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The Coming Revolution. Ben Reynolds. Summary: Aftershock - Robert B. Inequality in America. Uri Dadush. Finley Eversole. Multinational corporation and third world development. Rex became increasingly radical after and declared itself part of the Waffen SS. After the German invasion of the Soviet Union, Rex helped support the creation of a military unit to fight alongside German troops on the Eastern Front, the Walloon Legion , and a similar Flemish Legion was created in Flanders.
Both began as formations in the German regular army but would eventually become part of the Waffen SS. Although the pre-war Belgian government went into exile in , the Belgian civil service was left in place for much of the occupation.
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The Committee of Secretaries-General , an administrative panel of civil servants, was created to coordinate the state's activities and, although it was intended to be a purely techocratic institution, has been accused of helping implement German occupation policies. The Belgian police have also been accused of collaborating during the occupation, especially in The Holocaust in Belgium. The Japanese invasion was assisted by Burmese nationalists known as Burma Independence Army, who hoped for independence. The Japanese set up several puppet regimes in occupied Chinese territories.
Similar to Manchukuo in its supposed ethnic identity, Mengjiang Mengkukuo was set up in late Wang Kemin 's collaborationist Provisional Government of the Republic of China was set up in Beijing in following the start of full-scale military operations between China and Japan , another puppet regime was the Reformed Government of the Republic of China , setup in Nanjing in The Wang Jingwei collaborationist government, established in , "consolidated" these regimes, though in reality neither Wang's government nor the constituent governments had any autonomy, although the military of the Wang Jingwei Government was equipped by the Japanese with planes, cannons, tanks, boats, and German-style stahlhelm already widely used by the National Revolutionary Army , the "official" army of the Republic of China.
Great numbers of collaborationist troops were men originally serving in warlord forces within the National Revolutionary Army who had defected when facing both Communists and Japanese as enemies. Although its manpower was very large, the soldiers were very ineffective compared to NRA soldiers due to low morale for being considered as " Hanjian ". Although certain collaborationist forces had limited battlefield presence during the Second Sino-Japanese War , most were relegated to behind-the-line duties.
The Wang Jingwei government was disbanded after Japanese surrender to Allies in , and Manchukuo and Mengjiang were destroyed by Soviet troops in the invasion of Manchuria. With the German annexation of Czechoslovakia between and , the country was divided.
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Most of the Czech part of pre-war Czechoslovakia was reconstituted into Bohemia and Moravia , a protectorate of Nazi Germany. The Protectorate had its own military forces, including a battalion ' Government Army ', police and gendarmerie. The majority of the 'government army' was sent to Northern Italy in as labor and guard troops. Its commanding officer, Jaroslav Eminger , was tried and acquitted on charges of collaboration following World War II, some members of the force engaged in active resistance operations simultaneous with their service in the army, and — in the waning days of the conflict — elements of the army joined in the Prague uprising.
The Slovak Republic existed on roughly the same territory as present-day Slovakia with the exception of the southern and eastern parts of present-day Slovakia. At on 9 April Danish standard time , German forces crossed the border into neutral Denmark, in violation of a German—Danish treaty of non-aggression signed the previous year. After two hours the Danish government surrendered , believing that resistance was useless and hoping to work out an advantageous agreement with Germany.
As a result of the cooperative attitude of the Danish authorities, German officials claimed that they would "respect Danish sovereignty and territorial integrity, as well as neutrality. The government remained intact and the parliament continued to function more or less as it had before, maintaining control over domestic policy.
Prior to, during and after the war Denmark enforced a restrictive refugee policy and handed Jewish refugees that managed to get over the border over to German authorities. Newspaper articles and news reports "which might jeopardize German-Danish relations" were outlawed. The Danish government complied and directed the police to arrest communists using secret registers.
On 22 August , the Danish parliament passed the Communist Law , outlawing the communist party and communist activities, in another violation of the Danish constitution. In , about half of the imprisoned communists were transferred to Stutthof concentration camp , where 22 of them died.
According to Danish law, it was not illegal to join a foreign army, but active recruiting on Danish soil was illegal. German authorities disregarded this law and began recruiting efforts and ultimately 12, Danish citizens volunteered for German army duty of which 6, were approved for service. Industrial production and trade was, partly due to geopolitical reality and economic necessity, redirected towards Germany.
Many government officials saw expanded trade with Germany as vital to maintaining social order in Denmark. In return for these concessions, the Danish cabinet rejected German demands for legislation discriminating against Denmark's Jewish minority. Demands to introduce the death penalty were likewise rebuffed and so were German demands to allow German military courts jurisdiction over Danish citizens and demands for the transfer of Danish army units to German military use.
Although the Estonian Self-Administration did not have complete freedom of action, it exercised a significant measure of autonomy, within the framework of German policy, political, racial and economic. Thus, the Directors exercised their powers pursuant to the laws and regulations of the Republic of Estonia , but only to the extent that these had not been repealed or amended by the German military command.
The Director's position was voluntary. The Self-Administration's autonomy enabled it to maintain police structures that cooperated with the Germans in rounding up and killing Jews and Roma and in seeking out and killing Estonians deemed to be opponents of the occupiers, and it was ultimately incorporated into the Estonian Security Police and SD.
It also extended to the unlawful conscription of Estonians for forced labor or for military service under German command. Guarded by the above-listed formations, 15, Soviet POWs died in Estonia: some through neglect and mistreatment and some through execution. It also participated in Porajmos , the extermination of Roma people, and in the extermination of other "undesirables. In , President Jacques Chirac officially recognized the responsibility of the French state for the deportation of Jews during the war, in particular the more than 13, victims the Vel' d'Hiv Roundup of July , during which Laval decided, of his own volition and without being requested by the occupying German authorities , to deport children along with their parents.
Only 2, of the deported Jews survived the war. The Battle of Marseille was another event during which the French police assisted the Gestapo in a massive raid, which included an urban reshaping plan involving the destruction of a whole neighbourhood in the popular Old Port.
Some few collaborators were tried in the s for crimes against humanity Paul Touvier , etc. Debates concerning state collaboration remain, in , very strong in France. French workers at naval bases provided the Kriegsmarine with an essential workforce, thereby supporting Nazi Germany in the Battle of the Atlantic. By , the Kriegsmarine's planning had presumed that they had time to build up resources before war started. When France fell and the ports of Brest , Lorient and St Nazaire became available, there were insufficient Germans to man these repair and maintenance facilities, so huge reliance was made on the French workforce.
At the end of , the Kriegsmarine requested 2, skilled workers from Wilhemshaven to work in bases on the Atlantic coast, but this was out of a total available workforce of only 3, This same request included men skilled in machinery and engine building, but there were only people with these skills in Wilhemshaven. This massive deficit was made up with French naval dockyard workers. In February , the naval dockyard at Brest had only German workers, compared with 6, French workers.
In April , French workers replaced defective superheater tubes on the Scharnhorst , carrying out the work slowly but, in the opinion of Scharnhorst's captain, to a better standard than could be obtained in the yards in Germany. An assessment commissioned by Vizeadmiral Walter Matthiae in October of the potential effect of withdrawal of French dockyard workers considered possible after 32 French fatalities in an air raid at Keroman Submarine Base stated that all repairs on the surface fleet would cease and U-boat repairs would be cut by 30 per cent.
Admiral Darlan stated, on 30 September , that it was useless to decline German requests for collaboration. In September , Rear Admiral Germain Paul Jardel, commander of the French navy in the occupied zone stated "We have a special interest in that the workers at our arsenals work, and that they work in the arsenals and not in Germany.
A small number objected to carrying out war work but the majority were found by the Germans to be willing and efficient workers. At the outbreak of the war they left France and declared support for Germany. On 22 September , an agreement was signed Between Vichy and the Japanese, which allowed the Japanese to station no more than 6, troops in Indochina, and never have more than 25, transiting the colony. Rights were given for three airfields, with all other Japanese forces forbidden to enter Indochina without Vichy consent.
It granted the Japanese eight airfields, allowed them to have more troops present, and to use the Indochinese financial system, in return for a fragile French autonomy. The French colonial government had largely stayed in place, as the Vichy government was on reasonably friendly terms with Japan. The Japanese permitted the French to put down nationalist rebellions in The Japanese occupation forces kept the French Indochina under nominal rule of Vichy France until March , when the French colonial administration was overthrown, and the Japanese supported the establishment of Empire of Vietnam , Kingdom of Kampuchea and Kingdom of Laos as Japanese puppet states.
Vietnamese militia were used to assist the Japanese. A plan to create a Cambodian volunteer force was not realized due to Japanese surrender. The four units made up a total of 3, men; with German cadres. After the German invasion of Greece, a Nazi-held government was put in place. All three quisling prime ministers, Georgios Tsolakoglou , Konstantinos Logothetopoulos and Ioannis Rallis , cooperated with the Axis authorities. Although their administrations did not directly assist the occupation forces, they collaborated with the German forces, creating armed "anti-communist" and "anti-gangster" paramilitary organisations such as the Security Battalions and others.
German special units. About one thousand Greeks from Greece and more from the Soviet Union, ostensibly avenging their ethnic persecution from Soviet authorities, joined the Waffen-SS, mostly in Ukrainian divisions. A special case was that of the infamous Ukrainian-Greek Sevastianos Foulidis , a fanatical anti-communist who had been recruited by the Abwehr as early as and became an official of the Wehrmacht, with extensive action in intelligence and agitation work in the Eastern front. Hong Kong was a British crown colony before its occupation by Japanese. During the Japanese rule, former members of the Hong Kong Police including the Indians and Chinese were recruited into a reformed police called the Kempeitai with new uniforms.
Many, if not most, of the Indian volunteers who switched sides to fight with the German Army and against the British were strongly nationalistic supporters of the exiled, anti-British, former president of the Indian National Congress , Netaji the Leader Subhas Chandra Bose. A Japanese-supported sovereign and autonomous state—the Azad Hind Free India —was also established with the Indian National Army as its military force.
Sukarno actively recruited and organised Indonesian Romusha forced labour. During the next few months, activities of the Latvian Auxiliary Security Police was primarily focused on killing Jews, Communists and Red Army stragglers in Latvia as well as in neighboring Belorussia. The creation of the Arajs Kommando was "one of the most significant inventions of the early Holocaust",  that marked a transition from German organised pogroms to systematic killing of Jews by local volunteers former army officers, policemen, students, Aizargi.
Prior to the German invasion, some leaders in Lithuania and in exile believed Germany would grant the country autonomy along the lines of the status of the Slovakia protectorate. German intelligence Abwehr believed it had control of the Lithuanian Activist Front , a pro-German organization based in the Lithuanian embassy in Berlin. Once German military rule in Lithuania was replaced by a German civil authority, the Provisional Government was disbanded.
In March in Poland, the 2nd Lithuanian Battalion carried out guard duty in the Majdanek extermination camp. The Lithuanian Territorial Defense Force , composed of volunteers, was formed in Its leadership was Lithuanian, whereas arms were provided by Germans. The purpose of the Lithuanian Territorial Defense Force was to defend Lithuania against the approaching Soviet Army and to defend the civilian population in the territory of Lithuania form actions by partisans.
In practice, it was primarily engaged in suppressing the Polish population and the Polish resistance ; the LTDF disbanded after it was ordered to act under direct German command.
The participation of the local populace was a key factor in the Holocaust in Nazi-occupied Lithuania  which resulted in the near total destruction of Lithuanian Jews [a] living in the Nazi-controlled Lithuanian territories that would, from 17 July , become the Generalbezirk Litauen of Reichskommissariat Ostland.
Out of approximately ,  Jews, , according to the Lithuanian pre-war statistical data  an estimated ,—, perished before the end of World War II wider estimates are sometimes published ; most from June to December Luxembourg was invaded by Nazi Germany in May and remained under German occupation until early Initially, the country was governed as a distinct region as the Germans prepared to assimilate its Germanic population into Germany itself. In August , Luxembourg was annexed and became a region of Nazi Germany, meaning that Luxembourgers were given the same legal obligations as German citizens.
Luxembourgish men were conscripted into the German military. The invading Japanese reorganized former British colonial police, and created a new auxiliary police. Local residents were also encouraged to join Japanese Army as auxiliary 'Heiho'. There was a Railway Protection Corps as well. During the Nazi occupation of Monaco, the Monaco police arrested and turned over 42 Central European Jewish refugees to the Nazis while also protecting Monaco's own Jews.
The Germans reformed pre-war Dutch police and established a new Communal Police, which helped Germans fight resistance and deport Jews. The Dutch Nazi Party had its own militia units, whose members were transferred to other Paramilitaries like the Netherlands Landstorm or the Control Commando. Dutch Jew-hunters massively helped the Nazis. The division participated in fighting against the Soviet army and was crushed in the Battle of Berlin in April—May It was involved in several major battles on the Eastern Front.
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In December , it gained brigade status after fighting on the front around Leningrad. The first of these fought with Kampfgruppe Vieweger and went under in the fighting near Halbe. The few remaining survivors were captured by the Soviets. The other half of "General Seyffart" fought with Korpsgruppe Tettau and surrendered to the western Allies. During the war famous actor and singer Johannes Heesters made his career in Nazi Germany, befriending high-ranking Nazis such as Joseph Goebbels and living in houses stolen from wealthy Jews.
In Norway, the national government , headed by Vidkun Quisling , was installed by the Germans as a puppet regime during the occupation , while king Haakon VII and the legally elected Norwegian government was in exile. Quisling encouraged Norwegians to volunteer for service in the Waffen-SS , collaborated in the deportation of Jews, and was responsible for the executions of members of the Norwegian resistance movement. About 45, Norwegian collaborators joined the fascist party Nasjonal Samling National Union , about 8, of them being enlisted in the collaborationist paramilitary organization Hirden.
In addition, Norwegian police units like the Statspolitiet helped arrest many of Norway's Jews. After the war, Quisling and other collaborators were imprisoned, fined or executed. Quisling's name has become an international eponym for traitor. The Second Philippine Republic was a puppet state established by Japanese invasion forces. The puppet state relied on reformed Bureau of Constabulary  and the Makapili militia to fight the local resistance movement and regular troops of the Philippine Commonwealth Army.
Laurel had his own presidential guard unit. When the Americans were closing in the Philippines in , the Japanese began recruiting Filipinos to augment their losses. Most of the Filipino recruits were serving in the Imperial Japanese Army and were fighting actively until Japan's surrender. However, both the spies called " Makapili " and others suffer harsh treatment due to their works. Unlike the situation in other German-occupied European countries, where the Germans installed collaborationist authorities, in occupied Poland there was no puppet government.
Shortly after the German invasion of Poland , the Nazi authorities ordered the mobilization of prewar Polish officials and the Polish police the Blue Police , who were forced, under penalty of death, to work for the German occupation authorities. The Polish Underground State 's wartime Special Courts investigated 17, Poles who collaborated with the Germans; about 3, were sentenced to death. Many prewar Polish citizens of German descent voluntarily declared themselves Volksdeutsche "ethnic Germans" , and some of them committed atrocities against the Polish population and organized large-scale looting of property.
Portugal was neutral during the war, but its colony Timor was occupied by the Japanese. Local militiamen were organized into Black Columns to help Japanese forces fight Allies. During the Italian conquest of British Somaliland , local chief Afchar offered his men to fight alongside Italians against British forces. During the German invasion of Poland and Western Europe — Soviet Union presented a friendly stance towards Germany with Molotov—Ribbentrop Pact , joint military parades , a number of German-Soviet commercial agreements and cooperation of NKVD and Gestapo in suppressing of resistance on the occupied territories.
Following Operation Barbarossa Germany occupied large areas of western Soviet Union , parts of which remained under German control until late Soviet collaborators included numerous Russians, Ukrainians and members of other ethnic groups which inhabited the USSR. The Waffen-SS recruited from many nationalities living in the Soviet Union and the German government attempted to enroll Soviet citizens voluntarily for the OST-Arbeiter or Eastern worker program; originally this effort worked well, but the news of the terrible conditions they faced dried up the flow of new volunteers and the program became forcible.
Although Turkic peoples had been perceived initially as "racially inferior" by the Nazis, this attitude officially already changed in autumn , when, in view of the difficulties faced in their invasion of the Soviet Union , the Nazis attempted to harness the anti-Russian sentiment of Turkic peoples in Soviet Union for political gain.
The first Turkestan Legion was mobilized in May The East Battalions contained between , and , "Muslim and Caucasian" volunteers and conscripts. In Russia proper, ethnic Russians were allowed to govern the Lokot Republic , an autonomous sector in Nazi-occupied Russia. Military groups under Nazi command were formed, such as the notorious S. Sturmbrigade R. Ethnic Russians also enlisted in large numbers into the many German auxiliary police units. Some of them also served in so-called Ost battalions which, in particular, defended the French coastline against the expected Allied invasion.
The division however was then not sent to fight the Red Army, but was ordered, in September , to proceed to Yugoslavia and fight Josip Broz Tito 's partisans. In the summer of , the two brigades were upgraded to become the 1st Cossack Cavalry Division and 2nd Cossack Cavalry Division. Smaller regions were part of Romania and Hungary. Only the Soviet Union recognised Ukrainian autonomy, and large numbers of Ukrainians, particularly from the East, fought in the Red Army.
The negative impact of Soviet policies implemented in the s was still fresh in the memory of Ukrainians. These included the Holodomor of , the Great Terror, the persecution of intellectuals during the Great Purge of —38, the massacre of Ukrainian intellectuals after the annexation of Western Ukraine from Poland in , the introduction and implementation of collectivization.
As a result, the population of whole towns, cities and villages greeted the Germans as liberators, which helps explain the unprecedented rapid progress of the German forces in the occupation of Ukraine.
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Even before the German invasion, the Nachtigall and Roland battalions were set up and trained as Ukrainian battalions in the Wehrmacht , and were part of the initial invading force. With the change in regime ethnic Ukrainians were allowed and encouraged to work in administrative positions with the auxiliary police, post office, and other government structures, taking the place of Russians and Jews. Soviet citizens had a page in their internal passports with information regarding their ethnicity, party status, military rank, service in the Soviet Army reserve, and information as to where they were to assemble in case of war.
This document also contained markings regarding a citizens social status and reliability, i. Soviet POWs who were able to demonstrate Soviet unreliability, i. Often they were offered administrative and clerical positions or encouraged to join local police units. Some were trained as camp guards, while others were encouraged in some cases forced to enlist to fight in anti-Soviet military divisions. During the period of occupation, Nazi-controlled Ukrainian newspaper Volhyn wrote that "The element that settled our cities Jews The Jewish problem is already in the process of being solved.
There is evidence of some Ukrainian participation in the Holocaust. Ukrainians participated in crushing the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising of  and the Warsaw Uprising of where a mixed force of German SS troops, Russians, Cossacks, Azeris and Ukrainians, backed by German regular army units—killed up to 40, civilians. The Ukrainian collaborationist forces were composed of an estimated number of , volunteers serving with units scattered all over Europe.
Headed by Ukrainian general Mykhailo Omelianovych-Pavlenko , the unit grew to the size of 50, by and peaked at some 80, towards the end of the war. In Korosten , Ukrainian militia rounded up Jews for liquidation Operational Report 80 and carried out the killings by themselves — similar to Sokal , where on 30 June they arrested and executed Jews.
At times, the assistance was more active. Those that survived surrendered to the Allies and the bulk emigrated to the West, primarily England, Australia and Canada. In Belarus under German occupation, the local pro-independence politicians attempted to use the Nazis with the aim to reestablish an independent Belarusian state. A Belarusian representative body — the Belarusian Central Council — was created under German control in but did not receive any real power from the German administration and concentrated mainly on managing social issues and education.
Belarusian national military units the Belarusian Home Defence were only created a few months before the end of the German occupation.
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Some Belarusian collaborators participated in various massacres of Jews and Belarusian villagers, however, most of these massacres had to be carried out by Baltic and Ukrainian collaborators because of a relatively small willingness of Belarusians to participate. Many of the Belarusian collaborators retreated with German forces in the wake of the Red Army advance. The division participated in a small number of combats in France but demonstrated active disloyalty to the Nazis and saw mass desertion. Among these battalions were 18, Armenians, 13, Azerbaijanis, 14, Georgians, and 10, men from the "North Caucasus.
The Armenian Revolutionary Federation the Dashnaks were suppressed in Armenia when the Armenian Republic was conquered by the Russian Bolsheviks in and ceased to exist. The Armenian Legion under the leadership of Drastamat Kanayan participated in the occupation of the Crimean Peninsula and the Caucasus.
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Until the end of it published a weekly journal, Armenian, edited by Viken Shantn who also broadcast on Radio Berlin with the aid of Dr. Paul Rohrbach. The British territory of the Straits Settlements came under Japanese occupation after the fiasco suffered by Commonwealth forces in the Battle of Singapore. The Straits Settlements Police Force came under the control of the Japanese and all vessels owned by the Marine Police were confiscated.
Prior to being invaded by Nazi Germany , the Yugoslav government was working on forging a pact with Germany. Angered by what he perceived as treason, Hitler invaded the Kingdom of Yugoslavia without warning on 6 April Eleven days later Yugoslavia capitulated. Although they are of German ethnicity, it is important to note that officially Yugoslavia was their country. Volksdeutsche collaborators were the most common in the former territory of Yugoslavia. Soldiers of the division are noted to have reportedly brutally punished civilians accused of, or proven to be working with partisans in both Occupied Serbia and the Independent State of Croatia , going so far as to level entire villages with no buildings being exempt from destruction.
Due to the collaboration, Josip Broz Tito , leader of the post-war Communist regime , declared the rights of ethnic Germans to be null and seized all of their property as well as expelling hundreds of thousands of them with no fair trial. The "Poglavnik" also stated that "Croats are not Slavs, but Germanic by blood and race". Most Chetniks in Yugoslavia collaborated with the Axis occupation to one degree or another in order to fight the rival Partisan resistance, whom they viewed as their primary enemy, by establishing modus vivendi or operating as "legalised" auxiliary forces under Axis control.
The Italian governorate of Montenegro was established as an Italian protectorate with the support of Montenegrin separatists known as Greens. In Bulgaria-annexed Yugoslav Macedonia, the Ohrana was organized by the occupation authority as auxiliary security forces. By June , the military value was deemed low in lieu of partisan aggression and by November it was disbanded.
The remaining cadre, now called Kampfgruppe Skanderbeg, was transferred to the Prinz Eugen Division where they successfully participated in actions against Tito's partisans in December The emblem of the division was a black Albanian eagle. Their agenda was the creation of " Greater Albania ". The Slovene Home Guard was a collaborationist force formed in September in the area of the Province of Ljubljana then a part of Italy.
It functioned like most collaborationist forces in Axis -occupied Europe during World War II, but had limited autonomy, and at first functioned as an auxiliary police force that assisted the Germans in anti- Partisan actions. Later, it gained more autonomy and conducted most of the anti-partisan operations in the Province of Ljubljana.
Much of the Guard's equipment was Italian confiscated when Italy dropped out of the war in , although German weapons and equipment were used as well, especially later in the war. Similar, but much smaller units, were also formed in the Littoral Primorska and Upper Carniola Gorenjska. The policy of the Island governments, acting under instructions from the British government communicated before the occupation, was one of passive co-operation, although this has been criticised,  particularly in the treatment of the few Jews in the islands.
These measures were administered by the Bailiff and the Aliens Office. Following the liberation of allegations against those accused of collaborating with the occupying authorities were investigated. By November , the UK Home Secretary was in a position to inform the UK House of Commons  that most of the allegations lacked substance and only 12 cases of collaboration were considered for prosecution, but the Director of Public Prosecutions had ruled out prosecutions on insufficient grounds.
In particular, it was decided that there were no legal grounds for proceeding against those alleged to have informed to the occupying authorities against their fellow-citizens. In Jersey and Guernsey , laws   were passed to retrospectively confiscate the financial gains made by war profiteers and black marketeers, although these measures also affected those who had made legitimate profits during the years of military occupation.
During the occupation, cases of women fraternising with German soldiers had aroused indignation among some citizens. In the hours following the liberation, members of the British liberating forces were obliged to intervene to prevent revenge attacks. Research by British historian Adrian Weale has identified 54 men   who belonged to this unit at one time or another, some for only a few days. At no time did it reach more than 27 men in strength. Although official Nazi policy barred non-Germans from joining the regular German army, the Wehrmacht, volunteers from most occupied countries and even a small number from some Commonwealth countries.
Overall, nearly , Waffen-SS members were non-German, with some countries such as Belgium and the Netherlands contributing thousands of volunteers. This volunteer army initially counted some 10, volunteers and would later become the 33rd Waffen SS division, one of the first SS divisions composed mostly of foreigners.