea, the Republic of Genoa had turned to the north African trade of wheat and olive oil valued also as an energy source , and a search for gold, although they also visited the ports of Bruges Flanders and England.
In , the Canary Islands were officially discovered under the patronage of the Portuguese king, but in Castile disputed them, further propelling the development of the Portuguese navy. After the — Crisis—combining a succession crisis, war with Castile, and Lisbon plagued by famine and anarchy—a newly elected Aviz dynasty, with strong links to England, marked an eclipse of the conservative land-oriented aristocracy.
In , Ceuta was occupied by the Portuguese with the aim of controlling navigation of the African coast, expanding Christianity with the avail of the papacy, and providing the nobility with war. The king's son, Henry the Navigator, then became aware of the profitability of the Saharan trade routes. Governor of the rich 'Order of Christ' and holding valuable monopolies on resources in the Algarve, he sponsored voyages down the coast of Mauritania, gathering a group of merchants, shipowners, and stakeholders interested in the sea lanes.
Later, his brother Prince Pedro granted him a "Royal Flush" of all profits from trading within the discovered areas. Soon the Atlantic islands of Madeira and Azores were reached and began to be settled, producing wheat for export to Portugal. By the beginning of the reign of King Duarte I in , the Real became the currency unit in Portugal, and remained so up to the XX century.
Around 2, Portuguese accompanied her, developing great activity in trade and finance in what was then the richest European court. With Portuguese support, Bruges shipyard was started, and in the Duke granted the Portuguese traders the opportunity to elect consuls with legal powers, thus giving full civil jurisdiction to the Portuguese community.
In , the Portuguese Feitoria of Bruges was built. In , Prince Pedro, Henry's brother, granted him the monopoly of navigation, war, and trade in the lands south of Cape Bojador. Later, this monopoly would be enforced by the Papal bulls Dum Diversas and Romanus Pontifex , granting Portugal the trade monopoly for the newly discovered lands. Portuguese merchants accessed the interior via the Senegal and Gambia rivers, which bisected long-standing trans-Saharan routes. They brought in copperware, cloth, tools, wine, and horses, and later included arms and ammunition.
In exchange, they received gold from the mines of Akan, Guinea pepper a trade which lasted until Vasco da Gama reached India in , and ivory.