At first glance this painting presents a flat black surface. But longer viewing reveals more than one shade of black and an underlying geometric structure. Reinhardt has divided the canvas into a three-by-three grid of squares. The black in each corner square has a reddish tone; the shape between them formed by the center squares is bluish-black in its vertical bar and greenish-black in its horizontal bar. Reinhardt tried to produce what he described as "a pure, abstract, non-objective, timeless, spaceless, changeless, relationless, disinterested painting—an object that is self-conscious no unconsciousness , ideal, transcendent, aware of no thing but art.
Abstract Painting contains three distinct shades of black, which become visible only after prolonged looking.
Reinhardt was intensely sensitive to such subtle variations. Lustrous black and dull black, black in sunlight and black in shadow. In the last ten years of his life, Reinhardt focused solely on square, black paintings. In his unpublished writings, the artist indicates that these pictures relate aesthetically to monotonal Chinese paintings rather than Western painting's concepts of light and dark.
These canvases are intentionally enigmatic, painted to resist interpretation and to represent the beginning of a new way of seeing and thinking about art. In , Reinhardt described them thus: A square neutral, shapeless canvas, five feet wide, five feet high, as high as a man, as wide as a man's outstretched arms not large, not small, sizeless , trisected no composition , one horizontal form negating one vertical form formless, no top, no bottom, directionless , three more or less dark lightless no—contrasting colorless colors, brushwork brushed out to remove brushwork, a matte, flat, free—hand, painted surface glossless, textureless, non—linear, no hard-edge, no soft edge which does not reflect its surroundings—a pure, abstract, non—objective, timeless, spaceless, changeless, relationless, disinterested painting—an object that is self—conscious no unconsciousness ideal, transcendent, aware of no thing but art absolutely no anti—art.
- World War 2 Into The Balkans;
- Design of Incentive Systems: Experimental Approach to Incentive and Sorting Effects (Contributions to Management Science).
- The Benson Murder Case (Philo Vance Mystery).
To the hasty viewer, Abstract Painting must present a flat blackness. But the work holds more than one shade of black, and longer viewing reveals an abstract geometrical image. The black in each corner square has a reddish tone; the shape between them—a cross, filling the center square of the canvas and the square in the middle of each side—is a bluish black in its vertical bar and a greenish black in its horizontal one. In graduate school Reinhardt studied art history, a topic about which he knew more than perhaps any other artist of his generation.
Perhaps his interest in discovering the ultimate manifestation of purity in art had as much to do with intellectual and spiritual curiosity as with his desire to define his own relevance to the continuum of art history.
When he first began exhibiting his paintings in New York in the s, they were in line with the dominant emerging style of the time, Abstract Expressionism. They were painterly, gestural, full of vivid colors and alive with abstract markings. Less than a decade later he passionately disavowed all of those things, publishing a dogmatic, almost comically specific, often contradictory manifesto describing the precise method of making pure, modern paintings: paintings that incidentally were nothing like his own early works.
Ad Reinhardt - Abstract Painting, Oil on canvas.
Dismantling the Avant-Garde
To understand the cultural climate in which Reinhardt worked, it helps to look back at the history of Modernism. What happened to precipitate this change in the influence of American art?
- Every Good Thing: Talks from the 1997 BYU Womens Conference?
- Light Up The Sky.
- "Hard to Picture: A Tribute to Ad Reinhardt" at MUDAM (Contemporary Art Daily).
It had more to do with politics than with art. This democratically elected government instituted wide-ranging social, political and economic reforms that led to vast cultural changes throughout Germany.
Art as Art: The Selected Writings
Within this transformative environment German Modernism flourished. The Bauhaus was established the same year as the Weimer Republic, and in the same city, and over the next 14 years Germany evolved into a leading progressive force in the arts. Ad Reinhardt - Newsprint Collage, Cut-and-pasted printed paper and black paper on board. MoMA Collection. When the stock market crashed in , Germany, like most other Western countries, saw its economy collapse. The ensuing global depression caused much frustration in the lives of regular working people. When the Nazi Regime came into power in Germany in , it was under the guise of restoring Germany to its historic greatness and reversing the trends of the recent past.
One of the first things the Nazi Party did was exert influence over German culture. Modern art was a key target. Led by Adolf Hitler, the Nazis developed a concept of pure German art. It included only traditional, classical art that adhered to their definition of racial and nationalistic identity. Any art outside of that definition was called degenerate. So began an exodus of avant-garde artists from Germany.
Art as Art: The Selected Writings by Ad Reinhardt
And as Nazi influence widened beyond Germany, modern artists across Europe found themselves under the same persecution as well. Ad Reinhardt - Study for a Painting, Gouache on paper. Throughout the late s and early s, any European modern artist with the means found a way to go abroad. As one of the only global capitals not under siege by fascist powers, New York City became a beacon for avant-garde artists from around the world.
Those newly arriving artists mingled with the already vibrant New York abstract art scene, which included American-born artists like Jackson Pollock as well as artists like Willem de Kooning and Arshile Gorky who had immigrated there after World War I. Out of this culture the first American Modernist art movements emerged. He was fully engaged with the vibrant mix of political, philosophical, social and cultural conversations that were taking place in this diverse, international community. He participated in protests and took part in the scene in every conceivable way.
But he disagreed with his contemporaries in one fundamental way. While they considered their lives and their art to be intertwined as one holistic experience, Reinhardt believed that was the wrong path. Life is life. Essentially he was looking for the art version of God. Reinhardt sought the invariant through negation, meaning that rather than defining what pure art is he defined what pure art is not.