From to , she was a professor of management at Purdue University and consultant on careers for women, creating a more realistic attitude toward the place of women in industry. Ruth Bader Ginsburg b. She graduated from Harvard and then Columbia Law School. At Harvard, she was editor of the Harvard Law Review. She argued the first sex-bias case before the Supreme Court and won 5 of the 6 cases which she argued dealing with unequal or unfair treatment of women.
In January , she printed the Declaration of Independence with the names of the signers. She became postmaster of Baltimore in , an office she held for 14 year. She was removed from her position because she was a woman. She lectured and wrote about the dreadful working and living conditions of poor people. In , she was jailed for inciting unemployed workers to riot. As a drama critic she helped introduce Ibsen, Shaw, Strindberg and others to American audiences. In , she was jailed for two years for agitating against military conscription and then deported. In Europe, she continued to write and lecture for civil rights.
Jane Goodall b. Her research work expanded to include numerous conservation efforts in Africa and worldwide. Her global nonprofit Institute empowers people to make a difference for all living things, by creating healthy ecosystems, promoting sustainable livelihoods and nurturing new generations of committed, active citizens. Amy Goodman b. Coverage of war and peace as well as human rights movements have caused her to brave some of the most intense world crises. Her goal as a journalist is inform her audience about the threats to the planet. Sunshine Goodmorning b. El Portal is where she remodeled a historical building and chaired the th community celebration.
Katharine Graham — Publisher Graham was the first woman president of a Fortune company when she became president and then publisher of the Washington Post from to In , she resisted tremendous pressure and threats when she printed the Pentagon Papers. In , she supported the aggressive investigation of the Watergate burglary. The Post received a Pulitzer Prize for public service in Her autobiography Personal History won a Pulitzer Prize in Her dances covered many themes, including Greek myths, biblical stories, lives of Joan of Arc and Emily Dickinson.
As a young woman, she was inspired by the activism and leadership of her paternal grandmother, Jeanette Hinds Wright, a leading advocate for woman suffrage in Pierce City. She was a champion debater in her public high school and continued on the debate team when she went to the University of Missouri. She went to law school at the University of Michigan and graduated in along with her husband, Hick Griffiths making them the first married couple to graduate from the law school. Southern postmasters destroyed copies and a price was put on their heads. They stayed North.
Even there, they were criticized for their boldness, but they led the way for other women to speak. Juana Gutierrez b. It was the beginning of her work to take back her community from outside interests. Rebecca S. Halstead b. She was one of women to enter in the second class that included women, which was made possible in , when President Gerald Ford signed into legislation the opening for women applicants at all service academies. Despite beatings by the police, losing her job, and being forced from her home, Hamer continued organizing and demanding recognition and power in national politics for southern blacks.
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In , she led the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party delegation to the Democratic Convention, forcing a change in the representation of women and minorities within state delegations. Alice Hamilton — Occupational Safety and Health Pioneer Indiana Hamilton was the first person to document the danger of industrial poisons like lead, phosphorus, and other chemicals in the work place.
Her work at Hull House gave her the opportunity to fully investigate hazardous working conditions that led to accidents, deaths, and chronic illness. Her unprecedented work resulted in laws protecting workers and improving working conditions in this country and internationally. Harmony Hammond b. She co-founded A. She has had over 30 solo exhibitions and her work has been shown internationally. Ann Hancock b. In , she co-founded the Climate Protection Campaign and has been a sustainability planner for the County of Marin.
Unable to return to Maryland because she could be captured and sold, she began antislavery lectures and published articles, poems and stories. Her story, The Two Offers, is probably the first short story by a black author. Fighting racism took priority over woman suffrage; in , she helped found and lead the National Association of Colored Women. La Donna Harris b. Height worked with every president and civil rights leader for 60 years. Aileen Hernandez b. Edna Hibel b. Her thousands of followers know her sensitive portrayals of mothers and children from all cultures.
She uses many media on a wide variety of surfaces. Internationally renowned, she is the only foreign artist to twice exhibit her work in the Soviet Union, and the only foreign woman to produce a television documentary in that country. Anita Hill b. Her testimony led to national awareness and the creation and implementation of new policies by businesses, educational institutions, and government to identify and stop sexual harassment.
She has written a book, Speaking the Truth to Power. In , she joined the faculty at Brandeis University. Julia Butterfly Hill b. She put her own life on the line to save the life of a forest that was under immediate threat of destruction. She spent two years on that tree-top and attracted world-wide attention for her non-violent action in defense of the forest.
Linda M. Hiltabrand b. Her work with the sand and gravel producers to make sure they are following their approved reclamation plans has resulted in several sites winning awards for their innovative post-mining land uses. Dolores Huerta b.
Natalie Zemon Davis
She organized the members and through non-violence tactics, mounted a successful boycott of California table grapes. Her goal in life is to empower farm workers with information and skills to help them secure better living and working conditions. Mary Hultman b. She has pioneered the use of live wildlife in the classroom, and has mentored hundreds of Boy and Girl Scouts. She also established the Sanders Wildlife Rehabilitation Center that treats more than 1, animals per year. She incorporated native plants in all of her designs and blended the surrounding areas with formally executed gardens.
In , she published The Spirit of the Garden, a book about gardens primarily using those she had designed to illustrate her principles of landscape architecture. Roz Iasillo b. Roz Iasillo developed the first environmental science class taught at the secondary level in Illinois. Her enthusiasm and commitment to our earth is boundless. The women formed free schools for Mexican children and provided necessities for the poor. Pam Iorio Mayor of the City of Tampa Florida Mayor Iorio is committed to making tangible improvements during this decade that will protect our natural environment for future generations.
The programs and services are designed to be economically viable, environmentally sound and socially equitable to become a green city. The opportunity to partner with all residents in making changes to ensure our city is ready to meet future challenges. Barbara Haney Irvine b. Shirley Jackson b. In , she became a professor of physics at Rutgers University. President Clinton named her chair of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission in , where she helped set up the International Nuclear Regulators Association in to provide assistance to other nations on matters of nuclear safety.
In , she became president of the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. Mae Jemison b. Jemison now pursues health care and science projects related to women and minorities. She was a charismatic speaker who lectured all over the world on her unique philosophy of Organic Education. Organic Education is dedicated to creating an environment that fosters freedom of expression, love for learning, and tolerance. In , she founded her Organic School of Education in Fairhope, Alabama where she worked until her death in Victoria Johnston b.
This innovative enterprise seeks to inspire a revolution in building design and teach environmental green principles. Winona LaDuke b. She traveled constantly without a permanent home. By , she was teaching about the importance of preserving native plants and educating farmers about the harmful practice of setting fire to their fields each year after harvest.
In , Elizabeth and her husband created the Pine Jog Environmental Sciences Center, which today under the auspices of Florida Atlantic University, 16, children visit annually. Helen Keller — Advocate for Disadvantaged Despite being deaf, blind, and unable to speak, Keller became an active writer and international public speaker.
She learned to communicate in with the help of her teacher, Anne Sullivan. In , she became the first deaf-blind person to earn a college degree. Her books and lectures advocating rights for disabled people helped the public recognize the potentials of people with physical limitations. She also supported suffrage for women and peace. Billie Jean King b.
She has aggressively fought for equality for women athletes, for honest professionalism in tennis, and for implementation of Title IX in all sports. Now she continues the civil rights work of her husband. She is the founding president of the Martin Luther King, Jr. In the s, she led demonstrations against South African apartheid system.
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Maxine Hong Kingston b. It was followed by two equally fine books which also celebrate the heritage and contributions of Chinese-American people. Eryn Klosko b. She also advises a club of students engaged in sustainability efforts. After her release, she and her family moved to New York City where she took part in civil rights demonstrations. She met Malcolm X in ; they worked together to call attention to the struggle of oppressed people. Kochiyama founded Asian Americans for Action to link liberation efforts of blacks and Asian Americans by bringing down barriers and building bridges.
Maggie Kuhn — Activist for Senior Citizens In , Kuhn founded the Gray Panthers to fight ageism, encouraging old and young people to work together. Kuhn was an outspoken advocate of rights for older people, showing that old people are strong, vibrant, and intelligent. Through the Gray Panthers, she sought improved health care, housing, and economic well-being for senior citizens.
She wrote three books and worked internationally to promote a better understanding of human aging. Anne Bowes La Bastille b. In the early s Dr. Her solitary life led her to write Woodswoman. In , she profiled 15 women naturalists in Women and Wilderness. Osprey Orielle Lake b. She utilizes the power and beauty of nature-themed images and narratives to inspire people to learn about and care for the earth. Her international art projects bring attention to protecting the environment by enlivening the urban landscape with statues that celebrate nature.
Abbe Land b. Marian Van Landingham b. Dorothea Lange — Photographer Lange photographed bread lines in the depression years, living conditions of migrant workers in California in the s, and documented the treatment of Japanese-Americans in WWII in the crowded internment camps. These powerful photographic images brought public attention to the inhumane conditions.
She also published several volumes of poetry and novels. After the Russian pogroms of the s, Lazarus became a spokeswoman for Judaism and was an early advocate of a national Jewish homeland in Palestine. Brownie Ledbetter b. Her impact on a fair education for all is indelible. In response to the racial crisis in Little Rock, Arkansas in , Brownie worked across racial lines to elect school board members one of the founding members of the Panel of American Women in Arkansas, in The Panel was composed of women of different ethnic and religious backgrounds, mothers of public school students who spoke to school, church and civic groups about their experiences and their commitment to diversity.
In the Panel of American Women evolved into the Arkansas Public Policy Panel that organized and assisted grassroots groups, eventually founding the Arkansas Citizens Congress and Brownie Ledbetter served as founder and executive director for 20 years. Lora Ledermann b. Lihua Lei b. Her sculpture art has allowed her to do the installation pieces she conceives, since Installation Art does not generate much revenue. Gerda Lerner b. Lerner has been insistent that theory and practice, consciousness and action, must dynamically inform each other. In , Leon was a composer for the New York Philharmonic, using gospel, jazz, Latin and African elements in her music.
In , Leon started the Sounds of the Americas festival. Donna Lewis b. As an active wildlife rehabilitator, Lewis has also traveled locally and globally in her efforts to educate others and rescue injured wildlife. Suzanne Lewis b.
There had been a time when women in the National Park Service NPS including pioneer rangers, superintendents, and maintenance workers had to fight to win the right to wear the traditional Stetson hat and the gray and green uniform that conferred full authority on their positions in the eyes of the public. Today, the culture of the organization is visibly changed.
One-third of the fifteen thousand Park Service employees are women and twenty percent of the women represent minorities. Clearly, Lewis is a important representative of a generation of women who are moving history forward. Foreigners forced through a new constitution which took away voting rights from most Hawaiians. Among her legacies are over songs she composed, including the very popular Aloha Oe. Maya Lin b. Her Wall design is acclaimed as one of the greatest war memorials ever created.
In , her book Boundaries was published. She ran for president in and as the National Equal Rights Party candidate. Maria L. In , she co-founded the Orden Caballeros of America, a civic and civil rights organization. She protested and wrote against the segregated and inferior education Mexican American children received. In , she played a large role in the development of the Raza Unida Party to gain power through politics.
Susan Love b. Love co-founded the National Breast Cancer Coalition which includes more than organizations and thousands of members devoted to gathering input from breast cancer advocates as well as obtaining federal funding for research. As a surgeon and author, Love encourages physicians to listen more closely to their patients. Hunter Lovins Founder and President of Natural Capitalism California Hunter Lovins has worked diligently for decades to develop solutions that would help human beings maintain and sustain the environment in which we live.
In , Low founded similar groups in Georgia, and in , the official title of Girl Scouts of America was adopted with Low president. By , there were troops in every state with goals of helping girls learn to be resourceful, skillful, and independent. Author of publications, 6 books including both definitive texts and she has chaired three international canopy conferences.
Mary Lyon — Founder, Mount Holyoke College Seeing the need for better education for women, Lyon devised plans for an endowed seminary for women combining high academic standards and work to keep tuition low. A new four-story building housed the Mount Holyoke Female Seminary that opened in November, with 80 students and continued to grow in size, curriculum and enrollment. Lyon was principal for 12 years. Joanna Macy b. She has written many books and led workshops for thousands of people around the world.
Wilma Mankiller b. She returned to Oklahoma and became deputy chief of the Cherokee Nation in She was elected principal chief of the Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma in , the first woman to be elected to this position. Sonia Manzano b. Manzano also wrote for the show. She has won seven Emmy Awards for her work.
Manzano has also appeared in other plays including The Living Room. Cindy Marano — Economic Justice Activist and Public Policy Visionary Cindy Marano worked for 35 years to build a vision of economic equity for women and low-income workers. A brilliant strategic thinker, Marano focused on public policy issues, built legislative and government support, and engaged a network of national, state, and local organizations to help women and low-income workers fulfill their dreams.
Many of her policies were adopted into federal law. Judy Kellogg Markowsky b. A Rachel Carson devotee, she speaks frequently about Carson. She and her husband rediscovered the ancient techniques of firing polychrome and black-on-black pottery. These fine designs are highly praised today, and this blend of the old and new has helped produce economic self-sufficiency for the Indian village. Vilma Martinez b. Knowing discrimination herself as a Latina, she has worked to ensure that the rights of traditionally underrepresented people are respected.
When Memory Speaks
For a decade, she was a regent of the University of California. Sharon Rose Matola b. McClintock is regarded as one of the most influential geneticists of the twentieth century. From to , she led the University of Chicago Settlement House and pressed the city government build incinerators in place of open garbage dumps.
Rose Marie Williams McGuire b. Her sculptures and printed works reflect the recycled objects in everyday use.
Jeannie McLain b. She works with local and regional community organizations to increase public confidence in recycled water, and provides yearly internships to young women interested in research careers in environmental science. She also investigated many western cultures and wrote books about the changing roles of women and men. She wrote over 30 books and hundreds of articles and pamphlets. In , Mead was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom for her contributions to scientific research.
Donella Dana Meadows — Scientist Biophysicist Author, Leader in the Sustainability Movement Vermont Donella Meadows pioneered research regarding the human impact on the global ecosystem-examining trends in population, environment, and economics. As lead author of Limits To Growth , she stirred worldwide thinking and dialog about sustainability. An inspiring teacher, gifted author, and exemplary leader, she is also the founder of the Sustainability institute and co-founder of the International Network of Resource Information Centers. Monique Mehta b. Working effectively as a grassroots organizer she helped women and their families deal with compelling problems that included immigrant issues, reproductive health, violence against women, human trafficking, homelessness and organizing low-wage workers.
She served with the Third Wave from to She began working at the Global Fund for Women in She helped draft and win passage of Title IX in Maria Mitchell — Astronomer In , Mitchell discovered a comet; later, it was named for her and she received a gold medal from the King of Denmark.
In , she was the first woman elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Mitchell was astronomy professor at Vassar College from to In , she co-founded the Association for the Advancement of Women. In , she set high standards for both scholarship and public service. Alicia Dickerson Montemayor — Latina Activist, Artist Montemayor worked to end discrimination and improve the lives of Latino families. At age 74, Montemayor began painting. Under the name ADMonty, her vibrant works have been widely exhibited.
Toni Morrison b. She won the Pulitzer Prize in for her novel, Beloved. Since publishing her first book in , Morrison has written seven novels, two volumes of essays, and a play. She is currently a professor at Princeton University. Her pioneering career as a civil rights lawyer, lawmaker and judge spanned six decades and was highlighted by numerous historic achievements, including becoming the first African American woman accepted at Columbia Law School, the first African American woman elected to the New York Senate, the first woman and the first black woman to hold the position of Manhattan Borough President, and the first African American woman appointed to serve as a federal district judge.
Tanya Narath b. Randall Louis R. Boyd Frederic C. Fairbank C. Potter Joseph Strayer Thomas C. Cochran Lynn Townsend White Jr. Richard B. Morris Charles Gibson William J.
Pinkney Bernard Bailyn Gordon A. Craig Philip D. Curtin Arthur S. Link William H. Tilly Thomas C. Miller Robert Darnton Eric Foner Sheehan Linda K. Kerber Barbara Weinstein Gabrielle M. Goldstein Vicki L. Ruiz Patrick Manning Tyler E. Stovall Mary Beth Norton Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. The new concern with authenticity was the product of multiple interactions between economic and cultural forces. The wealth created for Europeans by the economic and technological capacity to exploit distant regions fostered the world-weariness of fin de siecle decadence.
The transfer of scientific skepticism to the newly developing social sciences resulted in the idea of cultural relativism. This reductive view of culture was the framework within which materialist economics combined with the first efforts to develop comparative studies of religion to define religious belief as a form of neurosis. And the visible and cultural effects of a fully articulated urban industrial production system raised for the first time the possibility of a radical break between nature and the engineered environment. Decadence, cultural relativism, lost belief and the break with nature were major themes of modernism which gave rise to a new type of autobiography, the story of the modern quest for meaning, given classic form in narratives like James Joyce's Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man and poetic expression in T.
Eliot's "Ash Wednesday" and the Four Quartets In the late twentieth century, after two military catastrophes in which Europeans consumed their wealth and undermined the central values of their Judeo-Christian roots, witnessed or were participants in the evil of the Holocaust and fostered the invention of atomic and biological weapons, the confident European imperialist narrative was replaced by the postmodern refusal to recognize a central point of view from which the world is to be seen. This refusal has been accompanied by an outpouring of autobiographical statements of ethnic identity, which have their most striking form in English in the writing of African-Americans like Malcolm X and James Baldwin, or in the narratives of Westernized leaders of other cultures like Jawaharlal Nehru or his Muslim counterpart, Mohammed Ali Jinnah.
The same cultural forces have encouraged assertions of sexual difference, as in James Merrill's recent classic account of a homosexual coming of age. The history of women's autobiographical writing in Europe and its offshoots underlines the extent to which experience is both shaped by gendered difference and subject to the same economic and cultural forces which influence the shape and style of male narratives. To begin with, women inherited a different tradition from classical antiquity and early Christianity than the one which shaped St. Augustine's consciousness.
Classical antiquity provided only the myth of the Amazons for the image of female heroic action and saw the image of the physically powerful female as monstrous rather than admirable. The fabled Greek democracies revered by the post-Renaissance West did not count women as citizens and left them out of the political theory which was central to the Western ideal of democracy and of citizenship. Although the women of the Hebrew Scriptures gave ample evidence of the power to rule, and to bear witness, the Pauline influence on the Christian Scriptures gave early Christianity its fear of the senses and the injunction that women should keep silent in church.
Thus the problem of voice for European women was acute since their culture defined them as incompetent in or irrelevant to two core areas of speculation about life, politics and theology. Nonetheless the monastic tradition provided women with enclaves of self-direction, albeit at the price of entry into a closed religious community. It was within the special enclave of religious life that the tradition of Western European women's autobiography was first established, in narratives about the autobiographer's relationship with God. Such a tradition, involving a relationship with a first cause, did not permit the development of the sense of agency and acting on one's own behalf with which the Greek ideal of the hero is infused.
Instead, it promoted meditation about the nature of God and the recording of direct experience of divine illumination. This tradition is manifested in the writing of medieval women religious like the twelfth-century German abbess Hildegard of Bingen. A composer of liturgical music and songs, a playwright, a healer and a builder of institutions, Hildegard records an inner life devoted to surrender of the will and to ecstatic visions such as the sycamore tree she observes dancing outside her window on a gray winter day.
The totally nonverbal visionary experience gives her the sense that she and everything she knew or could imagine are present in the sycamore's preternaturally beautiful movements. Dame Julian of Norwich, a fourteenth-century British religious, gives her reader the same sense of rejoicing in intense and deeply reassuring nonverbal contact with God. In her Book of Shewings to the Anchoress Julian of Norwich , she doesn't engage in mental calisthenics about how it is possible to know God.
Instead she provides a record of the visions she has received during her life of prayer and meditation, and some practical encouragement to others to follow in her footsteps. She is highly literate and possesses a formidable knowledge of Scripture, but it is the vision of God she wants to convey rather than how she felt about it. She can speculate about God's being a point fitting within the palm of her hand and yet present everywhere.
She conveys wonder, delight and confidence in God's Providence "And all shall be well, and all manner of thing shall be well" but shows no concern for her own agency. Teresa by Herself In it she uses the image of a garden being fed by streams of water to convey her sense of the operation of grace in her consciousness. Her guide to her readers on the techniques of prayer and meditation is practical and vividly written.
Her entire history is a story of a relationship with God, although her powers of expression make every monk, nun, confessor and family member live in the reader's mind. She is direct and plainspoken about the insignificance of the will in coming to know God: All that the soul has to do at these times of quiet is merely to be calm and make no noise.
By noise I mean working with the intellect to find great numbers of words and reflections with which to thank God for this blessing The will must quietly and wisely understand that we cannot deal violently with God; and that our efforts are like great logs of wood indiscriminately piled on [a fire], which will only put out the spark Let it speak any words of lore that suggest themselves, in the firm and sure knowledge that what it says is the truth.
But let it pay no attention to the intellect, which is merely being tiresome. The mystic's direct experience of the springs of life which flow through a divinely created world came to men also. Teresa's friend and protege St. John of the Cross demonstrates. But women's accounts of their mystical experience set the pattern for describing a woman's life in a way that shaped women's subsequent narratives as definitively as the odyssey gave the underlying form to male autobiography.
The secularization of European culture produced no female Rousseau, claiming to be the model of a new social and political type for a life to be understood in terms of this world. Even had she existed, we may argue that the silencing of women on matters of politics and theology would have required a structure for her story different from Rousseau's self-absorbed narrative of his own creation. The secular form of women's narratives emerged in the bourgeois preoccupation with romantic love, marriage, family and property.
We see the transitional version of this life plot in the narratives of women like the Duchess of Newcastle, intent on presenting the history of her family and her own aspirations as aspects of family history. Though her concerns are political and intellectual, and always highly individualistic, she relates them through family and marriage. Hers is an aristocratic voice: secular, ambitious, strong-willed, finding a place defined by family and status on which to stand to comment on her experience.
The archetypal form for the bourgeois female history came in the early nineteenth century from the secularized romance, the life plot linking the erotic quest for the ideal mate with property and social mobility. Within the ideal type of the romantic plot given early expression in Rousseau's Emile , the female heroine is a creature of pure emotion and little intellect, who exists to become the perfect mate for the self-creating hero.
Her life history ends when she encounters him, because her existence thereafter is subsumed within his. The consuming bourgeois preoccupation with erotic adventure, family, property and the primacy of the emotional fulfillment of private life led to the transformation of the female life plot from the visionary encounter with God, a God often viewed in extremely abstract terms, to the quest for the ideal hero, a quest which gave shape to the fiction, theater, opera and ballet of nineteenth-century Europe.
In that story what is important about the female is not her agency but the quality of her emotional response, a quality celebrated in opera and dance, or in fiction as passionate as Alessandro Manzoni's I promessi sposi or as cool as Jane Austen's Pride and Prejudice The conventions of the romance require that the heroine be courted, and the dynamic of the plot comes from the way in which the barriers to expressing her response to the hero--scheming relatives, class constraints, opposing political forces, the social prescriptions of race and caste--are progressively removed by fate.
This shaping romantic myth is, of course, a Western creation; it is a source of puzzlement to members of non-Western societies, in which marriage operates to link family, property and political or religious groups, or else as a prudential institution guaranteeing personal service and the care of one generation for another.
What is important about the Western romantic heroine is that she has no agency, or power to act on her own behalf. Things happen to her--adventures, lovers, reversals of fortune. She has an antitype, the scheming woman, who does try to create her own destiny, like Becky Sharp in Thackeray's Vanity Fair , or the kind of woman concerned with politics who made her way to the guillotine during the French Revolution, whether monarch like Marie Antoinette or liberal reformer like Madame Roland.
But such figures were held up as negative models of unseemly ambition. The wave of humanitarian concern for human beings exploited by slavery the cruelties of child labor or insensitivity to the feelings and needs of the insane did give indirect encouragement to a new kind of woman autobiographer, the escaped female slave who could ignore the social taboos governing speaking about female sexuality by recounting histories of sexual exploitation by white slaveowners.
Abolitionists encouraged memoirs of the slave-woman's journey to freedom, often epic in its privations and dangers. These stories by strong women presented no threat to gender categories because they fit with the image of the slave as victim, and because white readers could feel secure that such strength was safely contained within the boundaries of racial subordination.
The frontierswoman's narrative, a counterpart to the male imperial experience, could not be so fully embodied as the slave-woman's, for the proprieties required that women never speak of' the dangers of giving birth far from the services of midwives or the suffering of the breast abscess which had to be lanced by the patient herself. So, although the frontierswoman's strength was called upon daily, she never recorded it, and in keeping silence allowed her life to seem like a domestic romance.