For Saussure, there is no essential or natural reason why a particular signifier should be attached to a particular signified. Since all that is important is agreement and consistency, the connection is arbitrary. Carroll exploits the arbitrary nature of the signifier-signified relationship through use of nonsense words, empty signifiers which refer to no concept but which we naturally try to ascribe signifieds to.
In further support of the arbitrary nature of the sign, Saussure goes on to argue that if words stood for pre-existing universal concepts they would have exact equivalents in meaning from one language to the next and this is not so. Languages reflect shared experience in complicated ways and can paint very different pictures of the world from one another. In English, he says, we have different words for the animal and the meat product: Ox and beef.
Relative motivation refers to the compositionality of the linguistic system, along the lines of an immediate constituent analysis. This is to say that, at the level of langue , hierarchically nested signifiers have relatively determined signified. An obvious example is in the English number system: That is, though twenty and two might be arbitrary representations of a numerical concept, twenty-two , twenty-three etc. But, most simply, this captures the insight that the value of a syntagm—a system-level sentence—is a function of the value of the signs occurring in it. It is for this reason that Leonard Bloomfield called the lexicon the set of fundamental irregularities of the language.
A further issue is onomatopoeia. Saussure recognised that his opponents could argue that with onomatopoeia there is a direct link between word and meaning, signifier and signified. However, Saussure argues that, on closer etymological investigation, onomatopoeic words can, in fact, be coincidental, evolving from non-onomatopoeic origins. Finally, Saussure considers interjections and dismisses this obstacle with much the same argument, i. He invites readers to note the contrast in pain interjection in French aie and English ouch. Thus he argued that the sign is ultimately determined by the other signs in the system, which delimit its meaning and possible range of use, rather than its internal sound-pattern and concept.
Sheep , for example, has the same meaning as the French word mouton , but not the same value, for mouton can also be used to mean the meal lamb, whereas sheep cannot, because it has been delimited by mutton. Language is therefore a system of interdependent entities. This is an important fact to realize for two reasons: A it allows Saussure to argue that signs cannot exist in isolation, but are dependent on a system from within which they must be deduced in analysis, rather than the system itself being built up from isolated signs; and B he could discover grammatical facts through syntagmatic and paradigmatic analyses.
Language works through relations of difference, then, which place signs in opposition to one another. Saussure asserted that there are only two types of relations: syntagmatic and paradigmatic. The latter is associative, and clusters signs together in the mind, producing sets: sat , mat , cat , bat , for example, or thought , think , thinking , thinker.
Sets always involve a similarity, but difference is a prerequisite, otherwise none of the items would be distinguishable from one another: this would result in there being a single item, which could not constitute a set on its own. These two forms of relation open linguistics up to phonology , morphology , syntax and semantics. Take morphology, for example. The signs cat and cats are associated in the mind, producing an abstract paradigm of the word forms of cat. Comparing this with other paradigms of word forms, we can note that in the English language the plural often consists of little more than adding an s to the end of the word.
A third valuation of language stems from its social contract, or its accepted use in culture as a tool between two humans. Since syntagmas can belong to speech, the linguist must identify how often they are used before he can be assured that they belong to the language. We could study chess diachronically how the rules change through time or synchronically the actual rules. To illustrate this, Saussure uses a chess metaphor.
They would not benefit from knowing how the pieces came to be arranged in this way. According to Saussure, the geographic study of languages deals with external, not internal, linguistics. Geographical linguistics, Saussure explains, deals primarily with the study of linguistic diversity across lands, of which there are two kinds: diversity of relationship, which applies to languages assumed to be related; and absolute diversity, in which case there exists no demonstrable relationship between compared languages.
Each type of diversity constitutes a unique problem, and each can be approached in a number of ways. For example, the study of Indo-European and Chinese languages which are not related benefits from comparison, of which the aim is to elucidate certain constant factors which underlie the establishment and development of any language. The other kind of variation, diversity of relationship, represents infinite possibilities for comparisons, through which it becomes clear that dialects and languages differ only in gradient terms.
Of the two forms of diversity, Saussure considers diversity of relationship to be the more useful with regard to determining the essential cause of geographical diversity. While the ideal form of geographical diversity would, according to Saussure, be the direct correspondence of different languages to different areas, the asserted reality is that secondary factors must be considered in tandem with the geographical separation of different cultures. For Saussure, time is the primary catalyst of linguistic diversity, not distance.
To illustrate his argument, Saussure considers a hypothetical population of colonists, who move from one island to another. Initially, there is no difference between the language spoken by the colonists on the new island and their homeland counterparts, in spite of the obvious geographical disconnect. Saussure thereby establishes that the study of geographical diversity is necessarily concentrated upon the effects of time on linguistic development.
Taking a monoglot community as his model that is, a community which speaks only one language , Saussure outlines the manner in which a language might develop and gradually undergo subdivision into distinct dialects. It then follows from these principles that dialects have no natural boundary, since at any geographical point a particular language is undergoing some change. Intercourse can prevent dialectical fragmentation by suppressing linguistic innovations; it can also propagate innovations throughout an area encompassing different populations.
Either way, the ultimate effect of intercourse is unification of languages. Saussure remarks that there is no barrier to intercourse where only gradual linguistic transitions occur. Having outlined this monoglot model of linguistic diversity, which illustrates that languages in any one area are undergoing perpetual and nonuniform variation, Saussure turns to languages developing in two separate areas. In the case of segregated development, Saussure draws a distinction between cases of contact and cases of isolation.
In the latter, commonalities may initially exist, but any new features developed will not be propagated between the two languages. Nevertheless, differentiation will continue in each area, leading to the formation of distinct linguistic branches within a particular family. The relations characterizing languages in contact are in stark contrast to the relations of languages in isolation.
Here, commonalities and differences continually propagate to one another—thus, even those languages that are not part of the same family will manage to develop common features. Linguist Noam Chomsky maintained that structural linguistics was efficient for phonology and morphology, because both have a finite number of units that the linguist can collect.
However, he did not believe structural linguistics was sufficient for syntax, reasoning that an infinite number of sentences could be uttered, rendering a complete collection impossible. Instead, he proposed the job of the linguist was to create a small set of rules that could generate all the sentences of a language, and nothing but those sentences. As philosopher John R. Searle [ 3 ] writes:. His linguistic ideas are now generally considered important in their time, but outdated and superseded by developments such as cognitive linguistics.
Linguists who reject Chomsky claim to be going beyond Chomsky, or they cling to phrase-structure grammars. They are not turning back to Saussure. The Prague school , or Prague linguistic circle , [ 1 ] was an influential [ 2 ] group of literary critics and linguists in Prague. Its proponents developed methods of structuralist literary analysis [ 3 ] and a theory of the standard language and of language cultivation during the years — The Prague School has had significant continuing influence on linguistics and semiotics.
In the Circle promulgated its theses in a paper submitted to the First Congress of Slavists. Also in , the group launched a journal, Travaux du Cercle Linguistique de Prague. World War II brought an end to it. The Travaux was briefly resurrected from — The inaugural issue was devoted to the political science concept of center and periphery.
It was resurrected yet again in Language is no longer regarded as peripheral to our grasp of the world we live in, but as central to it. It is particularly marked in linguistics , philosophy , psychology , sociology and anthropology. Although they have undergone extension and critique over time, the dimensions of organization introduced by Saussure continue to inform contemporary approaches to the phenomenon of language. Ferdinand Mongin de Saussure was born in Geneva in Saussure showed signs of considerable talent and intellectual ability as early as the age of fourteen.
Soon afterwards, he relocated to Paris , where he lectured on Sanskrit, Gothic and Old High German, and occasionally other subjects. Saussure lectured on Sanskrit and Indo-European at the University of Geneva for the remainder of his life. It was not until that Saussure began teaching the Course of General Linguistics, which he would offer three times, ending in the summer of His son was the psychoanalyst Raymond de Saussure.
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Saussure attempted at various times in the s and s to write a book on general linguistic matters. His two currents of thought emerged independently of each other, one in Europe, the other in America. His status in contemporary theoretical linguistics is much diminished, with many key positions now dated or subject to challenge. Saussure posited that linguistic form is arbitrary, and therefore that all languages function in a similar fashion. According to Saussure, a language is arbitrary because it is systematic, in that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts.
Therefore, Saussure argues, languages have a relational conception of their elements: words and their meanings are defined by comparing and contrasting their meanings to one another. For instance, the sound images [ clarification needed ] for and the conception of a book differ from the sound images for and the conception of a table. Languages are also arbitrary because of the nature of their linguistic elements: they are defined in terms of their function rather than in terms of their inherent qualities.
In Europe, the most important work in this period of influence was done by the Prague school. Most notably, Nikolay Trubetzkoy and Roman Jakobson headed the efforts of the Prague School in setting the course of phonological theory in the decades following Elsewhere, Louis Hjelmslev and the Copenhagen School proposed new interpretations of linguistics from structuralist theoretical frameworks. Trager , Rulon S. Systemic functional linguistics is a theory considered to be based firmly on the Saussurean principles of the sign, albeit it some modifications.
The Course became one of the seminal linguistics works of the 20th century, not primarily for the content many of the ideas had been anticipated in the works of other 20th century linguists , but rather for the innovative approach that Saussure applied in discussing linguistic phenomena. Its central notion is that language may be analyzed as a formal system of differential elements, apart from the messy dialectics of real-time production and comprehension.
Examples of these elements include his notion of the linguistic sign , which is composed of the signifier and the signified. While a student, Saussure published an important work in Indo-European philology that proposed the existence of ghosts in Proto-Indo-European called sonant coefficients.
It has been argued that the problem Saussure encountered of trying to explain how he was able to make systematic and predictive hypotheses from known linguistic data to unknown linguistic data stimulated his development of structuralism. His linguistic ideas are still considered important for their time, but have suffered considerably subsequently under rhetorical developments aimed at showing how linguistics had changed or was changing with the times. Here it is necessary to be rather more finely nuanced in the positions attributed to Saussure and in their longterm influence on the development of linguistic theorizing in all schools; for a more up-to-date re-reading of Saussure with respect to these issues, see Paul Thibault.
Saussure is one of the founding fathers of semiotics , which he called semiology. Equally crucial, although often overlooked or misapplied, is the dimension of the syntagmatic and paradigmatic axes of linguistic description. Dewey Decimal. Retrieved on David Sedaris Sedaris in Children Playing Before a Statue of Hercules.
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Excerpt from Jabberwocky. See also: Value semiotics. Language, Saussure and Wittgenstein. June 29, The New York Review of Books. Retrieved 1 August Enlarged Ed. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, p. Thomas G. Bever, John M. Carroll, and Lance A. Theorrhoea and After, Macmillan, Linguistics and Poetics. In Extraterritorial. American Anthropologist 84 2 : — Volume 7, Issue 53, pages — Click [show] on the right to read important instructions before translating.
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Code Confabulation. Lexical Modality Representation. Bernardino da Siena in due sermoni di S. Giacomo della Marca Naples, [extract from Studi e ricerche francescane 9 , ]; A. Etzkorn et. Atti del Convegno internazionale distudi. Monteprandone, settembre , ed. II, f. Giacomo della Marca. Aspetti teologico-pastorali della predicazione francescana del sec. XV Diss. Bracci Milan, [cf. Uomo di cultura — Apostolo — Operatore sociale — taumaturgo del sec.
Miscellanea di studi in onore di P. Crociata, martirio e predicazione nel Mediterraneo Orientale secc. Atti del Convegno Internazionale di studi Monteprandone, novembre , ed. Giacomo della Marca Lo Studium del Convento del Monte e la cultura dell'Osservanza francescana. Atti del Convegno Internazionale di studi Monteripido, 5 novembre , ed. Itinerari archivistici per una ricostruzione biografica', ; Paolo Evangelisti, ''Quis enim conservat civitatem, status et regimina? San Giacomo della Marca a Napoli Conclusioni', Atti del Convegno Macerata-Sarnano, november , ed. Atti del Convegno internazionale, dicembre , ed.
Annual of the Institute of History, University of Szeged 15 , The author argues in any case that the Tractatus , surviving in the convent library of the Franciscan house of Cherso, MS A 10 [no. Spanish friar. Professor at the University of Zamora. Known for his Arte mistica , an introduction into mystical theology. Not sure whether the author should be identified with the Jacobus Mediolanensis who was lector at Milan in the late thirteenth century, as is claimed in De Conformitate AF IV, The most recent literature tend to negate this identification.
Our Jacob is the author of the famous Stimulus Amoris the oldest shorter version of which has survived in more than 90 mss, whereas a later longer redaction would have survived in more than mss , centered on the love for and imitation of Christ, adoration of the Virgin, and the contemplation and union with God. The work, which stands in a Bonaventurean tradition, was predominantly meant for literate lay people and female religious, as a kind of spiritual vade mecum.
The oldest short version contains 23 chapters. Chapters describe the necessary predisposition of body and soul to enable meditative progress and to please God. Chapters number the necessities of the contemplative soul esp. Chapters give additional details on the means to arrive at perfection.
The Stimulus Amoris used to be ascribed to Henri of Beaume d. The work was lenghtened, reworked and translated several times, a. Historia y leyendas en torno a esta antifona Rome, , passim also attributes to Jacob a Meditatio in Salve Regina , usually ascribed to St. Bernard, but repeatedly found after the Stimulus Amoris in the manuscripts. Stimulus Amoris : a. Paris BN, Lat. Bodley [Note: the short version that goes back to Jacobus Capelli has survived in ca. In addition, Ruh mentions an additional abbreviations and abstracts.
See K. Ruh, Bonaventura Deutsch , ; K. See J. Caral, Franciscan Studies 26 , Peltier, XII Paris, , [the long redaction]. One of the medieval Tuscan translations has been partly edited in I mistici del Duecento e del Trecento , ed. Levasti Milan, , A medieval English translation with comments by Walter Hilton d. An unpublished translation of the Stimulus Amoris London, For old editions of several vernacular versions, see also Gesamtkatalog der Wiegendrucke IV, nos.
Peltier, XII Paris, , According to Bonelli, this extract was compiled by Jacob of Milan. DSpir I, ]. Meier Berlin-NY, , ; F. Neapolitan friar of Irish origin. Renowned musician, and prolific musical and catechetical author. Giacomo Melisio da Ponta Hibernese Naples, Taught there in General vicar of the order in , minister general in Wadding, Script. II, 16; B. Pergamo, AFH 27 , Entered the Observant branch in , to pass to the Capuchins of the Bari province in Died at the Mesagna convent of Brindisi in During his lifetime, Giacomo published several works that, in the form of a dialogue, deal with major issues of moral and doctrinal theology, and apparently were first and foremost aimed at the conversion of Jews.
Many issues are dealt with in the form of a dialogue between David and Salomon. Apparently, the New Testament, the church fathers, and other christian theologians are not mentioned by name. It has been suggested that the work therefore might have been first and foremost directed at Jews. Giacomo Biancolini-Pancotto, Opus de S. Fidei Articulis Dialogo Venice: Aedibus Aurelii Pincii, [Dialogue between an apostle and a philosopher on the principal truths of religion and the errors of mankind.
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This work too seems to have been geared to the conversion of Jews. Special attention is given to the Christian mysteries such as the eucharist etc. Parts connected with the first and the fifth commandments are printed in I Frati Cappuccini. Cargnoni Perugia, , [Amounts to a reworking of his first work, and explains that the evangelical law and the law of nature coincide.
Hence the observance of natural law and the law of Moses consists in following the evangelical precepts, which therefore is a debitum for every Christian. Yet, the world still is full of sins, showing that many people do not adhere to these precepts. To mend this, the author presents in systhematic fashion the evangelical preceps taught by the son of God and approved and confirmed by the Catholic Church.
In all, the work presents 40 precepts contained in the Ten Commandments and the teachings of Christ. Cargnoni Perugia, , Filioli, Notizie sulla vita e sulle opere del P. Giacomo da Malfetta Naples, ; A. LIV, Jacobus de Padua late thirteenth century. Jacobus de Pruvinis Jacques de Provins, fl. French friar, renowned popular preacher with a characteristic macaronic style, and sometimes rather comic touches.
D91, D, D Internationales Symposium Berlin, , ed. Du Cerf, , ;. Jacobus de Ravenna Giacomo Merini, d. Italian friar from Ravenna. Entered the Capuchin order in the Bologne province 24 April after studies of the liberal arts and philosophy. Studied theology after his entrance in the order. In , Giacomo was send to Poland, to help organizing a new Capuchin province. After positive initial reports, Giacomo was made general commissioner of the Capuchin mission in Poland, where he did much to establish a Capuchin network and tried to convert Protestants and Orthodox Christians to the Catholic faith.
Jacobus de Ravensburg fl. Eubel, Geschichte der Oberd. Minoritenprovinz , ; Landmann, Franziskanische Studien 15 , note Francisci Oppositum Annalibus Capucinorum R. Zachariae Boverii Slicher van Bath, De bezinning op het verleden in Latijns America, Auteurs, verhalen en lezers Groningen, , passim. Sbaralea, Suppl. III, n. For more information on their argument and on other 'reconstructions' of the authorship of the Latin and vernacular MvC , see under Joannes de Caulibus below.
III, ; Wadding, Script. Dominikanerkloster f. Born in Bayonne France in a noble family. He entered the Franciscan order around and subsequently made his way Spain, first to Seville and later to the court of Charles V, where he became a palace priest. In , he encountered Antonio de Ciudad Rodrigo, who convinced him to become a missionary in New Spain Mexico , where Tastera arrived in Jacobus de Thederixiis de Bononia later fourteenth century.
Important theologian and controversialist. Probably has to be identified with Diego Moxena. This implies that he previously had gone through the lectorate program, which would put his date of birth around or shortly before. In , he receives permission to pursue a theology degree at a studium generale. Not known when he reached the magisterium , yet he was one of the candidates for a theology chair at the University of Salamanca in If the identification with Diego Moxena is correct, he played a significant role during the later phases of the great schism and at the Council of Constance.
He also would have convinced king Ferdinand I of Aragon to do the same. Under the name of Diego de Valencia, he is the author, and partly the destinator, of a range of poems that later were assembled in the Cancionero of Juan Alfonso de Baena, which is one of the most important Castilian poetic anthologies of the early fifteenth century. Under the name Diego Moxena, he has left a range of theological works, religious songs,as well as works that have a bearing on the conciliar movement during the council of Constance. Actae Conc. Constanciensi : a. Casanatense ff. Satorre Palma de Majorca, MS Rome Bibl.
This work, which used to be ascribed to Ramon Lull and Ramon Astruc de Cortyelles, has received several editions. These songs have been edited without ascription to Diego in: J. Observant friar from Palma. Joined the order in the Jesus extramuros friary near Palma. Studied arts and theology in Ciudadela de Menorca and in Palma. Respected musician and especially known as organist in the local cathedral.
He functioned as magister studium, guardian of the Inca friary, and provincial definitor. After a brain hemorrhage in or , which left him blind, he devoted himself to mental prayer. He died on November 20, in the Palma San Francisco friary. Gelabert, I, no. Bonaventure Lyon, Lector in Sens, Auxerre, Troyes.
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He embarked on further studies in Rouen, Paris and Metz. A papal bull of pope Urban V asked for him to receive the magister title. Lithuanian friar. Studied in Ferrara. Antiquitas Minorum conventualium in Magno Ducatu Lithuaniae, eiusq[ue] a provincia Poloniae, et Russiae independentia, una cum rationibus eorum, qui nunc in eo sunt conventuum in suam provinciam restituendorum Vilnius: Typis Franciscanis, Review in Archivum Franciscanum Historicum Jan.
Jacobus Fuhrer fl. Born in Zwickau, he studied for his order at the University of Wittenberg, where he was Baccalaureus Biblicus 29 August, , Baccalaureus Sententiarum early and Baccalaureus Formatus by 22 November of that same year. In the mean time, he came under the influence of Lutheranism.
Luther apparently mentioned him in a letter of 3 October , calling him a modest man of a superior mind. To take him away from these Lutheran influences, his order superiors sent Jacob to the St. Yet Jacob Fuhrer continued to express his reformist ideas to fellow friars and lay people in his preaching. Eventually, the order asked him to retract his points of view, whereupon Jacob left the order. He can be traced there until Jacobus Garcius Giacomo Garzi da Ravenna, fl.
Studied at the Collegium S. Bonaventurae, baccalaureus conventus in Bologna, regent lector in the Cesena, Ferrara and Prague. Abbreviator of one of the moral theology handbook of Mastrius. Also prominent Lenten preacher in a large number of Italian towns, and guardian of the Ravenna and Parma friaries.
Compendium totius theologiae moralis ad. Bartolomaei Mastrii de Meldula Per magistrum f. Friar from Hainault. Theologian, philosopher, historian and mathematician. Was responsible for the production of the Annales, sive chronica comitatus Hannoniae tribus tomis. There exist several redactions, excerpts and translations. III, fol. Iacobi de Guisia Annales historiae illustrium principum Hanoniae ed.
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XVI , ed. French friar from the Parisian province. Fulfilled several administrative functions: provincial, general definitor , commissioner and general visitator. Paradisus Castitatis sive Claustrum Monialium Paris, [found in Paris, BN; amounts to a heavily documented historical and canonical study. DSpir II, ]. After the rituals and ceremonies for reception and profession of friars, nuns etc. The work contains a dedicatory letter by Jacques Saleur, secretary of La Froigne]. Italian friar from Reggio Calabria. Born in Provincial minister of the Calabrian Observance province. He died in Naples in He left behind at least three works with a pastoral and spiritual intent, comparable with those of Cherubino da Spoleto.
Lalomia, 3 Vols. See also below under De la arti supra de beni moriri. De la arti supra de beni moriri. Capitulo vicesimo septimo. Scala de virtuti et via de paradiso , ed. Gaetano Lalomia Soveria Mannelli: Rubbettino, Tra materiale novellistico e motivi edificanti topici Roma: Aracne, Jacobus Montanarius de Bagnacavallo Giacomo Montanari, d. Studies at the Collegium S.
Bonaventurae in Rome and baccalaureus conventus of the same college. Professor of Metaphysics at the university of Bologna. Provincial minister of the Orient and Hungary, order procurator, vicar general and elected Minister General in During his time as minister general, he wrote a large number of pastoral letters in part during his visitation journeys and he was instrumental in reforming the Conventual study system. Author of Exercitia spiritualia and comparable works.
Dedicated to Pope Paul V. Lettera pastorale Large and important letter, written shortly after his election as minister general. With instructions concerning spiritual life, mental prayer and religious reform in the Conventual branch. Reformatio studiorum Ord. Fratrum Min. Sancti Francisci a reuerendissimo P. Florence: Pietro Cecconcelli, Acta Capituli Provincialis Argentoratensis, Herbipoli congregati Cologne: Petrus von Brachel, Essendo gionto Written from Brugnoli in the Provence on 19 May Acta Capituli Provincialis Bononiensis celebrati Parmae die Babilionia vitiorum omnium.
Giovanni Franchini, Bibliosofia e memorie letterarie di scrittori Francescani conventuali Ch'hanno scritto dopo 'Anno Modena: Eredi Soliani Stampatori, , ; Giovanni Benedetto Mittarelli, De literatura Faventinorum, sive De viris doctis et scriptoribus urbis Faventiae. Born in Perugia, early 15th century. Several times guardian of the Sta Maria degli Angeli convent of Assisi , , the convent of Perugia and that of Terni , Died at the convent of Monterupido in Perugia on March 6, Produced in the Umbrian dialect a Specchio de l'ordine minore or La Franceschina ca.
Giacomo presented the history of the Observant movement as the continuation of the spiritual quest to keep alive the primitive Franciscan ideals. Very exemplary approach; heavy emphasis on importance of visions and apparitions. Several sixteenth century manuscripts contain series of meaningful illustrations reproduced in the critical edition of Cavanna. Cavanna, 2 Vols. Florence, Cavanna, AFH 44 , ; J. Emanuela Sesti, 2 Vols. Mario Sensi S. Jacobus Ongarelli de Padua Giacomo Ungarelli, d. Italian friar from Padua. Member of the Observant province of St.
Studied theology and canon law at Padua, before he became lector at the Santo Spirito convent of Ferrara. Active as itinerant apostolic preacher in the Romagna, the March of Ancona, and Umbria. Re-invigorated the Mons Pietatis of Terni in Venice, Cf. AFH 78 , Chronotaxis … , ed. Annales Almae Provinciae.. Festschrift Michael Bihl ,ed. Ignatius Freudenreich Colmar, , Obtained the licence of theology in Paris in and was doctor theologiae in In , he collaborated on an edition of the Reportata super sententias of John Duns Scotus.
Farge, Biographical Register , no. This manuscript known as the 'Ryman manuscript'. Most of the poems in this manuscript are of Ryman's hand. These fragments might once have been part of the other manuscript. Richard Leighton Greene, 2nd Ed. Oxford, [includes from the 'Ryman manuscript']. Texte und Untersuchungen zur englischen Philologie, 30 Frankfurt a. Atti del Convegno internazionale di studi Palermo, dicembre , ed. Palermo, ; John C. Szittya , ed. Seeta Chaganti New York: Fordham, , Jakub Rimar OFM [obs. Hlavacek, Ptr R. Jacobus Rogerus Giacomo Rogeri da Napoli, fl.
Officium parvum S. Jacobus Schwederich fl. Friar active in Erfurt, defended the stigmata of Francis against Luther. Already in he held a disputation in Wittenberg during the Franciscan provincial chapter in which he discussed Christian knighthood and the wounds of Francis Cf. Doelle, 'Die Observanzbewegung', f. In , Schwederich published a pamphlet on the origin of religious orders and on the penalties that awaited those who defected.
He also is the author of a number of sermons. Jacobi Suederici Theologi collectaniolum de religiosorum origine et eorundem per mundum multiplicatione, ac a ceteris vulgaribus per habitus, signa et ritus discrimine. De apostatarum quoque et eis cooperantium piaculo simul ac punitione ex diversis hinc inde comportatum Dresden, This work discussed in Schlageter , Meier, Antonianum , 5 p. Italian friar from Montalcino near Siena , theologian, inquisitor, bischop of Narni , Chiusi and Grosseta from onwards.
Entered the order in , at the age of Was ordained priest on 21 December Thereafter sent to Bologna and Paris for his lectorate course. On 15 November he obtained the grade of master of theology. Afterwards, he fulfilled several administrative and inquisitorial positions at the provincial level: custodian of the Florentine custody in , and of the Siena custody in Between and he was inquisitor for Tuscany, a function he fulfilled for the Siena area in Appointed bishop of Narni in In order to curtail the activities of the remaining Michaelists partisans of the former minisster general Michael of Cesena , he prompted Andrea Ricci de Firenze to compile a Tractatus contra Fraticellos.
Jacob was transferred to the episcopal see of Chiusi in , and to the see of Grosseta in Died in the latter diocese in Catiglione della Pascaia, sometime in June Pietro F 32 f. Extracts of the autobiography can be found on pp. Franciscan friar in Frankfurt a. Received his licence in and was regent master for an unusual long period thereafter according to Parisian documents between [Paris BN Lat. Was very active in theology faculty politics and represented the University of Paris at the trial of Joan of Arc at Rouen. III, ; G.
Italian friar, originating from a family of notaries in Tresanti Montespertoli, near Florence. Entered the order at the convent of S. Francesco di Castelfiorentino Florence custody. Active as lector in the St. Croce convent of Florence at least in the years ,where he produced for his students a compilatory commentary on the Sentences lectura compilata super 4 libros Sententiarum. This work is an assemblation of positions of predominantly Parisian Franciscan doctors. He follows closely the systems of Bonaventure and Richard of Mediavila, the authors he used most.
Only in book 4 does he cite Duns Scotus. Cenci DHGE XXVI, argues that Jacob was exposed to the teachings of these authorities during his own four-year lectorate studies at the Paris studium generale probably in the late s or the early s. Croce convent. See Cenci, , for further info on content and structure of the Lectura. He produced a series of Quadragesimal sermons 32 according to Bartholomew of Pisa, 42 according to Mariano of Florence, 12 according to others. A collection of these was kept at a Venetian seminary in Thereafter, this manuscript disappears from sight.
Maybe some of his sermons survived in other manuscripts see below. Giusto a Volterra 3 sermoni ; a ff. Per ogni santo compose tre sermoni; tre per la traslazione di S. Francesco, 7 per la sua festa. Jacob probably died shortly after , and was buried in the convent church of the Poor Clares of Castelfiorentino, where he probably had been active as confessor during his last years he appears as a witness in notarial acts at Castelfiorentino from August onwards, which indicates that he was a member of the Franciscan friary there. Soppr F. Other manuscripts that I still have to check: Assisi, Comm: ff.
Chigi C. Patriarcale N. Some of his sermons, as well as the incipits and explicits of some others have been printed. See: V. Min d. Anthony ; B. Distelbrink, Coll. See also Cenci Sbaralea, Supplementum II, 21; A. Giacomo da Tresanti, lettore, predicatore d. Rassegna dantesca n. German friar from Colmar, Augsburg, or Zengg Croatia. Nothing is known about his life. What we do know is that he produced a German printed edition of the Breviarium Romanum on request of the Croatian nobleman Christoph Frangepan, count of Zengg and Madrus, and his Augsburg wife Apollonia.
The work of Jacob predominantly means to provide people and esp. Jacob apparently reached back to already existing German translations of the Psalter and the Hymns [cf. Das deutsch roemisch Brevier Venice: Gregorius de Gregoriis, [work contains several illustrations]. Verfasserlexikon 2 nd ed. X , Allegedly because of the brutal death of his young wife, Jacopone radically changed his life; living for some time as a lay penitent before joining a Franciscan tertiary group.
Eventually, in , he entered the first order, where he might have become priest by Jacopone quickly became involved with the Spirituals and their cause for poverty and Church reform; he even signed a declaration which asked for the deposition of Boniface VIII and the convocation of a general council. As a result, he was excommunicated and confined to Palestrina. Lorenzo at Collazzone near Todi , where he probably died in December Jacopone is famous for his 92 to vernacular Laude spirituali dealing with all kinds of moral, spiritual and mystical issues, and matters pertaining to Franciscan poverty and discipline as well as for his letters such as the Latin letter to Giovanni della Verna, which includes one of his vernacular laude lauda 63 , and several Latin prose works such as the Tractatus , and Dicta or Verba , the attribution of which still keeps some scholars in doubt, although they betray a strong affinity with the vernacular works and to some extent represent older versions of the vernacular texts.
Jacopone might also be the author of the Stabat Mater , even though some present-day scholars would like to attribute this sequens to an unknown contemporary Franciscan friar or to Bonaventure. The manuscripts of his Laudario are listed in: Catalogo dei manoscritti del Laudario di Iacopone da Todi , ed. Berlin, Hamilton f. Chiesa Nuova 16 13 XV ff. Q ff. A ff. Riccardiana ff. XI, ff. Del Collegio di S. IX, ff. Centrale Conv. Chiesa Nuova 8 ff. Verba Fratris Iacobi de Tuderto : a. Berlin, Staatsbibliothek Theol. For a full overview, see, E. The medieval vernacular version Detti , which is based on the Latin text, can be found in fourteen manuscripts.
For a complete overview, see E. Laude di Fra Jacopone da Todi , ed. Francesco Bonaccorsi Florence, ; Le laude, secondo la stampa fiorentina del , ed. Ferri Bari, ; Laudi, trattato e detti , ed. Ageno Florence, ; Laude , ed. Tractatus utilissimus et sufficientissimus qualiter homo potest cito pervenire ad cognitionem veritatis , ed.
Verba , ed. The work later received an Italian adaptation possibly by Feo Balcari. This vernacular version also received several editions, a. The major theme of the Tractatus , which is heavily inspired by the Mystica Theologia of Pseudo Dionysius, puts full emphasis on love for God, and stresses the need for abandoning all attention and love for intermediate objects ed. Et si postea redeant ad animam ista media que reliquerat, non possunt eam intrare, quia plena est domus et hospitium iam captum est ab ipso divino amore et ligati sunt omnes affectus.
Verba Fratris Iacobi de Tuderto , ed. The Latin text has received various other modern editions. Ageno, replete with Italian translation ; Tractatus utilissimus; Verba ed. The latin text was in circulation shortly after the death of Jacopone. Several versions of the Latin text, as well as some vernacular adaptations appeared thereafter a.
See for these texts in hagiographical accounts on Jacopone Le vite antiche di Iacopone da Todi , ed.
The original medieval vernacular version also has received several early modern and modern editions, a. Unde deberet homo non tantum se odire, sed deberet velle ab omnibus odiri. Unde per hoc venitur ad quietem anime. In primo habet anima cognitionem suorum peccatorum et lacrimas compunctionis que ducunt eam prope desperationem.
In secundo transit ad considerandam redemptionem Salvatoris, in quo habet lacrimas compassionis ad Christum. In tertio transit ad amorem, et iste status habet tres partes: in prima, scilicet in sui principio, incohat amare et habet lacrimas devotionis; in secunda parte id est in perseverantia huius status, augetur amor et habet lacrimas simplices, quia sunt sine violentia et nescit quare sibi obveniunt; in tertia parte, que dicitur status consummatus, stat anima in atriis Domini et gustat de vita eterna et perdit lacrimas.
Primam, que est extra se, habet cum mundo. Hec vincitur non amando res mundi … Secundam pugnam, que est iuxta se, habet cum sensibus corporis … Tertiam pugnam, que est intra se, habet anima cum affectionibus sive passionibus suis, que sunt gaudium, spes, timor et dolor … Quartam pugnam, que est supra se, et est maior omnium predictarum, habet anima cum Deo hoc modo: quia assumit magnam et arduam sollicitudinem tenere se cum Deo.
Et considerans se factam ad eius imaginem et similitudinem et quod Deus vult hospitari in ea, toto suo conamine cavet ne aliquid in se recipiat quod offendat oculos maiestatis divine, et etiam ne exeat ad aliquid quod displiceat Deo. Stabat Mater , edited in Analecta hymnica medii aevi , ed. Guido Maria Dreves, 55 Vols.
Leipzig, II, The Stabat Mater had an immense popularity during the closing centuries of the Middle Ages and thereafter. It also received versions in most European vernaculars. For other translations, see also the editions section above. Le vite antiche di Jacopone da Todi , ed. Studi di cultura classica e medievale in onore di Ubaldo Pizzani , ed. Wadding, Annales , ad.
Peck Gregory, The Fool of God. Jacopone da Todi Alabama, ; Todi per Jacopone-Mostra documentaria delle iniziative delle rappresentazioni e delle celebrazioni jacoponiche tenute a Todi dal al Todi, ; E. Antonianum, ; F. Malato, Vol. I Rome, , ; P. Le opere, I: dalle origine al cinquecento , ed. Asor Rosa Torino, Einaudi, , ; V. Atti del V Convegno internazionale di Onomastica e Letteratura , ed. Maria Giovanna Arcamone et al. I rioni di S. Prassede e S. Scuola Norm. Pisa s. Atti del Convegno di Studi, Roma marzo , ed.
Un'alternativa Francescana , Bibliotheca seraphico-capuccina, 78 Roma: Ist. Atti del Convegno di studi Stroncone-Todi, settembre , ed. Luigi Borriello, Maria R. Fontes, M. La rinuncia al papato nella storia del diritto e della chiesa , Biblioteca della Rivista di Storia e Letteratura Religiosa.
Studi, 29 Florence: Leo S. Bartoli, W. Mastromatteo Bologna: Edizione Dehoniane, , Author of the Speculum Minorum. Cracow: Typis Universitatis, Also later editions. Jeremias Bucci Geremia Bucchi da Udine, fl. While at Prague, Geremia took the occasion to launch an attack against the Lutherans present there. He died either in Ronciglione or in Florence on 14 November Mariae Virginis Libri Sex , which made it to the printing press at Venice in Rome, , ; Wadding, Annales ed.
I, 27; Analecta Franciscana 5 , lxviii-lxxi, ciii-cviii; A. XXVII, f. Cisneros, , 93 no. Friar of creole descent.
Joined the order around Known for his theological and mathematical skills. Francisco de Guatemala.
Exercicio del Via-Crucis, conforme al breve de nuestro SSmo. Novena del gloriosa patriarca serafin humano, fundador de las tres Ordenes, N. Guatemala, Eleanor B. Adams Washington D. Hungarian friar and missionary among the Mongols and the Cumans. A mission acount of his hand has been edited in AFH 17 , Franciscan computist in the Bacon and Roger of Leicester tradition.
Joannes Adriaens vander Goude ca. Apparently born in Gouda, The Netherlands. Possibly to be identified with the student listed at Louvain University on 29 August and on 4 April as being of slender means and taken in by the Standonck Pedagogium. It is there that he finishes in Een gouden Cyborie and in Dat Symbolum des heyligen kersten geloofs. Een gouden cyborie des weerdigen H. Sacraments des outaers. In welcke dat allen simpelen ende ongheleerden menschen ghetoont wort, die warachticheyt ende weerdicheyt des heylighen Sacraments, met veel schoone ende profitelijcke leeringhen, allen Christen menschen grootelijck van noode.
The work was written in response to Protestant attacks on the Catholic Eucharist doctrine and provides in five parts tracttaetkens what Christians have to know and understand about the sacrament. Dat Symbolum des heyligen kersten geloofs, int latijn gheintituleert Quicunque vult salvus esse: bescreven vanden heylighen Bisschop Athanasius ende uutgeleyt in onse duytsche tale, duer broeder Ian Adriaens, van der Goude, Minrebroeder tot Mechelen Antwerp: Gregorius De Bonte, After a prologue,which also relates Athanasius's persecution, the work provides in two parts explications about the Trinity and about Christ's humanity.
Wolfgang Schmitz, Het aandeel der Minderbroeders in onze middeleeuwse literatuur. Spanish friar: encyclopaedist, historiographer, educator. Born at Zamora c. Might have engaged in artes studies at the University of Salamanca before he joined the Friars Minor. Might even have received some of the minor orders and lived in Madrid around before he took the Franciscan habit cf.
After joining the Friars Minor c. Possibly between [proposals for a later date have been made in recent literature]. Gill's education in Paris probably implied a full lectorate course and not a course leading to the magisterium , as is sometimes said in the available studies. Introduction of M. Taught in Toulouse and, after his return to Spain, in the Franciscan studium of Zamora. Became involved in educational and diplomatic activities at the court of Alfonso X of Castilia. Throughout, Gil was very much part of the scientific culture of the Castilian court, with its historiographical, medical, linguistical and geographical interests.
Later in life, Gil was active as custos of the Zamora custody, and as provincial minister c. He died after Gil was a prolific author in his own right. He wrote for instance: Liber illustrium personarum qui et historiae canonicae et civilis videlicet patriarchum. Several autograph manuscripts of Gil that were kept in the Zamora convent did not survive the reduction of the monasteries in On the basis of that list, and on the basis of other manuscript collections and bibliographical guides, the following provisional list can be made:.
Communal, XIV etc. It is a big, alphabetically organised encyclopedia on people, animals, minerals etc. Liber illustrium personarum qui et historiae canonicae et civilis videlicet patriarchum. Prophetarum, apostolorum, et evangelistarum, martyrum et confessorum, virginum et viduarum et aliarum sanctarum personarum : Burgo de Osma, Catedral 18 XV ff.
IX]; Madrid, Nac. A-B, fragm. Officium Almifluae Virginis : Madrid, Bib. Liber Almiflui Dei Filii J. Christi : Naples, Naz. Liber de Praeconiis Hispanie : In all at least eleven manuscripts. Madrid, Nac. Fita, in: Monumentos antiguos de la Iglesia compostelana Madrid, ,; F. Vita ed.
Liber illustrium personarum fragmenta. Vitoria-Gasteiz, II, Mare magnum de escrituras. Dictaminis epithalamium. Libro de las personas ilustres. Dictaminis Epithalamium , ed. AIA 39 , ]. Contra Venena et Animalia Venenosa , ed. Historia Naturalis , ed. Rose, Die Hss. Bibliothek zu Berlin. Verzeichnis der lat. II,3 Berlin, , De preconiis Hispaniae. Estudio preliminar y edicion critica , ed.
Liber de Arte Musica , ed. Blasius, II, Michel Robert-Tissot, Corpus scriptorum de musica, vol. See also AIA 42 , Fita ed. BHL , n. Cirot ed. Antonio de Segovia y de fr. El Prosodion de Iohannis Aegidii Zamorensis. XIII , ed. Several of the edited legends and biographies mentioned above probably are part of the Liber Illustrium Personarum.
Without studying these editions I can not give more information. Juan de Zamora. De preconiis Hispanie. VI Paris, , ; F. Estudio del Ms. Quilis and H. Romero , ; F. Maria do Rosario Themudo Barata Azevedo et al. II Lisbon, ; B. An encyclopedia , ; Joseph F. This lemma on Juan Gil still needs a lot of work, especially to integrate the insights of the latest studies.
Possibly theology studies afterwards in Salamanca before he became a lector in the San Juan Bautista friary of Zamora. In this period he also embarked on large preaching journeys throughout Spain, to Portugal, but also elsewhere Rome, Paris. In , he was back in Zamora, where he became active as convent preacher. He became involved with the foundaton of the San Diego friary of Seville and stayed there between and , after which he moved for some time to Portugal.